Gene Symbol: Cspg4
Description: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4
Alias: 4732461B14Rik, AN2, NG2, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, AN2 proteoglycan, AN2/NG2 proteoglycan, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, nerve/glial antigen 2, proteoglycan AN2
Species: mouse
Products:     Cspg4

Top Publications

  1. Diers Fenger M, Kirchhoff F, Kettenmann H, Levine J, Trotter J. AN2/NG2 protein-expressing glial progenitor cells in the murine CNS: isolation, differentiation, and association with radial glia. Glia. 2001;34:213-28 pubmed
    ..We have described a cell-surface protein, AN2, expressed by oligodendroglial progenitor cells in vitro and showed that antibodies against AN2 inhibited the ..
  2. Grako K, Ochiya T, Barritt D, Nishiyama A, Stallcup W. PDGF (alpha)-receptor is unresponsive to PDGF-AA in aortic smooth muscle cells from the NG2 knockout mouse. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 6):905-15 pubmed
    A line of null mice has been produced which fails to express the transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2. Homozygous NG2 null mice do not exhibit gross phenotypic differences from wild-type mice, suggesting that detailed ..
  3. Huang F, You W, Bonaldo P, Seyfried T, Pasquale E, Stallcup W. Pericyte deficiencies lead to aberrant tumor vascularizaton in the brain of the NG2 null mouse. Dev Biol. 2010;344:1035-46 pubmed publisher
    ..When the NG2 proteoglycan is absent from pericyte surfaces, vascularization of syngeneic tumors growing in the C57Bl/6 mouse ..
  4. Kadoya K, Fukushi J, Matsumoto Y, Yamaguchi Y, Stallcup W. NG2 proteoglycan expression in mouse skin: altered postnatal skin development in the NG2 null mouse. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:295-303 pubmed
    In early postnatal mouse skin, the NG2 proteoglycan is expressed in the subcutis, the dermis, the outer root sheath of hair follicles, and the basal keratinocyte layer of the epidermis...
  5. Niklasson M, Bergström T, Zhang X, Gustafsdottir S, Sjogren M, Edqvist P, et al. Enlarged lateral ventricles and aberrant behavior in mice overexpressing PDGF-B in embryonic neural stem cells. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:2779-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult transgenic males, however, showed behavioral aberrations and locomotor dysfunction. Thus, a tightly regulated expression of PDGF during embryogenesis is required for normal brain development and function in mice. ..
  6. Fantin A, Schwarz Q, Davidson K, Normando E, Denti L, Ruhrberg C. The cytoplasmic domain of neuropilin 1 is dispensable for angiogenesis, but promotes the spatial separation of retinal arteries and veins. Development. 2011;138:4185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Nrp1(cyto)(?)(/)(?) mice may therefore provide a suitable genetic model to study the aetiology of BRVO...
  7. Boda E, Viganò F, Rosa P, Fumagalli M, Labat Gest V, Tempia F, et al. The GPR17 receptor in NG2 expressing cells: focus on in vivo cell maturation and participation in acute trauma and chronic damage. Glia. 2011;59:1958-73 pubmed publisher
    b>NG2-expressing cells comprise a population of cycling precursors that can exit the cell cycle and differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes...
  8. Schneider S, Bosse F, D Urso D, Muller H, Sereda M, Nave K, et al. The AN2 protein is a novel marker for the Schwann cell lineage expressed by immature and nonmyelinating Schwann cells. J Neurosci. 2001;21:920-33 pubmed
    The expression of the 330 kDa AN2 glycoprotein was studied in the rodent peripheral nervous system. AN2 is expressed by immature Schwann cells in vitro and in vivo and downregulated as the cells upregulate myelin genes...
  9. Gibby K, You W, Kadoya K, Helgadottir H, Young L, Ellies L, et al. Early vascular deficits are correlated with delayed mammary tumorigenesis in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse following genetic ablation of the NG2 proteoglycan. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14:R67 pubmed
    The neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) proteoglycan promotes pericyte recruitment and mediates pericyte interaction with endothelial cells. In the absence of NG2, blood vessel development is negatively impacted in several pathological models...

