Csf2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Csf2
Description: colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage)
Alias: CSF, Csfgm, GMCSF, Gm-CSf, MGI-IGM, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor 2, put. GM-CSF
Species: mouse
Products:     Csf2

Top Publications

  1. Chang C, Limanni A, Baker W, Dobson M, Kalinich J, Jackson W, et al. Bone marrow and splenic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and transforming growth factor-beta mRNA levels in irradiated mice. Blood. 1995;86:2130-6 pubmed
    ..radiation exposure on endogenous bone marrow (BM) and splenic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA levels were assayed in B6D2F1 female mice...
  2. King I, Dickendesher T, Segal B. Circulating Ly-6C+ myeloid precursors migrate to the CNS and play a pathogenic role during autoimmune demyelinating disease. Blood. 2009;113:3190-7 pubmed publisher
  3. Seydel F, Garrigan E, Stutevoss B, Belkin N, Makadia B, Carter J, et al. GM-CSF induces STAT5 binding at epigenetic regulatory sites within the Csf2 promoter of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse myeloid cells. J Autoimmun. 2008;31:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that GM-CSF can regulate the binding of STAT5 on the promoter of its own gene, Csf2, within regions previously identified as sites of chromatin epigenetic modification important to the regulation of ..
  4. Paine R, Morris S, Jin H, Wilcoxen S, Phare S, Moore B, et al. Impaired functional activity of alveolar macrophages from GM-CSF-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;281:L1210-8 pubmed
    We hypothesized that pulmonary granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is critically involved in determining the functional capabilities of alveolar macrophages (AM) for host defense...
  5. Zhan Y, Lieschke G, Grail D, Dunn A, Cheers C. Essential roles for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and G-CSF in the sustained hematopoietic response of Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice. Blood. 1998;91:863-9 pubmed
    The in vivo roles of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte (G)-CSF were studied in factor-deficient gene-targeted knockout mice infected with the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria ..
  6. Codarri L, Gyülveszi G, Tosevski V, Hesske L, Fontana A, Magnenat L, et al. ROR?t drives production of the cytokine GM-CSF in helper T cells, which is essential for the effector phase of autoimmune neuroinflammation. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that interleukin 23 (IL-23) and the transcription factor ROR?t drove expression of the cytokine GM-CSF in helper T cells, whereas IL-12, interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-27 acted as negative regulators...
  7. Ditiatkovski M, Toh B, Bobik A. GM-CSF deficiency reduces macrophage PPAR-gamma expression and aggravates atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:2337-44 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions but its significance for lesion development is unknown...
  8. Berclaz P, Carey B, Fillipi M, Wernke Dollries K, Geraci N, Cush S, et al. GM-CSF regulates a PU.1-dependent transcriptional program determining the pulmonary response to LPS. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;36:114-21 pubmed
    ..Because granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-deficient (GM(-/-)) mice are hyporesponsive to LPS, we evaluated the role of GM-CSF in TLR-4 signaling in AMs...
  9. Litherland S, Grebe K, Belkin N, Paek E, Elf J, Atkinson M, et al. Nonobese diabetic mouse congenic analysis reveals chromosome 11 locus contributing to diabetes susceptibility, macrophage STAT5 dysfunction, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor overproduction. J Immunol. 2005;175:4561-5 pubmed
    ..NODC11), or diabetes-resistant C57L (NOD.LC11) loci on chromosome 11. These intervals contain the gene for GM-CSF (Csf2; 53.8 Mb) and those for STAT3, STAT5A, and STAT5B (Stat3, Stat5a, and Stat5b; 100.4-100.6 Mb)...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Himes S, Coles L, Reeves R, Shannon M. High mobility group protein I(Y) is required for function and for c-Rel binding to CD28 response elements within the GM-CSF and IL-2 promoters. Immunity. 1996;5:479-89 pubmed
    ..We show that the CK-1 element (CD28RE) within the GM-CSF promoter binds the RelA and c-Rel transcription factors in response to CD28 activation...
  2. Thomassen M, Barna B, Malur A, Bonfield T, Farver C, Malur A, et al. ABCG1 is deficient in alveolar macrophages of GM-CSF knockout mice and patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:2762-8 pubmed
    ..Neutralizing autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are also present, resulting in virtual GM-CSF deficiency...
  3. Shibata Y, Berclaz P, Chroneos Z, Yoshida M, Whitsett J, Trapnell B. GM-CSF regulates alveolar macrophage differentiation and innate immunity in the lung through PU.1. Immunity. 2001;15:557-67 pubmed
    GM-CSF gene targeted (GM(-/-)) mice are susceptible to respiratory infections and develop alveolar proteinosis due to defects in innate immune function and surfactant catabolism in alveolar macrophages (AMs), respectively...
  4. Dranoff G, Crawford A, Sadelain M, Ream B, Rashid A, Bronson R, et al. Involvement of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in pulmonary homeostasis. Science. 1994;264:713-6 pubmed
    The in vivo function of murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was investigated in mice, carrying a null allele of the GM-CSF gene, that were generated by gene targeting techniques in embryonic stem cells...
  5. El Behi M, Ciric B, Dai H, Yan Y, Cullimore M, Safavi F, et al. The encephalitogenicity of T(H)17 cells is dependent on IL-1- and IL-23-induced production of the cytokine GM-CSF. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:568-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that IL-23 induced production of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in T(H)17 cells and that GM-CSF had an essential role in their encephalitogenicity...
  6. Kieslinger M, Woldman I, Moriggl R, Hofmann J, Marine J, Ihle J, et al. Antiapoptotic activity of Stat5 required during terminal stages of myeloid differentiation. Genes Dev. 2000;14:232-44 pubmed
    ..Bone marrow cells from these animals displayed a strong increase in apoptotic cell death during GM-CSF-dependent functional maturation in vitro...
  7. Re F, Belyanskaya S, Riese R, Cipriani B, Fischer F, Granucci F, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces an expression program in neonatal microglia that primes them for antigen presentation. J Immunol. 2002;169:2264-73 pubmed
    Neonatal microglial cells respond to GM-CSF and M-CSF by acquiring different morphologies and phenotypes...
  8. Sonderegger I, Iezzi G, Maier R, Schmitz N, Kurrer M, Kopf M. GM-CSF mediates autoimmunity by enhancing IL-6-dependent Th17 cell development and survival. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2281-94 pubmed publisher
    Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is critically involved in development of organ-related autoimmune inflammatory diseases including experimental allergic encephalitis and collagen-induced arthritis...
  9. Ponomarev E, Shriver L, Maresz K, Pedras Vasconcelos J, Verthelyi D, Dittel B. GM-CSF production by autoreactive T cells is required for the activation of microglial cells and the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2007;178:39-48 pubmed
    ..autoimmune disease believed to be triggered by T cells secreting Th1-specific proinflammatory cytokines, such as GM-CSF. In the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), Th1 but not Th2 cells have been shown ..
  10. Malur A, Baker A, Mccoy A, Wells G, Barna B, Kavuru M, et al. Restoration of PPAR? reverses lipid accumulation in alveolar macrophages of GM-CSF knockout mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;300:L73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..is a lung disease characterized by a deficiency of functional granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) resulting in surfactant accumulation and lipid-engorged alveolar macrophages...
  11. Basu S, Dunn A, Marino M, Savoia H, Hodgson G, Lieschke G, et al. Increased tolerance to endotoxin by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1997;159:1412-7 pubmed
    The contribution of granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) to endotoxin-mediated septic shock has been assessed by treating GM-CSF-deficient mice with LPS...
  12. Hamilton J, Anderson G. GM-CSF Biology. Growth Factors. 2004;22:225-31 pubmed
    Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was originally defined by its ability to generate in vitro granulocyte and macrophage colonies from bone marrow precursor cells...
  13. Snapper C, Moorman M, Rosas F, Kehry M, Maliszewski C, Mond J. IL-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor strongly induce Ig secretion by sort-purified murine B cell activated through the membrane Ig, but not the CD40, signaling pathway. J Immunol. 1995;154:5842-50 pubmed
    ..We show that either IL-3 or granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) stimulates 10- to 50-fold enhancements in IgM secretion by sort-purified B cells treated with alpha delta-..
  14. Young A, Linehan E, Hams E, O Hara Hall A, McClurg A, Johnston J, et al. Cutting edge: suppression of GM-CSF expression in murine and human T cells by IL-27. J Immunol. 2012;189:2079-83 pubmed publisher
    GM-CSF is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a pathogenic role in the CNS inflammatory disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
  15. Greter M, Helft J, Chow A, Hashimoto D, Mortha A, Agudo Cantero J, et al. GM-CSF controls nonlymphoid tissue dendritic cell homeostasis but is dispensable for the differentiation of inflammatory dendritic cells. Immunity. 2012;36:1031-46 pubmed publisher
    GM-CSF (Csf-2) is a critical cytokine for the in vitro generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and is thought to control the development of inflammatory DCs and resident CD103(+) DCs in some tissues...
  16. Stanley E, Lieschke G, Grail D, Metcalf D, Hodgson G, Gall J, et al. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-deficient mice show no major perturbation of hematopoiesis but develop a characteristic pulmonary pathology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5592-6 pubmed
    Mice homozygous for a disrupted granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene develop normally and show no major perturbation of hematopoiesis up to 12 weeks of age...
  17. Serezani C, Kane S, Collins L, Morato Marques M, Osterholzer J, Peters Golden M. Macrophage dectin-1 expression is controlled by leukotriene B4 via a GM-CSF/PU.1 axis. J Immunol. 2012;189:906-15 pubmed publisher
    ..1, and PU.1 small interfering RNA abolished LTB(4)-enhanced dectin-1 expression. GM-CSF controls PU.1 expression, and this cytokine was decreased in LT-deficient macrophages...
  18. Su Y, Rolph M, Hansbro N, Mackay C, Sewell W. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is required for bronchial eosinophilia in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2008;180:2600-7 pubmed
    GM-CSF plays an important role in inflammation by promoting the production, activation, and survival of granulocytes and macrophages...
  19. Bonfield T, Thomassen M, Farver C, Abraham S, Koloze M, Zhang X, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma regulates the expression of alveolar macrophage macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Immunol. 2008;181:235-42 pubmed
    Macrophage CSF (M-CSF) regulates monocyte differentiation, activation, and foam cell formation. We have observed that it is elevated in human pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and in the GM-CSF knockout mouse, a murine model for PAP...
  20. Wada H, Noguchi Y, Marino M, Dunn A, Old L. T cell functions in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12557-61 pubmed
    Immunological functions were analyzed in mice lacking granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)...
  21. Campbell I, Rich M, Bischof R, Dunn A, Grail D, Hamilton J. Protection from collagen-induced arthritis in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1998;161:3639-44 pubmed
    The involvement of granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was examined using GM-CSF-deficient mice...
  22. Willinger T, Rongvaux A, Takizawa H, Yancopoulos G, Valenzuela D, Murphy A, et al. Human IL-3/GM-CSF knock-in mice support human alveolar macrophage development and human immune responses in the lung. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To overcome this, we generated human IL-3/GM-CSF knock-in (hIL-3/GM-CSF KI) mice...
  23. Kimura A, Rieger M, Simone J, Chen W, Wickre M, Zhu B, et al. The transcription factors STAT5A/B regulate GM-CSF-mediated granulopoiesis. Blood. 2009;114:4721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) controls homeostatic and emergency development of granulocytes...
  24. Kim D, Sandoval D, Reed J, Matter E, Tolod E, Woods S, et al. The role of GM-CSF in adipose tissue inflammation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E1038-46 pubmed publisher
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has a central action to reduce food intake and body weight...
  25. Hibbs M, Quilici C, Kountouri N, Seymour J, Armes J, Burgess A, et al. Mice lacking three myeloid colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF, GM-CSF, and M-CSF) still produce macrophages and granulocytes and mount an inflammatory response in a sterile model of peritonitis. J Immunol. 2007;178:6435-43 pubmed
    To assess the combined role of G-CSF, GM-CSF, and M-CSF in myeloid cell production, mice deficient in all three myeloid CSFs were generated (G-/-GM-/-M-/- mice)...
  26. Bezbradica J, Gordy L, Stanic A, Dragovic S, Hill T, Hawiger J, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor regulates effector differentiation of invariant natural killer T cells during thymic ontogeny. Immunity. 2006;25:487-97 pubmed
    ..We discovered that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Csf-2)-deficient mice developed iNKT cells that failed to respond to the model antigen alpha-galactosylceramide because ..
  27. Shaposhnik Z, Wang X, Weinstein M, Bennett B, Lusis A. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor regulates dendritic cell content of atherosclerotic lesions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:621-7 pubmed
    ..primarily on previous in vitro studies, we hypothesized that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-deficient mice would have decreased dendritic cells in lesions...
  28. Reed J, Clegg D, Smith K, Tolod Richer E, Matter E, Picard L, et al. GM-CSF action in the CNS decreases food intake and body weight. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3035-44 pubmed
    ..The present work tested a role for the proinflammatory cytokine GM-CSF. Central but not peripheral administration of GM-CSF to adult rats significantly decreased food intake and body ..
  29. Huffman J, Hull W, Dranoff G, Mulligan R, Whitsett J. Pulmonary epithelial cell expression of GM-CSF corrects the alveolar proteinosis in GM-CSF-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 1996;97:649-55 pubmed
    Mutation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene by homologous recombination caused alveolar proteinosis in mice...
  30. Levine A, Reed J, Kurak K, Cianciolo E, Whitsett J. GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:563-9 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice...
  31. McQualter J, Darwiche R, Ewing C, Onuki M, Kay T, Hamilton J, et al. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor: a new putative therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis. J Exp Med. 2001;194:873-82 pubmed
    ..The hematopoietic growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is considered to play a central role in maintaining chronic inflammation...
  32. Reed J, Ikegami M, Robb L, Begley C, Ross G, Whitsett J. Distinct changes in pulmonary surfactant homeostasis in common beta-chain- and GM-CSF-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L1164-71 pubmed
    ..alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is caused by inactivation of either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or GM receptor common beta-chain (beta(c)) genes in mice [GM(-/-), beta(c)(-/-)], demonstrating a critical role of ..
  33. Fleetwood A, Lawrence T, Hamilton J, Cook A. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and macrophage CSF-dependent macrophage phenotypes display differences in cytokine profiles and transcription factor activities: implications for CSF blockade in inflammation. J Immunol. 2007;178:5245-52 pubmed
    GM-CSF and M-CSF (CSF-1) can enhance macrophage lineage numbers as well as modulate their differentiation and function...
  34. Willart M, Deswarte K, Pouliot P, Braun H, Beyaert R, Lambrecht B, et al. Interleukin-1? controls allergic sensitization to inhaled house dust mite via the epithelial release of GM-CSF and IL-33. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..release of IL-1?, which then acted in an autocrine manner to trigger the release of DC-attracting chemokines, GM-CSF, and IL-33...
  35. Tiegs G, Barsig J, Matiba B, Uhlig S, Wendel A. Potentiation by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor of lipopolysaccharide toxicity in mice. J Clin Invest. 1994;93:2616-22 pubmed
    GM-CSF is known to prime leukocytes for inflammatory stimuli in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GM-CSF in vivo in a systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome...
  36. Lacey D, Achuthan A, Fleetwood A, Dinh H, Roiniotis J, Scholz G, et al. Defining GM-CSF- and macrophage-CSF-dependent macrophage responses by in vitro models. J Immunol. 2012;188:5752-65 pubmed publisher
    GM-CSF and M-CSF (CSF-1) induce different phenotypic changes in macrophage lineage populations...
