Gene Symbol: Csnk1d
Description: casein kinase 1, delta
Alias: 1200006A05Rik, AA409348, D930010H05Rik, casein kinase I isoform delta, casein kinase I, CKI-delta, CKId, tau-protein kinase CSNK1D
Species: mouse
Products:     Csnk1d

Top Publications

  1. Hirota T, Lee J, Lewis W, Zhang E, Breton G, Liu X, et al. High-throughput chemical screen identifies a novel potent modulator of cellular circadian rhythms and reveals CKI? as a clock regulatory kinase. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000559 pubmed publisher
    ..Longdaysin provides novel possibilities in manipulating clock function due to its ability to simultaneously inhibit several key components of this conserved network across species. ..
  2. Vielhaber E, Eide E, Rivers A, Gao Z, Virshup D. Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator mPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I epsilon. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4888-99 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila double-time gene product, a casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) homolog, has been reported to interact with dPER and regulate circadian cycle length...
  3. Akashi M, Tsuchiya Y, Yoshino T, Nishida E. Control of intracellular dynamics of mammalian period proteins by casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) and CKIdelta in cultured cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1693-703 pubmed
    Recent studies have shown that casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) is an essential regulator of the mammalian circadian clock...
  4. Wolff S, Stöter M, Giamas G, Piesche M, Henne Bruns D, Banting G, et al. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) interacts with the SNARE associated protein snapin. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6477-84 pubmed
    ..The identification of snapin as a new substrate of CK1delta points towards a possible function for CK1delta in modulating snapin specific functions. ..
  5. Greer Y, Rubin J. Casein kinase 1 delta functions at the centrosome to mediate Wnt-3a-dependent neurite outgrowth. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:993-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide strong evidence that the centrosomal localization of CK1? is required for Wnt-3a-dependent neuritogenesis. ..
  6. Xu Y, Padiath Q, Shapiro R, Jones C, Wu S, Saigoh N, et al. Functional consequences of a CKIdelta mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Nature. 2005;434:640-4 pubmed
    ..to be well-characterized, and was shown to result from a mutation in a phosphorylation site within the casein kinase I (CKI)-binding domain of the human PER2 gene...
  7. Lee H, Chen R, Lee Y, Yoo S, Lee C. Essential roles of CKIdelta and CKIepsilon in the mammalian circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that an essential role of CKIdelta/epsilon is conserved between Drosophila and mammals, but CKIdelta/epsilon and DBT may have divergent non-catalytic functions in the clockwork as well. ..
  8. Bryja V, Schulte G, Arenas E. Wnt-3a utilizes a novel low dose and rapid pathway that does not require casein kinase 1-mediated phosphorylation of Dvl to activate beta-catenin. Cell Signal. 2007;19:610-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results show that Wnt-3a rapidly induce a partial activation of beta-catenin in the absence of PS-Dvl at low doses, while at high doses induce a full activation of beta-catenin in a PS-Dvl-dependent manner. ..
  9. Isojima Y, Nakajima M, Ukai H, Fujishima H, Yamada R, Masumoto K, et al. CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation is a temperature-insensitive, period-determining process in the mammalian circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15744-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation is likely a temperature-insensitive period-determining process in the mammalian circadian clock. ..

More Information


  1. Maritzen T, Löhler J, Deppert W, Knippschild U. Casein kinase I delta (CKIdelta) is involved in lymphocyte physiology. Eur J Cell Biol. 2003;82:369-78 pubmed
    The casein kinase I isoform delta (CKIdelta) plays an important role in vesicular trafficking, chromosome segregation, cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, developmental processes, and circadian rhythm...
  2. Bryja V, Schulte G, Rawal N, Grahn A, Arenas E. Wnt-5a induces Dishevelled phosphorylation and dopaminergic differentiation via a CK1-dependent mechanism. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:586-95 pubmed
  3. Etchegaray J, Machida K, Noton E, Constance C, Dallmann R, Di Napoli M, et al. Casein kinase 1 delta regulates the pace of the mammalian circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3853-66 pubmed publisher
    ..and CK1epsilon in the circadian clock mechanism, we generated mice in which the genes encoding these proteins (Csnk1d and Csnk1e, respectively) could be disrupted using the Cre-loxP system...
  4. Etchegaray J, Yu E, Indic P, Dallmann R, Weaver D. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) regulates period length of the mouse suprachiasmatic circadian clock in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10303 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that CK1delta plays a more prominent role than CK1epsilon in the maintenance of 24-hour rhythms in the master circadian oscillator. ..
  5. Xu Y, Toh K, Jones C, Shin J, Fu Y, Ptacek L. Modeling of a human circadian mutation yields insights into clock regulation by PER2. Cell. 2007;128:59-70 pubmed
    ..The FASPS hPER2 S662G mutation resulted in PER2 being hypophosphorylated by casein kinase I (CKI) in vitro...
  6. Bryja V, Schambony A, Cajanek L, Dominguez I, Arenas E, Schulte G. Beta-arrestin and casein kinase 1/2 define distinct branches of non-canonical WNT signalling pathways. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:1244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that the balance between beta-arr and CK1/2 determines whether WNT/RAC-1 or other non-canonical WNT pathways are activated. ..
  7. Sugiyama Y, Hatano N, Sueyoshi N, Suetake I, Tajima S, Kinoshita E, et al. The DNA-binding activity of mouse DNA methyltransferase 1 is regulated by phosphorylation with casein kinase 1delta/epsilon. Biochem J. 2010;427:489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CK1delta/epsilon binds to and phosphorylates the N-terminal domain of Dnmt1 and regulates Dnmt1 function by reducing the DNA-binding activity. ..
  8. Brennan K, Bates E, Shapiro R, Zyuzin J, Hallows W, Huang Y, et al. Casein kinase i? mutations in familial migraine and advanced sleep phase. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:183ra56, 1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified two families, each with a distinct missense mutation in the gene encoding casein kinase I? (CKI?), in which the mutation cosegregated with both the presence of migraine and advanced sleep phase...
  9. Morgenstern Y, Das Adhikari U, Ayyash M, Elyada E, Tóth B, Moor A, et al. Casein kinase 1-epsilon or 1-delta required for Wnt-mediated intestinal stem cell maintenance. EMBO J. 2017;36:3046-3061 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study underscores a unique regulation mode of the Wnt pathway in ISCs, possibly providing new means of stem cell enrichment for regenerative medicine. ..
  10. Greer Y, Gao B, Yang Y, Nussenzweig A, Rubin J. Lack of Casein Kinase 1 Delta Promotes Genomic Instability - The Accumulation of DNA Damage and Down-Regulation of Checkpoint Kinase 1. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170903 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed cells with abnormally large nuclei in tissue from Csnk1d null embryos, and multiple centrosomes in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in CK1? (MEFCsnk1d null)...
  11. Penas C, Govek E, Fang Y, Ramachandran V, Daniel M, Wang W, et al. Casein kinase 1δ is an APC/C(Cdh1) substrate that regulates cerebellar granule cell neurogenesis. Cell Rep. 2015;11:249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that APC/C(Cdh1) controls CK1δ levels to balance proliferation and cell-cycle exit in the developing CNS. Similar studies in medulloblastoma cells showed that CK1δ holds promise as a therapeutic target. ..
  12. Penas C, Ramachandran V, Simanski S, Lee C, Madoux F, Rahaim R, et al. Casein kinase 1?-dependent Wee1 protein degradation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:18893-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological inhibition, siRNA knockdown, or conditional deletion of CK1? also reduced Wee1 turnover. Thus, these studies define a previously unappreciated role for CK1? in controlling the cell cycle. ..
  13. Hirner H, Günes C, Bischof J, Wolff S, Grothey A, Kühl M, et al. Impaired CK1 delta activity attenuates SV40-induced cellular transformation in vitro and mouse mammary carcinogenesis in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29709 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that inactivating mutations in CK1? impair SV40-induced cellular transformation in vitro and mouse mammary carcinogenesis in vivo. ..
  14. Leimeister C, Bach A, Woolf A, Gessler M. Screen for genes regulated during early kidney morphogenesis. Dev Genet. 1999;24:273-83 pubmed
    ..The large fraction of novel genetags from the present screening that have not yet been analyzed provides a rich resource to clone genetic networks regulating early nephrogenesis. ..
  15. Novellasdemunt L, Foglizzo V, Cuadrado L, Antas P, Kucharska A, Encheva V, et al. USP7 Is a Tumor-Specific WNT Activator for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer by Mediating ?-Catenin Deubiquitination. Cell Rep. 2017;21:612-627 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the Wnt-activating role of USP7 is specific to APC mutations; thus, it can be used as a tumor-specific therapeutic target for most CRCs. ..
  16. Fowles L, Bennetts J, Berkman J, Williams E, Koopman P, Teasdale R, et al. Genomic screen for genes involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Genesis. 2003;35:73-87 pubmed
  17. Ishida Y, Yagita K, Fukuyama T, Nishimura M, Nagano M, Shigeyoshi Y, et al. Constitutive expression and delayed light response of casein kinase Iepsilon and Idelta mRNAs in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. J Neurosci Res. 2001;64:612-6 pubmed
    ..Further, we demonstrated that the light exposure at subjective night induced a delayed increase in CKIepsilon and CKIdelta mRNAs in the SCN. CKIepsilon and CKIdelta proteins may play a role on light-induced phase-shift. ..
  18. Li L, Zhao D, Wei H, Yao L, Dang Y, Amjad A, et al. REG? deficiency promotes premature aging via the casein kinase 1 pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a unique model that mimics acquired aging in mammals and indicates that modulating the activity of the REG?-proteasome may be an approach for intervention in aging-associated disorders. ..
  19. Umemura Y, Yoshida J, Wada M, Tsuchiya Y, Minami Y, Watanabe H, et al. An in vitro ES cell-based clock recapitulation assay model identifies CK2? as an endogenous clock regulator. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67241 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay system first confirmed that a mutant ES cell line lacking Casein Kinase I delta (CKI?) induced ?3 hours longer period-length of circadian rhythm than the wild type, which was ..
  20. Greer Y, Westlake C, Gao B, Bharti K, Shiba Y, Xavier C, et al. Casein kinase 1? functions at the centrosome and Golgi to promote ciliogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and retinal cells from Csnk1d (CK1?)-null mice also exhibit ciliogenesis defects...
  21. Yu S, Roth M. Casein kinase I regulates membrane binding by ARF GAP1. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2559-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, a CKI isoform is required for protein traffic through the early secretory pathway and can modulate the amount of ARF GAP1 that can bind to membranes. ..
  22. Shinohara Y, Koyama Y, Ukai Tadenuma M, Hirokawa T, Kikuchi M, Yamada R, et al. Temperature-Sensitive Substrate and Product Binding Underlie Temperature-Compensated Phosphorylation in the Clock. Mol Cell. 2017;67:783-798.e20 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, this domain can confer temperature compensation on a temperature-sensitive TTBK1. These findings suggest the temperature-sensitive substrate- and product-binding mechanisms underlie temperature compensation. ..
  23. Lee H, Chen R, Kim H, Etchegaray J, Weaver D, Lee C. The period of the circadian oscillator is primarily determined by the balance between casein kinase 1 and protein phosphatase 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings provide clear insights into the molecular basis of how the period and phase of our daily rhythms are determined. ..
  24. Zeringo N, Murphy L, McCloskey E, Rohal L, Bellizzi J. A monoclinic crystal form of casein kinase 1??. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2013;69:1077-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of CK1? crystal structures reveals few conformational differences within the C-terminal lobe, but more significant movements of the ?-sheet region of the N-terminal lobe were observed. ..
  25. Duong H, Robles M, Knutti D, Weitz C. A molecular mechanism for circadian clock negative feedback. Science. 2011;332:1436-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a function for the PER complex and a molecular mechanism for circadian clock negative feedback. ..
  26. Chergui K, Svenningsson P, Greengard P. Physiological role for casein kinase 1 in glutamatergic synaptic transmission. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6601-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence for a role of CK1 in the regulation of synaptic transmission in the brain. ..