More Information


  1. Daneman R, Zhou L, Kebede A, Barres B. Pericytes are required for blood-brain barrier integrity during embryogenesis. Nature. 2010;468:562-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that pericyte-endothelial cell interactions are critical to regulate the BBB during development, and disruption of these interactions may lead to BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation during CNS injury and disease...
  2. Zhu X, Hill R, Dietrich D, Komitova M, Suzuki R, Nishiyama A. Age-dependent fate and lineage restriction of single NG2 cells. Development. 2011;138:745-53 pubmed publisher
    b>NG2-expressing glia (NG2 cells, polydendrocytes) appear in the embryonic brain, expand perinatally, and persist widely throughout the gray and white matter of the mature central nervous system...
  3. Stolt C, Schlierf A, Lommes P, Hillgärtner S, Werner T, Kosian T, et al. SoxD proteins influence multiple stages of oligodendrocyte development and modulate SoxE protein function. Dev Cell. 2006;11:697-709 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal a complex regulatory network between different groups of Sox proteins that is essential for proper progression of oligodendrocyte development. ..
  4. Ligon K, Kesari S, Kitada M, Sun T, Arnett H, Alberta J, et al. Development of NG2 neural progenitor cells requires Olig gene function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7853-8 pubmed
    In the adult central nervous system, two distinct populations of glial cells expressing the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 have been described: bipolar progenitor cells and more differentiated "synantocytes...
  5. Francois M, Caprini A, Hosking B, Orsenigo F, Wilhelm D, Browne C, et al. Sox18 induces development of the lymphatic vasculature in mice. Nature. 2008;456:643-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a critical role for Sox18 in developmental lymphangiogenesis, and suggest new avenues to investigate for therapeutic management of human lymphangiopathies. ..
  6. Hossain Ibrahim M, Rezajooi K, Stallcup W, Lieberman A, Anderson P. Analysis of axonal regeneration in the central and peripheral nervous systems of the NG2-deficient mouse. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:80 pubmed
    The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan NG2 blocks neurite outgrowth in vitro and has been proposed as a major inhibitor of axonal regeneration in the CNS...
  7. Fantin A, Herzog B, Mahmoud M, Yamaji M, Plein A, Denti L, et al. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) hypomorphism combined with defective VEGF-A binding reveals novel roles for NRP1 in developmental and pathological angiogenesis. Development. 2014;141:556-62 pubmed publisher
  8. Stegmuller J, Werner H, Nave K, Trotter J. The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor cells. Implications for glial-neuronal signaling. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:3590-8 pubmed
    The proteoglycan NG2 is expressed by immature glial cells in the developing and adult central nervous system...
  9. Kucharova K, Chang Y, Böör A, Yong V, Stallcup W. Reduced inflammation accompanies diminished myelin damage and repair in the NG2 null mouse spinal cord. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:158 pubmed publisher
    ..The NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by OPCs, pericytes, and macrophages/microglia...
  10. Kucharova K, Stallcup W. The NG2 proteoglycan promotes oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation and developmental myelination. Neuroscience. 2010;166:185-94 pubmed publisher
    The NG2 proteoglycan has been shown to promote proliferation and motility in a variety of cell types...
  11. Guo F, Maeda Y, Ma J, Delgado M, Sohn J, Miers L, et al. Macroglial plasticity and the origins of reactive astroglia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11914-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive analysis of macroglial plasticity in EAE helps to clarify the origins of astrogliosis in CNS inflammatory demyelinative disorders. ..
  12. Chang Y, She Z, Sakimura K, Roberts A, Kucharova K, Rowitch D, et al. Ablation of NG2 proteoglycan leads to deficits in brown fat function and to adult onset obesity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30637 pubmed publisher
    ..We are studying the causes and effects of obesity in C57Bl/6 mice following genetic ablation of NG2, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan widely expressed in progenitor cells and also in adipocytes...
