Gene Symbol: Csf1
Description: colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage)
Alias: C87615, Csfm, MCSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1, osteopetrosis
Species: mouse
Products:     Csf1

Top Publications

  1. Arceci R, Pampfer S, Pollard J. Expression of CSF-1/c-fms and SF/c-kit mRNA during preimplantation mouse development. Dev Biol. 1992;151:1-8 pubmed
    ..The patterns of CSF-1/c-fms mRNA and SF/c-kit mRNA expression are consistent with the hypothesis that these two ligand/receptor systems may act in a compensatory or synergistic manner during preimplantation development. ..
  2. Begg S, Radley J, Pollard J, Chisholm O, Stanley E, Bertoncello I. Delayed hematopoietic development in osteopetrotic (op/op) mice. J Exp Med. 1993;177:237-42 pubmed
    ..The data indicated that op/op mice undergo an age-related hematopoietic recovery and resolution of osteopetrosis, suggesting that the hematopoietic system has the capacity to use alternative mechanisms to compensate for the ..
  3. Wegiel J, Wisniewski H, Dziewiatkowski J, Tarnawski M, Kozielski R, Trenkner E, et al. Reduced number and altered morphology of microglial cells in colony stimulating factor-1-deficient osteopetrotic op/op mice. Brain Res. 1998;804:135-9 pubmed
    ..Study suggests that CSF-1 plays a role in vivo in the formation and maturation of microglia and has little or no effect on perivascular cells. ..
  4. Qian B, Deng Y, Im J, Muschel R, Zou Y, Li J, et al. A distinct macrophage population mediates metastatic breast cancer cell extravasation, establishment and growth. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6562 pubmed publisher
  5. Lenda D, Kikawada E, Stanley E, Kelley V. Reduced macrophage recruitment, proliferation, and activation in colony-stimulating factor-1-deficient mice results in decreased tubular apoptosis during renal inflammation. J Immunol. 2003;170:3254-62 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, we evaluated renal inflammation during unilateral ureter obstruction in CSF-1-deficient (Csf1(op)/Csf1(op)) mice...
  6. Huynh D, Akcora D, Malaterre J, Chan C, Dai X, Bertoncello I, et al. CSF-1 receptor-dependent colon development, homeostasis and inflammatory stress response. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56951 pubmed publisher
    ..Colons from Csf1r null and Csf1(op/op) mice were isolated and sectioned for IHC identification of enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells ..
  7. Kondo Y, Lemere C, Seabrook T. Osteopetrotic (op/op) mice have reduced microglia, no Abeta deposition, and no changes in dopaminergic neurons. J Neuroinflammation. 2007;4:31 pubmed
  8. Sasmono R, Ehrnsperger A, Cronau S, Ravasi T, Kandane R, Hickey M, et al. Mouse neutrophilic granulocytes express mRNA encoding the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (CSF-1R) as well as many other macrophage-specific transcripts and can transdifferentiate into macrophages in vitro in response to CSF-1. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:111-23 pubmed
    ..In keeping with this hypothesis, we showed that purified Ly-6G-positive granulocytes express CSF-1R after overnight culture and can subsequently differentiate to form F4/80-positive macrophages in response to CSF-1. ..
  9. Pollard J. Role of colony-stimulating factor-1 in reproduction and development. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;46:54-60; discussion 60-1 pubmed
    ..The pleiotropic roles for CSF-1 in reproduction and in the brain suggest that CSF-1 exerts many of its action through the trophic activities of cells of the mononuclear phagocytic lineage. ..

More Information


  1. Naito M, Hayashi S, Yoshida H, Nishikawa S, Shultz L, Takahashi K. Abnormal differentiation of tissue macrophage populations in 'osteopetrosis' (op) mice defective in the production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Am J Pathol. 1991;139:657-67 pubmed
    ..This suggests that an M-CSF-independent population of macrophages is derived from granulocyte/macrophage-colony-forming cells (GM-CFC) or earlier hematopoietic progenitors. ..