  37. Lukens J, Barr M, Chaplin D, Chi H, Kanneganti T. Inflammasome-derived IL-1? regulates the production of GM-CSF by CD4(+) T cells and ?? T cells. J Immunol. 2012;188:3107-15 pubmed publisher
    Recent findings have demonstrated an indispensable role for GM-CSF in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
  38. Campbell I, van Nieuwenhuijze A, Segura E, O Donnell K, Coghill E, Hommel M, et al. Differentiation of inflammatory dendritic cells is mediated by NF-?B1-dependent GM-CSF production in CD4 T cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:5468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated CD4 T cell function in Nfkb1(-/-) mice and found increased apoptosis and selectively reduced GM-CSF production. Apoptosis was blocked by expression of a Bcl-2 transgene without restoring a disease response...
  39. Birnbaum R, O Marcaigh A, Wardak Z, Zhang Y, Dranoff G, Jacks T, et al. Nf1 and Gmcsf interact in myeloid leukemogenesis. Mol Cell. 2000;5:189-95 pubmed
    ..We generated hematopoietic cells deficient in both Nf1 and Gmcsf to test whether GM-CSF is required to drive excessive proliferation of Nf1-/- cells in vivo...
  40. Yoshida M, Ikegami M, Reed J, Chroneos Z, Whitsett J. GM-CSF regulates protein and lipid catabolism by alveolar macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;280:L379-86 pubmed
    ..DPPC) was assessed in alveolar macrophages isolated from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulated factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted [GM(-/-)] mice, wild-type mice, and GM(-/-) mice expressing GM-CSF under control of the SP-C ..
  41. Gillessen S, Mach N, Small C, Mihm M, Dranoff G. Overlapping roles for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 in eosinophil homeostasis and contact hypersensitivity. Blood. 2001;97:922-8 pubmed
    Studies of mice rendered deficient in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-3 (IL-3) have established unique roles for these cytokines in pulmonary homeostasis, resistance to infection, and antigen-..
  42. Bonfield T, Swaisgood C, Barna B, Farver C, Kavuru M, Thomassen M. Elevated gelatinase activity in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: role of macrophage-colony stimulating factor. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79:133-9 pubmed
    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an anti-granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoimmune disease resulting in the accumulation of phospholipids in the alveoli...
  43. Brettingham Moore K, Rao S, Juelich T, Shannon M, Holloway A. GM-CSF promoter chromatin remodelling and gene transcription display distinct signal and transcription factor requirements. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:225-34 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plays a key role in myeloid cell function and is rapidly and transiently expressed in T cells in response to immune or inflammatory stimuli...
  44. Enzler T, Gillessen S, Manis J, Ferguson D, Fleming J, Alt F, et al. Deficiencies of GM-CSF and interferon gamma link inflammation and cancer. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1213-9 pubmed
    ..We report that aged granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE)-like disorder associated with the ..
  45. Fuxman Bass J, Alvarez M, Gabelloni M, Vermeulen M, Amaral M, Geffner J, et al. GM-CSF enhances a CpG-independent pathway of neutrophil activation triggered by bacterial DNA. Mol Immunol. 2008;46:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we determined that GM-CSF enhances the activation of neutrophils by bacterial DNA...
  46. Bozinovski S, Jones J, Vlahos R, Hamilton J, Anderson G. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) regulates lung innate immunity to lipopolysaccharide through Akt/Erk activation of NFkappa B and AP-1 in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42808-14 pubmed
    ..the role of Akt and Erk1/2 as LPS intensely stimulates granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release, and neutralizing GM-CSF profoundly suppressed LPS-induced inflammation, suppressed expression and ..
  47. Biondo M, Nasa Z, Marshall A, Toh B, Alderuccio F. Local transgenic expression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor initiates autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2001;166:2090-9 pubmed
    ..Here we tested whether local production of GM-CSF, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is sufficient to break tolerance and initiate autoimmunity...
  48. Zhu S, Chen M, Jongstra Bilen J, Cybulsky M. GM-CSF regulates intimal cell proliferation in nascent atherosclerotic lesions. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic injection of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) markedly increased cell proliferation in early lesions, whereas function-blocking anti-GM-CSF antibody inhibited ..
  49. Mangano E, Peters S, Litteljohn D, So R, Bethune C, Bobyn J, et al. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor protects against substantia nigra dopaminergic cell loss in an environmental toxin model of Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;43:99-112 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we assessed whether the hematopoietic trophic cytokine, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), would inhibit the neurodegenerative effects of the pesticide, paraquat, ..
  50. Cheatem D, Ganesh B, Gangi E, Vasu C, Prabhakar B. Modulation of dendritic cells using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) delays type 1 diabetes by enhancing CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell function. Clin Immunol. 2009;131:260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used GM-CSF and Flt3-L to modulate DC function in NOD mice and observed the effects on T1D development...
  51. Spight D, Trapnell B, Zhao B, Berclaz P, Shanley T. Granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor-dependent peritoneal macrophage responses determine survival in experimentally induced peritonitis and sepsis in mice. Shock. 2008;30:434-42 pubmed publisher
    ..1. Previous studies showed that GMCSF-deficient(GM-CSF-/-) mice had susceptibility to and impaired clearance of group B streptococcal bacteria by ..
  52. Ploemacher R, van Soest P, Boudewijn A, Neben S. Interleukin-12 enhances interleukin-3 dependent multilineage hematopoietic colony formation stimulated by interleukin-11 or steel factor. Leukemia. 1993;7:1374-80 pubmed
    ..The observed activity of IL-12, however, required the presence of a least two factors, i.e. either IL-3 + IL-11, or IL-3 + SF. ..
  53. Chen G, Teitz Tennenbaum S, Neal L, Murdock B, Malachowski A, Dils A, et al. Local GM-CSF-Dependent Differentiation and Activation of Pulmonary Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Protect against Progressive Cryptococcal Lung Infection in Mice. J Immunol. 2016;196:1810-21 pubmed publisher
    Patients with acquired deficiency in GM-CSF are susceptible to infections with Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi...
  54. Watkins Chow D, Buckwalter M, Newhouse M, Lossie A, Brinkmeier M, Camper S. Genetic mapping of 21 genes on mouse chromosome 11 reveals disruptions in linkage conservation with human chromosome 5. Genomics. 1997;40:114-22 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the mouse and human maps with data for other species provides an emerging picture of mammalian chromosome evolution. ..
  55. Wanjalla C, Goldstein E, Wirblich C, Schnell M. A role for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the regulation of CD8(+) T cell responses to rabies virus. Virology. 2012;426:120-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed the effect of GM-CSF on a RABV-vaccine vector co-expressing HIV-1 Gag...
  56. Souza Fonseca Guimaraes F, Parlato M, de Oliveira R, Golenbock D, Fitzgerald K, Shalova I, et al. Interferon-? and granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor production by natural killer cells involves different signaling pathways and the adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10715-21 pubmed publisher
    Natural killer (NK) cells are important for innate immunity in particular through the production of IFN-? and GM-CSF. Both cytokines are important in restoration of immune function of tolerized leukocytes under inflammatory events...
  57. Kawakami T, Lichtnekert J, Thompson L, Karna P, Bouabe H, Hohl T, et al. Resident renal mononuclear phagocytes comprise five discrete populations with distinct phenotypes and functions. J Immunol. 2013;191:3358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, resident kidney MPCs comprise discrete subpopulations, which cannot be simply classified into the conventional entities, and they produce anti-inflammatory and tissue-homeostatic factors to differing degrees. ..
  58. Sheih A, Parks W, Ziegler S. GM-CSF produced by the airway epithelium is required for sensitization to cockroach allergen. Mucosal Immunol. 2017;10:705-715 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the epithelial-derived cytokines, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) had a central role in the initiation of Th2 allergic responses to CRA...