  13. Fukushi J, Inatani M, Yamaguchi Y, Stallcup W. Expression of NG2 proteoglycan during endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:143-8 pubmed
    We have used immunohistochemistry to study the distribution of the NG2 proteoglycan during bone development in the mouse. At embryonic day 15.5, NG2 was strongly detected in the immature cartilage of developing limbs...
  14. Ozerdem U, Grako K, Dahlin Huppe K, Monosov E, Stallcup W. NG2 proteoglycan is expressed exclusively by mural cells during vascular morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:218-27 pubmed
    Immunofluorescence mapping demonstrates that the NG2 proteoglycan is invariably expressed by the mural cell component of mouse neovascular structures...
  15. Goupille O, Saint Cloment C, Lopes M, Montarras D, Robert B. Msx1 and Msx2 are expressed in sub-populations of vascular smooth muscle cells. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest major functions for Msx genes in vascular mural cell formation and remodeling. ..
  16. Karram K, Goebbels S, Schwab M, Jennissen K, Seifert G, Steinhäuser C, et al. NG2-expressing cells in the nervous system revealed by the NG2-EYFP-knockin mouse. Genesis. 2008;46:743-57 pubmed publisher
    The NG2 glycoprotein is a type I membrane protein expressed by immature cells in the developing and adult mouse...
  17. Stolt C, Lommes P, Sock E, Chaboissier M, Schedl A, Wegner M. The Sox9 transcription factor determines glial fate choice in the developing spinal cord. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1677-89 pubmed
  18. Ozerdem U, Stallcup W. Pathological angiogenesis is reduced by targeting pericytes via the NG2 proteoglycan. Angiogenesis. 2004;7:269-76 pubmed
    The NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by nascent pericytes during the early stages of angiogenesis...
  19. Petrova T, Karpanen T, Norrmen C, Mellor R, Tamakoshi T, Finegold D, et al. Defective valves and abnormal mural cell recruitment underlie lymphatic vascular failure in lymphedema distichiasis. Nat Med. 2004;10:974-81 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that an abnormal interaction between the lymphatic endothelial cells and pericytes, as well as valve defects, underlie the pathogenesis of LD. ..
  20. Binamé F, Sakry D, Dimou L, Jolivel V, Trotter J. NG2 regulates directional migration of oligodendrocyte precursor cells via Rho GTPases and polarity complex proteins. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10858-74 pubmed publisher
    The transmembrane proteoglycan NG2 is expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC), which migrate to axons during developmental myelination and remyelinate in the adult after migration to injured sites...
  21. Niehaus A, Stegmuller J, Diers Fenger M, Trotter J. Cell-surface glycoprotein of oligodendrocyte progenitors involved in migration. J Neurosci. 1999;19:4948-61 pubmed
    ..Polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein reduce the migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. The observations suggest that the AN2 antigen may play a role in early stages of myelination.
  22. Zimmer G, Schanuel S, Burger S, Weth F, Steinecke A, Bolz J, et al. Chondroitin sulfate acts in concert with semaphorin 3A to guide tangential migration of cortical interneurons in the ventral telencephalon. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:2411-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, both molecules act in concert to repel cortical interneurons from the SMZ during tangential migration toward the cerebral cortex. ..
  23. Hussain R, Macklin W. Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) Deletion Disrupts Oligodendrocyte Development by Altering Cell Cycle. J Neurosci. 2017;37:397-412 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells myelinate fewer axons than in wild-type mice and, in corpus callosum, the myelin is thinner than in controls. Interestingly, the smaller pool of spinal cord oligodendrocytes generates myelin that is of normal thickness. ..
  24. Takeuchi S, Nakano S, Nakamura K, Ozoe A, Chien P, Yoshihara H, et al. Roles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in fibrogenic/adipogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle tissues. Exp Cell Res. 2016;347:367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..produced monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to 2G11 cell surface antigens and identified chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) as a potential MPC marker...
  25. Kumar S, Biancotti J, Matalon R, de Vellis J. Lack of aspartoacylase activity disrupts survival and differentiation of neural progenitors and oligodendrocytes in a mouse model of Canavan disease. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:3415-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Massive arrays of neural stem/progenitor cells, immunopositive for PSA-NCAM, nestin, vimentin, and NG2, were observed within the severely affected spongy WM of the KO mouse brain...
  26. Huillard E, Ziercher L, Blond O, Wong M, Deloulme J, Souchelnytskyi S, et al. Disruption of CK2beta in embryonic neural stem cells compromises proliferation and oligodendrogenesis in the mouse telencephalon. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2737-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CK2beta appears to play an essential and uncompensated role in central nervous system development. ..
  27. Takamiya K, Kostourou V, Adams S, Jadeja S, Chalepakis G, Scambler P, et al. A direct functional link between the multi-PDZ domain protein GRIP1 and the Fraser syndrome protein Fras1. Nat Genet. 2004;36:172-7 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that GRIP1 is required for normal cell-matrix interactions during early embryonic development and that inactivation of Grip1 causes Fraser syndrome-like defects in mice. ..
  28. Corada M, Orsenigo F, Morini M, Pitulescu M, Bhat G, Nyqvist D, et al. Sox17 is indispensable for acquisition and maintenance of arterial identity. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2609 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, Sox17 acts upstream of the Notch system and downstream of the canonical Wnt system. These data introduce Sox17 as a component of the complex signalling network that orchestrates arterial/venous specification. ..
  29. Edqvist P, Niklasson M, Vidal Sanz M, Hallböök F, Forsberg Nilsson K. Platelet-derived growth factor over-expression in retinal progenitors results in abnormal retinal vessel formation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42488 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we observed a delayed regression of the hyaloid vasculature. The prolonged presence of this structure may contribute to the other abnormalities observed in the retina, including the defective lamination. ..
  30. Bribian A, Fontana X, Llorens F, Gavin R, Reina M, Garcia Verdugo J, et al. Role of the cellular prion protein in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation and differentiation in the developing and adult mouse CNS. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33872 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, numerous NG2-positive cells were observed in cortical regions of adult PrP(c) knockout mice, although no significant changes in ..
  31. Brachvogel B, Moch H, Pausch F, Schlötzer Schrehardt U, Hofmann C, Hallmann R, et al. Perivascular cells expressing annexin A5 define a novel mesenchymal stem cell-like population with the capacity to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages. Development. 2005;132:2657-68 pubmed
    ..Hence, Anxa5 expression in perivascular cells from mouse defines a novel population of cells with a distinct developmental potential. ..
  32. Liu S, Young S, Varisco B. Dynamic expression of chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 over the course of murine lung development. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L1104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data defines the temporal-spatial pattern of elastin remodeling during lung development, demonstrates an association of this remodeling with CELA1, and supports a role for elastin remodeling in regulating angiogenesis. ..
  33. Jones C, London N, Chen H, Park K, Sauvaget D, Stockton R, et al. Robo4 stabilizes the vascular network by inhibiting pathologic angiogenesis and endothelial hyperpermeability. Nat Med. 2008;14:448-53 pubmed publisher
  34. Ferrara G, Errede M, Girolamo F, Morando S, Ivaldi F, Panini N, et al. NG2, a common denominator for neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier alteration, and oligodendrocyte precursor response in EAE, plays a role in dendritic cell activation. Acta Neuropathol. 2016;132:23-42 pubmed publisher
    In adult CNS, nerve/glial-antigen 2 (NG2) is expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and is an early marker of pericyte activation in pathological conditions...
  35. Jeansson M, Gawlik A, Anderson G, Li C, Kerjaschki D, Henkelman M, et al. Angiopoietin-1 is essential in mouse vasculature during development and in response to injury. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2278-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings redefine our understanding of the biological roles of angiopoietin-1: it is dispensable in quiescent vessels but has a powerful ability to modulate the vascular response after injury. ..
  36. Yang Y, Wang H, Zhang J, Luo F, Herrup K, Bibb J, et al. Cyclin dependent kinase 5 is required for the normal development of oligodendrocytes and myelin formation. Dev Biol. 2013;378:94-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that Cdk5 function as a signaling integrator to regulate oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination. ..