  2. Cohen P, Zhu L, Nishimura K, Pollard J. Colony-stimulating factor 1 regulation of neuroendocrine pathways that control gonadal function in mice. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1413-22 pubmed
    ..Consequently mice lacking CSF-1 (Csf1(op)/Csf1(op)) have depleted populations of macrophages in many tissues...
  3. Takahashi K, Umeda S, Shultz L, Hayashi S, Nishikawa S. Effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on the development, differentiation, and maturation of marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages in the spleen of osteopetrosis (op) mutant mice lacking functional M-CSF a. J Leukoc Biol. 1994;55:581-8 pubmed
    ..Although the marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages are thought to be M-CSF-dependent, their development and differentiation appear to be influenced by locally produced M-CSF or other cytokines. ..
  4. Stanley E, Berg K, Einstein D, Lee P, Pixley F, Wang Y, et al. Biology and action of colony--stimulating factor-1. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;46:4-10 pubmed
    ..Studies on several of these proteins, including protein tyrosine phosphates 1C, the c-cbl proto-oncogene product, and protein tyrosine phosphatase-phi are discussed. ..
  5. Jack G, Zhang L, Friedman A. M-CSF elevates c-Fos and phospho-C/EBPalpha(S21) via ERK whereas G-CSF stimulates SHP2 phosphorylation in marrow progenitors to contribute to myeloid lineage specification. Blood. 2009;114:2172-80 pubmed publisher
  6. Chihara T, Suzu S, Hassan R, Chutiwitoonchai N, Hiyoshi M, Motoyoshi K, et al. IL-34 and M-CSF share the receptor Fms but are not identical in biological activity and signal activation. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1917-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that macrophage phenotype and function are differentially regulated even at the level of the single receptor, Fms. ..
  7. Li J, Chen K, Zhu L, Pollard J. Conditional deletion of the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (c-fms proto-oncogene) in mice. Genesis. 2006;44:328-35 pubmed
    ..Null mutations in either the ligand or the receptor genes result in a severe osteopetrosis as well as a number of other phenotypes, including reproductive defects and perturbations in organ development...
  8. Nowicki A, Szenajch J, Ostrowska G, Wojtowicz A, Wojtowicz K, Kruszewski A, et al. Impaired tumor growth in colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)-deficient, macrophage-deficient op/op mouse: evidence for a role of CSF-1-dependent macrophages in formation of tumor stroma. Int J Cancer. 1996;65:112-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the CSF-1-dependent macrophage subpopulation missing in op/op mice plays a primary role in supporting tumor stroma formation and tumor vascularization in murine LLC tumors. ..
  9. Michaelson M, Bieri P, Mehler M, Xu H, Arezzo J, Pollard J, et al. CSF-1 deficiency in mice results in abnormal brain development. Development. 1996;122:2661-72 pubmed
    ..The effects of CSF-1 on cultured embryonic neural cells, the developmentally appropriate expression of CSF-1 and its receptor, and the neurological abnormalities in op/op mice suggest a role for CSF-1 in brain development. ..
  10. Sapi E, Kacinski B. The role of CSF-1 in normal and neoplastic breast physiology. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999;220:1-8 pubmed
  11. Arceci R, Shanahan F, Stanley E, Pollard J. Temporal expression and location of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and its receptor in the female reproductive tract are consistent with CSF-1-regulated placental development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:8818-22 pubmed
  12. Luo J, Elwood F, Britschgi M, Villeda S, Zhang H, Ding Z, et al. Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signaling in injured neurons facilitates protection and survival. J Exp Med. 2013;210:157-72 pubmed publisher
    Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34) are functional ligands of the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) and thus are key regulators of the monocyte/macrophage lineage...
  13. Sasaki A, Yokoo H, Naito M, Kaizu C, Shultz L, Nakazato Y. Effects of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor deficiency on the maturation of microglia and brain macrophages and on their expression of scavenger receptor. Neuropathology. 2000;20:134-42 pubmed
    ..The study also suggests that M-CSF affects the maturation of perivascular cells at the ultrastructural level. ..
  14. Bender A, Collier L, Rodriguez F, Tieu C, Larson J, Halder C, et al. Sleeping beauty-mediated somatic mutagenesis implicates CSF1 in the formation of high-grade astrocytomas. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3557-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Insertions in the growth factor gene Csf1 were found in 13 of the 21 tumors (62%), clustered in introns 5 and 8...
  15. Van Wesenbeeck L, Odgren P, MacKay C, D ANGELO M, Safadi F, Popoff S, et al. The osteopetrotic mutation toothless (tl) is a loss-of-function frameshift mutation in the rat Csf1 gene: Evidence of a crucial role for CSF-1 in osteoclastogenesis and endochondral ossification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14303-8 pubmed
    ..The failure to resorb bone produces severe, unrelenting osteopetrosis, with a highly sclerotic skeleton, lack of marrow spaces, failure of tooth eruption, and other pathologies...
  16. Cohen P, Chisholm O, Arceci R, Stanley E, Pollard J. Absence of colony-stimulating factor-1 in osteopetrotic (csfmop/csfmop) mice results in male fertility defects. Biol Reprod. 1996;55:310-7 pubmed
  17. Banaei Bouchareb L, Gouon Evans V, Samara Boustani D, Castellotti M, Czernichow P, Pollard J, et al. Insulin cell mass is altered in Csf1op/Csf1op macrophage-deficient mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:359-67 pubmed
    ..5 days). F4/80-positive macrophages were found in pancreases recovered from Csf1op/Csf1+ (op/+) mice but were extremely scarce or absent in pancreas recovered from op/op ones at all studied time-points...
  18. Blevins G, Fedoroff S. Microglia in colony-stimulating factor 1-deficient op/op mice. J Neurosci Res. 1995;40:535-44 pubmed
    Mice that are homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation osteopetrosis (op) suffer from a general skeletal sclerosis, and the numbers of macrophages in various tissues are significantly decreased...
  19. Le Meur Y, Tesch G, Hill P, Mu W, Foti R, Nikolic Paterson D, et al. Macrophage accumulation at a site of renal inflammation is dependent on the M-CSF/c-fms pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:530-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, M-CSF/c-fms signaling plays a key role in macrophage accumulation during tissue injury. ..
  20. Hamilton J. CSF-1 signal transduction. J Leukoc Biol. 1997;62:145-55 pubmed
    ..The relevance of any potentially important molecular signaling pathway activated by CSF-1 in cells in vitro will ultimately have to be related to the functions of monocytes/macrophages in vivo. ..
  21. Cohen P, Hardy M, Pollard J. Colony-stimulating factor-1 plays a major role in the development of reproductive function in male mice. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:1636-50 pubmed
    ..Mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis mutation (csfm[op]) lack CSF-1 and, consequently, have depleted macrophage numbers...
  22. Takahashi K, Naito M, Shultz L. Differentiation of epidermal Langerhans cells in macrophage colony-stimulating-factor-deficient mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis (op) mutation. J Invest Dermatol. 1992;99:46S-47S pubmed
    The osteopetrosis (op) mutation is within the gene for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)...
  23. Lin E, Nguyen A, Russell R, Pollard J. Colony-stimulating factor 1 promotes progression of mammary tumors to malignancy. J Exp Med. 2001;193:727-40 pubmed
    ..a transgenic mouse susceptible to mammary cancer with mice containing a recessive null mutation in the CSF-1 gene (Csf1(op)) and followed tumor progression in wild-type and null mutant mice...
  24. Witmer Pack M, Hughes D, Schuler G, Lawson L, McWilliam A, Inaba K, et al. Identification of macrophages and dendritic cells in the osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse. J Cell Sci. 1993;104 ( Pt 4):1021-9 pubmed
    ..Prior work had shown that osteopetrosis is associated with a lack of osteoclasts, phagocytic cells required for remodelling in bone...
  25. Coniglio S, Eugenin E, Dobrenis K, Stanley E, West B, Symons M, et al. Microglial stimulation of glioblastoma invasion involves epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) signaling. Mol Med. 2012;18:519-27 pubmed publisher
  26. Liu H, Leo C, Chen X, Wong B, Williams L, Lin H, et al. The mechanism of shared but distinct CSF-1R signaling by the non-homologous cytokines IL-34 and CSF-1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:938-45 pubmed publisher
    ..negative cooperativity of CSF-1 at the receptor-recognition sites, in combination with the difference in hydrophobicity which dictates a more stable IL-34:CSF-1R complex compared to the CSF-1:CSF-1R complex. ..
  27. Pollard J, Hunt J, Wiktor Jedrzejczak W, Stanley E. A pregnancy defect in the osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse demonstrates the requirement for CSF-1 in female fertility. Dev Biol. 1991;148:273-83 pubmed
    ..Further studies in the osteopetrotic mouse will be useful in delineating those functions required for pregnancy that are regulated by CSF-1. ..
  28. Mikkelsen H, Thuneberg L. Op/op mice defective in production of functional colony-stimulating factor-1 lack macrophages in muscularis externa of the small intestine. Cell Tissue Res. 1999;295:485-93 pubmed
    ..in the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) gene, which results in the absence of certain macrophages and in osteopetrosis, following a lack of osteoclasts...
  29. Murase S, Hayashi Y. Expression pattern and neurotrophic role of the c-fms proto-oncogene M-CSF receptor in rodent Purkinje cells. J Neurosci. 1998;18:10481-92 pubmed
    ..Therefore, c-fms is considered to be a new developmental marker for Purkinje cells. ..
  30. Lacey D, Achuthan A, Fleetwood A, Dinh H, Roiniotis J, Scholz G, et al. Defining GM-CSF- and macrophage-CSF-dependent macrophage responses by in vitro models. J Immunol. 2012;188:5752-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Care needs to be exercised when drawing definitive conclusions from a particular in vitro system about the roles of GM-CSF and M-CSF in macrophage lineage biology. ..
  31. Gouon Evans V, Rothenberg M, Pollard J. Postnatal mammary gland development requires macrophages and eosinophils. Development. 2000;127:2269-82 pubmed
    ..Using mice homozygous for a null mutation in the gene for CSF1 (Csfm(op)/Csfm(op)), the major growth factor for macrophages, we show that in the absence of CSF1, the population of ..
  32. Hibbs M, Quilici C, Kountouri N, Seymour J, Armes J, Burgess A, et al. Mice lacking three myeloid colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF, GM-CSF, and M-CSF) still produce macrophages and granulocytes and mount an inflammatory response in a sterile model of peritonitis. J Immunol. 2007;178:6435-43 pubmed
    ..Due to severe osteopetrosis, G-/-GM-/-M-/- mice show diminished numbers of myeloid cells, myeloid progenitors, and B lymphocytes in the ..
  33. Baran C, Opalek J, McMaken S, Newland C, O Brien J, Hunter M, et al. Important roles for macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CC chemokine ligand 2, and mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176:78-89 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that M-CSF contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in mice and in patients with IPF through the involvement of mononuclear phagocytes and CCL2 production. ..
  34. Ginhoux F, Tacke F, Angeli V, Bogunovic M, Loubeau M, Dai X, et al. Langerhans cells arise from monocytes in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:265-73 pubmed
    ..These results identify Gr-1(hi) monocytes as the direct precursors for LCs in vivo and establish the importance of the CSF-1 receptor in this process. ..
  35. Pull S, Doherty J, Mills J, Gordon J, Stappenbeck T. Activated macrophages are an adaptive element of the colonic epithelial progenitor niche necessary for regenerative responses to injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:99-104 pubmed
    ..Studies of B6 Csf1(op/op) (lacking macrophages) mice, Rag1(-/-) mice, and wild-type mice treated with neutrophil-specific Gr1 mAbs, ..
  36. Rathinam C, