Gene Symbol: Csf2rb
Description: colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)
Alias: AI848964, AIC2B, CDw131, Csf2rb1, Csfgmrb, Il3r, Il3rb, Il3rb1, Il5rb, cytokine receptor common subunit beta, CD131 antigen, GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common beta subunit, GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common beta-chain, beta c, colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta 1, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage), common beta chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Csf2rb

Top Publications

  1. Gillessen S, Mach N, Small C, Mihm M, Dranoff G. Overlapping roles for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 in eosinophil homeostasis and contact hypersensitivity. Blood. 2001;97:922-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings delineate overlapping roles for GM-CSF and IL-3 in hematopoiesis and immunity. (Blood. 2001;97:922-928) ..
  2. Hansen G, Hercus T, McClure B, Stomski F, Dottore M, Powell J, et al. The structure of the GM-CSF receptor complex reveals a distinct mode of cytokine receptor activation. Cell. 2008;134:496-507 pubmed publisher
    ..This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors, providing a structural basis for understanding their mechanism of activation and for the development of therapeutics. ..
  3. Varol C, Vallon Eberhard A, Elinav E, Aychek T, Shapira Y, Luche H, et al. Intestinal lamina propria dendritic cell subsets have different origin and functions. Immunity. 2009;31:502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the critical importance of the lpDC subset balance for robust gut homeostasis. ..
  4. Bogunovic M, Ginhoux F, Helft J, Shang L, Hashimoto D, Greter M, et al. Origin of the lamina propria dendritic cell network. Immunity. 2009;31:513-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the lamina propria DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DCs as key sentinels of the gut immune system. ..
  5. Su K, Shyue S, Kou Y, Ching L, Chiang A, Yu Y, et al. ? Common receptor integrates the erythropoietin signaling in activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:3330-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that ?CR may play an integrative role in the EPO signaling-mediated activation of eNOS in ECs...
  6. Kamphorst A, Guermonprez P, Dudziak D, Nussenzweig M. Route of antigen uptake differentially impacts presentation by dendritic cells and activated monocytes. J Immunol. 2010;185:3426-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations have significant implications for understanding initiation of immune responses and vaccination strategies targeting DCs and activated monocytes. ..
  7. Min L, Mohammad Isa S, Shuai W, Piang C, Nih F, Kotaka M, et al. Cutting edge: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is the major CD8+ T cell-derived licensing factor for dendritic cell activation. J Immunol. 2010;184:4625-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Nishinakamura R, Nakayama N, Hirabayashi Y, Inoue T, Aud D, McNeil T, et al. Mice deficient for the IL-3/GM-CSF/IL-5 beta c receptor exhibit lung pathology and impaired immune response, while beta IL3 receptor-deficient mice are normal. Immunity. 1995;2:211-22 pubmed
    The receptors for IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 share a common beta subunit (beta c), and mice have an additional IL-3 beta subunit (beta IL3). We have independently generated mice carrying null mutations of each molecule...
  9. King I, Kroenke M, Segal B. GM-CSF-dependent, CD103+ dermal dendritic cells play a critical role in Th effector cell differentiation after subcutaneous immunization. J Exp Med. 2010;207:953-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The current report reveals a previously unidentified role for GM-CSF in DC ontogeny and identifies langerin(+)CD103(+) DCs as an important subset in CD4(+) T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. ..

More Information


  1. Bagley C, Woodcock J, Stomski F, Lopez A. The structural and functional basis of cytokine receptor activation: lessons from the common beta subunit of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3 (IL-3), and IL-5 receptors. Blood. 1997;89:1471-82 pubmed
  2. Sautina L, Sautin Y, Beem E, Zhou Z, Schuler A, Brennan J, et al. Induction of nitric oxide by erythropoietin is mediated by the {beta} common receptor and requires interaction with VEGF receptor 2. Blood. 2010;115:896-905 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first definitive functional and structural evidence of an interaction between the 2 receptors and has implications for the side effects of EPO. ..
  3. Robb L, Drinkwater C, Metcalf D, Li R, Kontgen F, Nicola N, et al. Hematopoietic and lung abnormalities in mice with a null mutation of the common beta subunit of the receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukins 3 and 5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9565-9 pubmed
    Gene targeting was used to create mice with a null mutation of the gene encoding the common beta subunit (beta C) of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 3 (IL-3; multi-CSF), and interleukin 5 (IL-5) ..
  4. Meads M, Li Z, Dalton W. A novel TNF receptor-associated factor 6 binding domain mediates NF-kappa B signaling by the common cytokine receptor beta subunit. J Immunol. 2010;185:1606-15 pubmed publisher
    ..It also suggests that TRAF6, a mediator of TNFR and TLR signaling, may be a common signaling intermediate in diverse cytokine receptor systems. ..
  5. Greter M, Helft J, Chow A, Hashimoto D, Mortha A, Agudo Cantero J, et al. GM-CSF controls nonlymphoid tissue dendritic cell homeostasis but is dispensable for the differentiation of inflammatory dendritic cells. Immunity. 2012;36:1031-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Csf-2 is important in vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell immunity through the regulation of nonlymphoid tissue DC homeostasis rather than control of inflammatory DCs in vivo. ..
  6. Kc W, Satpathy A, Rapaport A, Briseño C, Wu X, Albring J, et al. L-Myc expression by dendritic cells is required for optimal T-cell priming. Nature. 2014;507:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The replacement of c-Myc by L-Myc in immature DCs may provide for Myc transcriptional activity in the setting of inflammation that is required for optimal T-cell priming. ..
  7. Brown A, Salerno D, Sadras T, Engler G, Kok C, Wilkinson C, et al. The GM-CSF receptor utilizes ?-catenin and Tcf4 to specify macrophage lineage differentiation. Differentiation. 2012;83:47-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies a novel pathway through which growth factor receptor signaling can interact with transcriptional regulators to influence lineage choice during myeloid differentiation. ..
  8. Van Overmeire E, Stijlemans B, Heymann F, Keirsse J, Morias Y, Elkrim Y, et al. M-CSF and GM-CSF Receptor Signaling Differentially Regulate Monocyte Maturation and Macrophage Polarization in the Tumor Microenvironment. Cancer Res. 2016;76:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data uncover the multifaceted and opposing roles of M-CSFR and GM-CSFR signaling in governing the phenotype of macrophage subsets in tumors, and provide new insight into the mechanism of action underlying M-CSFR blockade. ..
  9. Schneider E, Petit Bertron A, Bricard R, Levasseur M, Ramadan A, Girard J, et al. IL-33 activates unprimed murine basophils directly in vitro and induces their in vivo expansion indirectly by promoting hematopoietic growth factor production. J Immunol. 2009;183:3591-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that IL-33 not only activates unprimed basophils directly, but also promotes their expansion in vivo through induction of GM-CSF and IL-3. ..
  10. Liboi E, Jubinsky P, Andrews N, Nathan D, Mathey Prevot B. Enhanced expression of interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor subunits in murine hematopoietic cells stimulated with hematopoietic growth factors. Blood. 1992;80:1183-9 pubmed
    AIC2A and AIC2B are closely related genes encoding components of the receptors for murine interleukin-3 (IL-3) (AIC2A) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-5 (AIC2B)...
  11. Jubinsky P, Krijanovski O, Nathan D, Tavernier J, Sieff C. The beta chain of the interleukin-3 receptor functionally associates with the erythropoietin receptor. Blood. 1997;90:1867-73 pubmed
    Interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors share a common beta chain (beta(c)), and both cytokines enhance erythropoietin (Epo)-dependent in vitro erythropoiesis by primary hematopoietic ..
  12. Guimaraes M, Bazan J, Zlotnik A, Wiles M, Grimaldi J, Lee F, et al. A new approach to the study of haematopoietic development in the yolk sac and embryoid bodies. Development. 1995;121:3335-46 pubmed
    ..The Ysp11 gene has the unique property of encoding both intracellular, transmembrane and extracellular protein forms, revealing novel aspects of nucleotide metabolism that may be relevant during mammalian development. ..
  13. Katsumoto T, Duda J, Kim A, Wardak Z, Dranoff G, Clapp D, et al. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and accessory cells modulate radioprotection by purified hematopoietic cells. J Exp Med. 2005;201:853-8 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a nonredundant function of GM-CSF in radioprotection by donor hematopoietic cells that may prove relevant in clinical transplantation. ..
  14. Yoder M, Hiatt K, Dutt P, Mukherjee P, Bodine D, Orlic D. Characterization of definitive lymphohematopoietic stem cells in the day 9 murine yolk sac. Immunity. 1997;7:335-44 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, 37-fold more CD34+c-Kit+ cells reside in the day 9 yolk sac than in the P-Sp. In sum, definitive HSC are coexistent, but not equal in number, in the murine yolk sac and P-Sp prior to fetal liver colonization. ..
  15. Chen J, Olsen J, Ford S, Mirza S, Walker A, Murphy J, et al. A new isoform of interleukin-3 receptor {alpha} with novel differentiation activity and high affinity binding mode. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5763-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the SP1 and SP2 isoforms activated the Jak2/STAT5, Akt, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways in M1 cells, although the activation was more prolonged for the SP2 isoform. ..
  16. Devos R, Plaetinck G, Van der Heyden J, Cornelis S, Vandekerckhove J, Fiers W, et al. Molecular basis of a high affinity murine interleukin-5 receptor. EMBO J. 1991;10:2133-7 pubmed
    ..Although the mIL-3R is greater than 90% homologous to the mIL-3R-like protein, no increase in affinity for mIL-5 was detected on COS1 cells co-transfected with the cDNAs for the mIL-5R alpha-chain and the mIL-3R protein. ..
  17. Asquith K, Ramshaw H, Hansbro P, Beagley K, Lopez A, Foster P. The IL-3/IL-5/GM-CSF common receptor plays a pivotal role in the regulation of Th2 immunity and allergic airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2008;180:1199-206 pubmed
  18. Ye Z, Gulcicek E, Stone K, Lam T, Schulz V, Weissman S. Complex interactions in EML cell stimulation by stem cell factor and IL-3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4882-7 pubmed publisher
  19. Davidson M, Alonso M, Kenkel J, Suhoski M, González J, Yuan R, et al. In vivo T cell activation induces the formation of CD209(+) PDL-2(+) dendritic cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76258 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings expand the range of signals capable of driving Mo-DC differentiation in vivo beyond exogenous microbial factors to include endogenous factors produced following T cell activation. ..
  20. Zhang J, Ranheim E, Du J, Liu Y, Wang J, Kong G, et al. Deficiency of β Common Receptor Moderately Attenuates the Progression of Myeloproliferative Neoplasm in NrasG12D/+ Mice. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:19093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that inhibiting GM-CSF signaling in JMML/MP-CMML patients might alleviate disease symptoms but would not eradicate the disease. ..
  21. Khameneh H, Isa S, Min L, Nih F, Ruedl C. GM-CSF signalling boosts dramatically IL-1 production. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23025 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify GM-CSF as a key regulator of IL-1? production and indicate GM-CSF as a previously underestimated target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  22. McClanahan T, Dalrymple S, Barkett M, Lee F. Hematopoietic growth factor receptor genes as markers of lineage commitment during in vitro development of hematopoietic cells. Blood. 1993;81:2903-15 pubmed
    ..The defined temporal order for the expression of these genes suggests that they may be useful as markers for multiple stages in the development of different hematopoietic cell lineages during embryogenesis. ..
  23. Suzuki T, Arumugam P, Sakagami T, Lachmann N, Chalk C, Sallese A, et al. Pulmonary macrophage transplantation therapy. Nature. 2014;514:450-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor-β-deficient (Csf2rb(-/-)) mice that develop a myeloid cell disorder identical to hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (hPAP) in ..
  24. Herbarth B, Pingault V, Bondurand N, Kuhlbrodt K, Hermans Borgmeyer I, Puliti A, et al. Mutation of the Sry-related Sox10 gene in Dominant megacolon, a mouse model for human Hirschsprung disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5161-5 pubmed
  25. Zarei S, Schwenter F, Luy P, Aurrand Lions M, Morel P, Kopf M, et al. Role of GM-CSF signaling in cell-based tumor immunization. Blood. 2009;113:6658-68 pubmed publisher
  26. Murphy J, Ford S, Olsen J, Gustin S, Jeffrey P, Ollis D, et al. Interleukin-3 binding to the murine betaIL-3 and human betac receptors involves functional epitopes formed by domains 1 and 4 of different protein chains. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26500-8 pubmed
  27. Clarke M, Volpe G, Sheriff L, Walton D, Ward C, Wei W, et al. Transcriptional regulation of SPROUTY2 by MYB influences myeloid cell proliferation and stem cell properties by enhancing responsiveness to IL-3. Leukemia. 2017;31:957-966 pubmed publisher
    ..MYB acts on MAPK signaling by directly regulating transcription of the gene encoding the negative modulator SPRY2. This mechanistic insight points to pathways that might be targeted therapeutically in MPN. ..
  28. Broz M, Binnewies M, Boldajipour B, Nelson A, Pollack J, Erle D, et al. Dissecting the tumor myeloid compartment reveals rare activating antigen-presenting cells critical for T cell immunity. Cancer Cell. 2014;26:638-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This cell type presents opportunities for prognostic and therapeutic approaches across multiple cancer types. ..
  29. Hannemann J, Hara T, Kawai M, Miyajima A, Ostertag W, Stocking C. Sequential mutations in the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor beta-subunit genes are necessary for the complete conversion to growth autonomy mediated by a truncated beta C subunit. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:2402-12 pubmed
    An amino-terminally truncated beta C receptor (beta C-R) subunit of the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor complex mediates factor-independent and tumorigenic growth in two spontaneous ..
  30. Kreslavsky T, Vilagos B, Tagoh H, Poliakova D, Schwickert T, Wöhner M, et al. Essential role for the transcription factor Bhlhe41 in regulating the development, self-renewal and BCR repertoire of B-1a cells. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:442-455 pubmed publisher
    ..Bhlhe41 directly repressed the expression of cell-cycle regulators and inhibitors of BCR signaling while enabling pro-survival cytokine signaling. Thus, Bhlhe41 controls the development, BCR repertoire and self-renewal of B-1a cells. ..
  31. Schlitzer A, Heiseke A, Einwächter H, Reindl W, Schiemann M, Manta C, et al. Tissue-specific differentiation of a circulating CCR9- pDC-like common dendritic cell precursor. Blood. 2012;119:6063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Their final differentiation into functionally distinct pDCs and cDCs depends on tissue-specific factors allowing adaptation to local requirements under homeostatic conditions. ..
  32. Rizvi T, Huang Y, Sidani A, Atit R, Largaespada D, Boissy R, et al. A novel cytokine pathway suppresses glial cell melanogenesis after injury to adult nerve. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9831-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, the adult nerve glial cell phenotype is maintained after nerve injury by response to cytokines, through neurofibromin. ..
  33. Khajah M, Millen B, Cara D, Waterhouse C, McCafferty D. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF): a chemoattractive agent for murine leukocytes in vivo. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;89:945-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This property of GM-CSF may contribute significantly to recruitment during intestinal inflammation. ..
  34. Ramshaw H, Guthridge M, Stomski F, Barry E, Ooms L, Mitchell C, et al. The Shc-binding site of the betac subunit of the GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptors is a negative regulator of hematopoiesis. Blood. 2007;110:3582-90 pubmed
    Tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of the common beta chain (beta(c)) of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and IL-5 receptors is widely viewed as a general mechanism that provides ..
  35. Alexander K, Flynn R, Lineburg K, Kuns R, Teal B, Olver S, et al. CSF-1-dependant donor-derived macrophages mediate chronic graft-versus-host disease. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4266-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that donor macrophages mediate the development of cGVHD and suggest that targeting CSF-1 signaling after transplantation may prevent and treat cGVHD. ..
  36. Jing X, Infante J, Nachtman R, Jurecic R. E3 ligase FLRF (Rnf41) regulates differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors by governing steady-state levels of cytokine and retinoic acid receptors. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:1110-20 pubmed publisher
  37. Reed J, Ikegami M, Robb L, Begley C, Ross G, Whitsett J. Distinct changes in pulmonary surfactant homeostasis in common beta-chain- and GM-CSF-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L1164-71 pubmed
    ..surfactant metabolism; alveolar macrophage; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor..
  38. Uberti B, Dentelli P, Rosso A, Defilippi P, Brizzi M. Inhibition of ?1 integrin and IL-3R? common subunit interaction hinders tumour angiogenesis. Oncogene. 2010;29:6581-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data identify the ?1 integrin-interacting domain in the juxta-membrane IL-3R?c extracellular domain, and provide the rational for targeting this interaction to impair vascular growth. ..
  39. Vu T, Austin R, Kuhn C, Bruedigam C, Song A, Guignes S, et al. Jak2V617F driven myeloproliferative neoplasm occurs independently of interleukin-3 receptor beta common signaling. Haematologica. 2016;101:e77-80 pubmed publisher
  40. Kim A, Morgan K, Hasz D, Wiesner S, Lauchle J, Geurts J, et al. Beta common receptor inactivation attenuates myeloproliferative disease in Nf1 mutant mice. Blood. 2007;109:1687-91 pubmed
    ..GM-CSF receptor to initiate and sustain this MPD by generating Nf1 mutant hematopoietic cells lacking the common beta chain (Beta c) of the GM-CSF receptor...
  41. Zhan Y, Vega Ramos J, Carrington E, Villadangos J, Lew A, Xu Y. The inflammatory cytokine, GM-CSF, alters the developmental outcome of murine dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:2889-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that GM-CSF dominantly changes the regulation of DC development in vitro and in vivo has important implications for inflammatory diseases or GM-CSF therapy. ..
  42. Edelson B, Bradstreet T, Kc W, Hildner K, Herzog J, Sim J, et al. Batf3-dependent CD11b(low/-) peripheral dendritic cells are GM-CSF-independent and are not required for Th cell priming after subcutaneous immunization. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25660 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we compared development of peripheral tissue DCs and susceptibility to EAE in GM-CSF receptor deficient (Csf2rb(-/-)) and Batf3(-/-) mice...
  43. Lee T, Lu K, Yu Y, Lee H, Tsai F. β Common Receptor Mediates Erythropoietin-Conferred Protection on OxLDL-Induced Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Macrophages. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:439759 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that βCR may play an important role in the beneficial effects of EPO against oxLDL-elicited dysfunction of macrophage foam cells. ..
  44. Yao H, Goldman D, Nechiporuk T, Kawane S, McWeeney S, Tyner J, et al. Corepressor Rcor1 is essential for murine erythropoiesis. Blood. 2014;123:3175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The colony-stimulating factor 2 receptor ? subunit (Csf2rb), which codes for a receptor implicated in myeloid cytokine signaling, is a direct target for both Rcor1 and the ..
  45. Du J, Liu Y, Meline B, Kong G, Tan L, Lo J, et al. Loss of CD44 attenuates aberrant GM-CSF signaling in Kras G12D hematopoietic progenitor/precursor cells and prolongs the survival of diseased animals. Leukemia. 2013;27:754-7 pubmed publisher
  46. Khan A, Coldewey S, Patel N, Rogazzo M, Collino M, Yaqoob M, et al. Erythropoietin attenuates cardiac dysfunction in experimental sepsis in mice via activation of the ?-common receptor. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1021-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Erythropoietin attenuates the impaired systolic contractility associated with sepsis by activation of the ?-common receptor, which, in turn, results in activation of survival pathways and inhibition of inflammation. ..
  47. Super H, Hasenkrug K, Simmons S, Brooks D, Konzek R, Sarge K, et al. Fine mapping of the friend retrovirus resistance gene, Rfv3, on mouse chromosome 15. J Virol. 1999;73:7848-52 pubmed
    ..also showed for the first time that the Hsf1 gene maps to the Rfv3-linked cluster of genes including Il2rb, Il3rb, and Pdgfb...
  48. Norga K, Pless M, Stanulla M, TePas E, Mathey Prevot B. Multiple transcription start sites and 5' alternate splicing of murine IL-3 receptor beta-chain transcripts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;205:886-92 pubmed
    The murine interleukin-3 receptor beta-chain genes, IL-3R beta IL-3 and IL-3R beta c, encode the signal transducing chains of the high affinity receptors for IL-3 and IL-3, GM-CSF and IL-5 respectively...
  49. Hara T, Miyajima A. Two distinct functional high affinity receptors for mouse interleukin-3 (IL-3). EMBO J. 1992;11:1875-84 pubmed
    ..receptor (IL-3R) is composed of an IL-3 specific alpha subunit (IL-3R alpha) and a common beta subunit (beta c) that is shared by IL-3, granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-5 receptors...
  50. Gorman D, Itoh N, Kitamura T, Schreurs J, Yonehara S, Yahara I, et al. Cloning and expression of a gene encoding an interleukin 3 receptor-like protein: identification of another member of the cytokine receptor gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:5459-63 pubmed
    Using a monoclonal antibody to the interleukin 3 (IL-3) receptor (anti-Aic2), we isolated a cDNA (AIC2B) from a mouse mast cell line which is homologous to the previously characterized gene for the IL-3 receptor (AIC2A)...
  51. Yu X, Buttgereit A, Lelios I, Utz S, Cansever D, Becher B, et al. The Cytokine TGF-β Promotes the Development and Homeostasis of Alveolar Macrophages. Immunity. 2017;47:903-912.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal an additional layer of complexity regarding the guidance cues, which govern the genesis, maturation, and survival of AMs. ..
  52. Zhao Y, Wagner F, Frank S, Kraft A. The amino-terminal portion of the JAK2 protein kinase is necessary for binding and phosphorylation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor beta c chain. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13814-8 pubmed
    ..to its receptor stimulates JAK2 protein kinase activation, protein phosphorylation, and JAK2 association with the beta c chain of the GM-CSF receptor...
  53. Hara T, Miyajima A. Regulation of IL-3 receptor expression: evidence for a post-transcriptional mechanism that dominantly suppresses the expression of beta subunits. Int Immunol. 1994;6:1525-33 pubmed
    ..Two homologous beta subunits of IL-3R are present in the mouse: AIC2A is the IL-3 specific beta subunit, and AIC2B is the common beta subunit shared by IL-3, IL-5 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating (GM-CSF) factor ..
  54. Croxford A, Lanzinger M, Hartmann F, Schreiner B, Mair F, Pelczar P, et al. The Cytokine GM-CSF Drives the Inflammatory Signature of CCR2+ Monocytes and Licenses Autoimmunity. Immunity. 2015;43:502-14 pubmed publisher
    ..By using conditional gene targeting, we systematically deleted the GM-CSF receptor (Csf2rb) in specific subpopulations throughout the myeloid lineages...
  55. Ensan S, Li A, Besla R, Degousee N, Cosme J, Roufaiel M, et al. Self-renewing resident arterial macrophages arise from embryonic CX3CR1(+) precursors and circulating monocytes immediately after birth. Nat Immunol. 2016;17:159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..After infection, arterial macrophages return rapidly to functional homeostasis. Finally, survival of resident arterial macrophages depends on a CX3CR1-CX3CL1 axis within the vascular niche. ..
  56. Duncker P, Stoolman J, Huber A, Segal B. GM-CSF Promotes Chronic Disability in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Altering the Composition of Central Nervous System-Infiltrating Cells, but Is Dispensable for Disease Induction. J Immunol. 2018;200:966-973 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that GM-CSF drives chronic tissue damage and disability in EAE via pleiotropic pathways, but it is dispensable during early lesion formation and the onset of neurologic deficits. ..
  57. Stock A, Hansen J, Sleeman M, McKenzie B, Wicks I. GM-CSF primes cardiac inflammation in a mouse model of Kawasaki disease. J Exp Med. 2016;213:1983-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings describe a novel role for GM-CSF as an essential initiating cytokine in cardiac inflammation and implicate GM-CSF as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in KD. ..
  58. Weber G, Chousterman B, Hilgendorf I, Robbins C, Theurl I, Gerhardt L, et al. Pleural innate response activator B cells protect against pneumonia via a GM-CSF-IgM axis. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1243-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The study describes a previously unrecognized GM-CSF-IgM axis and positions IRA B cells as orchestrators of protective IgM immunity. ..
  59. Fung M, Mak N, Leung K, Hapel A. Distinguishing between mouse IL-3 and IL-3 receptor-like (IL-5/GM-CSF receptor converter) mRNAs using the polymerase chain reaction method. J Immunol Methods. 1992;149:97-103 pubmed
    ..In contrast, neither species of mRNA was detected in the T lymphoma cell line (EL-4). The ratio of IL-3 receptor-like mRNA to IL-3 receptor mRNA was usually greater than 1, except in 32D cl-23 cells where it was 0.66. ..
  60. Carr P, Gustin S, Church A, Murphy J, Ford S, Mann D, et al. Structure of the complete extracellular domain of the common beta subunit of the human GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 receptors reveals a novel dimer configuration. Cell. 2001;104:291-300 pubmed
    ..The G strand of domain 3 similarly partners with the dimer-related domain 1. The structure provides new insights into receptor activation by the respective alpha receptor:ligand complexes. ..
  61. Sköld M, Behar S. Tuberculosis triggers a tissue-dependent program of differentiation and acquisition of effector functions by circulating monocytes. J Immunol. 2008;181:6349-60 pubmed
    ..This report provides the first direct evidence for monocyte differentiation into both the macrophage and DC lineages in vivo following infection with a live human pathogen. ..
  62. Yokota A, Takeuchi H, Maeda N, Ohoka Y, Kato C, Song S, et al. GM-CSF and IL-4 synergistically trigger dendritic cells to acquire retinoic acid-producing capacity. Int Immunol. 2009;21:361-77 pubmed publisher
    ..GM-CSF(+)CD11c(-)F4/80(+) cells existed constitutively in the intestinal tissues. The results suggest that GM-CSF and RA itself are pivotal among multiple microenvironment factors that enable intestinal DCs to produce RA. ..
  63. Kim S, Prout M, Ramshaw H, Lopez A, LeGros G, Min B. Cutting edge: basophils are transiently recruited into the draining lymph nodes during helminth infection via IL-3, but infection-induced Th2 immunity can develop without basophil lymph node recruitment or IL-3. J Immunol. 2010;184:1143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a previously unknown role of IL-3 in recruiting basophils to the LN and demonstrate that basophils are not necessarily associated with the development of Th2 immunity during parasite infection...
  64. Gautier E, Chow A, Spanbroek R, Marcelin G, Greter M, Jakubzick C, et al. Systemic analysis of PPAR? in mouse macrophage populations reveals marked diversity in expression with critical roles in resolution of inflammation and airway immunity. J Immunol. 2012;189:2614-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this work identifies specific macrophage populations as potential targets for the anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR? agonists. ..
  65. Giacomin P, Siracusa M, Walsh K, Grencis R, Kubo M, Comeau M, et al. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin-dependent basophils promote Th2 cytokine responses following intestinal helminth infection. J Immunol. 2012;189:4371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that the TSLP-basophil pathway may represent a new target in the design of therapeutic intervention strategies to promote or limit Th2 cytokine-dependent immunity and inflammation. ..
  66. Park L, Martin U, Sorensen R, Luhr S, Morrissey P, Cosman D, et al. Cloning of the low-affinity murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor and reconstitution of a high-affinity receptor complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4295-9 pubmed
    ..However, coexpression of clone 71 with the IL-3 receptor-related cDNA AIC2B generated high-affinity binding sites for murine GM-CSF but not murine IL-3...
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