  37. Ben Shoham A, Rot C, Stern T, Krief S, Akiva A, Dadosh T, et al. Deposition of collagen type I onto skeletal endothelium reveals a new role for blood vessels in regulating bone morphology. Development. 2016;143:3933-3943 pubmed
    ..These data reveal the unique composition of the endothelium in developing bones and indicate that vascular patterning plays a role in determining bone shape by forming a template for deposition of bone matrix. ..
  38. Winchenbach J, Düking T, Berghoff S, Stumpf S, Hülsmann S, Nave K, et al. Inducible targeting of CNS astrocytes in Aldh1l1-CreERT2 BAC transgenic mice. F1000Res. 2016;5:2934 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Conclusions: Taken together, Aldh1l1-CreERT2 mice are a useful tool for studying astrocytes in neurovascular coupling, brain metabolism, synaptic plasticity and other aspects of neuron-glia interactions. ..
  39. Girolamo F, Strippoli M, Errede M, Benagiano V, Roncali L, Ambrosi G, et al. Characterization of oligodendrocyte lineage precursor cells in the mouse cerebral cortex: a confocal microscopy approach to demyelinating diseases. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2010;115:95-102 pubmed
    ..layers of glial restricted progenitors, reactive to A2B5 marker, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, expressing the NG2 proteoglycan, and pre-oligodendrocytes and pre-myelinating oligodendrocytes, reactive to the specific marker O4...
  40. Sugimori M, Nagao M, Bertrand N, Parras C, Guillemot F, Nakafuku M. Combinatorial actions of patterning and HLH transcription factors in the spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. Development. 2007;134:1617-29 pubmed
    ..We propose a molecular code model whereby the combinatorial actions of two classes of transcription factors coordinately regulate the domain-specific temporal sequence of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. ..
  41. Hashimoto R, Hori K, Owa T, Miyashita S, Dewa K, Masuyama N, et al. Origins of oligodendrocytes in the cerebellum, whose development is controlled by the transcription factor, Sox9. Mech Dev. 2016;140:25-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Sox9 participates in the development of oligodendrocytes in the cerebellum, by regulating the timing of their generation, proliferation, differentiation and survival. ..
  42. Bondjers C, Kalén M, Hellstrom M, Scheidl S, Abramsson A, Renner O, et al. Transcription profiling of platelet-derived growth factor-B-deficient mouse embryos identifies RGS5 as a novel marker for pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:721-9 pubmed
    ..With RGS5 as a proof-of-principle, our data demonstrate the usefulness of microarray analysis of mouse models for abnormal pericyte development in the identification of new pericyte-specific markers. ..
  43. Pacey L, Doering L. Developmental expression of FMRP in the astrocyte lineage: implications for fragile X syndrome. Glia. 2007;55:1601-9 pubmed
    ..Cells coexpressing FMRP and the oligodendrocyte precursor marker NG2 were also identified in the hippocampus and corpus callosum of the early postnatal brain...
  44. Joza S, Wang J, Fox E, Hillman V, Ackerley C, Post M. Loss of semaphorin-neuropilin-1 signaling causes dysmorphic vascularization reminiscent of alveolar capillary dysplasia. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:2003-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a critical role for Sema3-Nrp1 signaling in fetal pulmonary development, which may have clinical relevance for treatment of various neonatal respiratory disorders, including alveolar capillary dysplasia. ..
  45. Gaengel K, Niaudet C, Hagikura K, Laviña B, Siemsen B, Muhl L, et al. The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1PR1 restricts sprouting angiogenesis by regulating the interplay between VE-cadherin and VEGFR2. Dev Cell. 2012;23:587-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that S1PR1 signaling acts as a vascular-intrinsic stabilization mechanism, protecting developing blood vessels against aberrant angiogenic responses. ..
  46. Tsai H, Macklin W, Miller R. Netrin-1 is required for the normal development of spinal cord oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1913-22 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that netrin-1 is crucial for both the initial dispersal of spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursors and their subsequent development in the presumptive white matter. ..
  47. Hirota S, Clements T, Tang L, Morales J, Lee H, Oh S, et al. Neuropilin 1 balances β8 integrin-activated TGFβ signaling to control sprouting angiogenesis in the brain. Development. 2015;142:4363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data identify a paracrine signaling pathway that links the neuroepithelium to blood vessels and precisely balances TGFβ signaling during cerebral angiogenesis. ..
  48. She Z, Chang Y, Pang H, Han W, Chen H, Smith J, et al. NG2 Proteoglycan Ablation Reduces Foam Cell Formation and Atherogenesis via Decreased Low-Density Lipoprotein Retention by Synthetic Smooth Muscle Cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:49-59 pubmed publisher
    Obesity and hyperlipidemia are critical risk factors for atherosclerosis. Because ablation of NG2 proteoglycan in mice leads to hyperlipidemia and obesity, we investigated the impact of NG2 ablation on atherosclerosis in apoE null mice...
  49. Rodriguez M, Choi J, Park S, Sockanathan S. Gde2 regulates cortical neuronal identity by controlling the timing of cortical progenitor differentiation. Development. 2012;139:3870-9 pubmed
  50. Chen Q, Zhang H, Liu Y, Adams S, Eilken H, Stehling M, et al. Endothelial cells are progenitors of cardiac pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12422 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify a novel and unexpected population of progenitors for coronary mural cells with potential relevance for heart function and disease conditions. ..
  51. Rivas V, Carmona R, Muñoz Chápuli R, Mendiola M, Nogués L, Reglero C, et al. Developmental and tumoral vascularization is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:4714-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that GRK2 downregulation is a relevant event in the tumoral angiogenic switch. ..
  52. Jia Z, Guo Y, Tang Y, Xu Q, Li B, Wu Q. Regulation of the protocadherin Celsr3 gene and its role in globus pallidus development and connectivity. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3895-910 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal the essential role of Celsr3 in GP development in the basal forebrain and shed light on the mechanisms of the axonal defects caused by the Celsr3 deletion. ..
  53. Greif D, Kumar M, Lighthouse J, Hum J, An A, Ding L, et al. Radial construction of an arterial wall. Dev Cell. 2012;23:482-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of such radial signaling pathways may underlie vessel-specific differences and pathological changes in arterial wall size and structure. ..
  54. Maxeiner S, Kruger O, Schilling K, Traub O, Urschel S, Willecke K. Spatiotemporal transcription of connexin45 during brain development results in neuronal expression in adult mice. Neuroscience. 2003;119:689-700 pubmed
  55. Kucharova K, Stallcup W. NG2-proteoglycan-dependent contributions of oligodendrocyte progenitors and myeloid cells to myelin damage and repair. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:161 pubmed publisher
    The NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by several cell types in demyelinated lesions and has important effects on the biology of these cells...
  56. Schmitt B, Laschke M, Rössler O, Huang W, Scheller A, Menger M, et al. Nerve/glial antigen (NG) 2 is a crucial regulator of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018;1865:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an essential protein for leukocyte adhesion and transmigration, underlies a NG2-dependent expression...
  57. Vondran M, Clinton Luke P, Honeywell J, Dreyfus C. BDNF+/- mice exhibit deficits in oligodendrocyte lineage cells of the basal forebrain. Glia. 2010;58:848-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry using NG2 and CC1 antibodies was utilized to examine the numbers of NG2+ OPCs and CC1+ postmitotic BF OLGs...
  58. Koo B, Coe D, Dixon L, Somerville R, Nelson C, Wang L, et al. ADAMTS9 is a cell-autonomously acting, anti-angiogenic metalloprotease expressed by microvascular endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data identify ADAMTS9 as a novel, constitutive, endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that operates cell-autonomously in ECs via molecular mechanisms that are distinct from those used by ADAMTS1. ..
  59. Geng X, Cha B, Mahamud M, Lim K, Silasi Mansat R, Uddin M, et al. Multiple mouse models of primary lymphedema exhibit distinct defects in lymphovenous valve development. Dev Biol. 2016;409:218-233 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have provided the first and the most comprehensive analysis of LVV development. Furthermore, our work suggests that aberrant LVVs contribute to lymphedema. ..
  60. Sakry D, Neitz A, Singh J, Frischknecht R, Marongiu D, Binamé F, et al. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells modulate the neuronal network by activity-dependent ectodomain cleavage of glial NG2. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001993 pubmed publisher
    ..precursor cells (OPC) characteristically express the transmembrane proteoglycan nerve-glia antigen 2 (NG2) and are unique glial cells receiving synaptic input from neurons...
  61. Hakanen J, Duprat S, Salminen M. Netrin1 is required for neural and glial precursor migrations into the olfactory bulb. Dev Biol. 2011;355:101-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, NTN1 is dispensable for the proliferation of neurosphere forming progenitor cells and for their differentiation. ..
  62. Solga A, Gianino S, Gutmann D. NG2-cells are not the cell of origin for murine neurofibromatosis-1 (Nf1) optic glioma. Oncogene. 2014;33:289-99 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there are three distinct macroglial cell populations in the optic nerve (astrocytes, NG2+ (nerve/glial antigen 2) cells and oligodendrocytes)...
  63. Liu R, Cai J, Hu X, Tan M, Qi Y, German M, et al. Region-specific and stage-dependent regulation of Olig gene expression and oligodendrogenesis by Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor. Development. 2003;130:6221-31 pubmed
    ..In the hindbrain, unlike in the spinal cord, Olig1 and Olig2 can be expressed both inside and outside the Nkx6.1-expressing domains and oligodendrogenesis in this region is not dependent on Nkx6.1 activity. ..
  64. Huang W, Zhao N, Bai X, Karram K, Trotter J, Goebbels S, et al. Novel NG2-CreERT2 knock-in mice demonstrate heterogeneous differentiation potential of NG2 glia during development. Glia. 2014;62:896-913 pubmed publisher
    NG2 (nerve/glia antigen-2) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and also known as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4. In the parenchyma of the central nervous system, NG2-expressing (NG2(+) ) cells have been identified as a novel type ..
  65. Terrile M, Appolloni I, Calzolari F, Perris R, Tutucci E, Malatesta P. PDGF-B-driven gliomagenesis can occur in the absence of the proteoglycan NG2. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:550 pubmed publisher
    In the last years, the transmembrane proteoglycan NG2 has gained interest as a therapeutic target for the treatment of diverse tumor types, including gliomas, because increases of its expression correlate with dismal prognosis...
  66. Feng J, Mantesso A, De Bari C, Nishiyama A, Sharpe P. Dual origin of mesenchymal stem cells contributing to organ growth and repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies a dual origin of MSCs in a single tissue and suggests that the pericyte contribution to MSC-derived mesenchymal cells in any given tissue is variable and possibly dependent on the extent of the vascularity...
  67. Oas R, Xiao K, Summers S, Wittich K, Chiasson C, Martin W, et al. p120-Catenin is required for mouse vascular development. Circ Res. 2010;106:941-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of endothelial p120 results in lethality attributable to decreased microvascular density and hemorrhages. ..
  68. Hall Glenn F, De Young R, Huang B, Van Handel B, Hofmann J, Chen T, et al. CCN2/connective tissue growth factor is essential for pericyte adhesion and endothelial basement membrane formation during angiogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30562 pubmed publisher
  69. See J, Mamontov P, Ahn K, Wine Lee L, Crenshaw E, Grinspan J. BMP signaling mutant mice exhibit glial cell maturation defects. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;35:171-82 pubmed
  70. Maus F, Sakry D, Binamé F, Karram K, Rajalingam K, Watts C, et al. The NG2 Proteoglycan Protects Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells against Oxidative Stress via Interaction with OMI/HtrA2. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137311 pubmed publisher
    The NG2 proteoglycan is characteristically expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and also by aggressive brain tumours highly resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy...
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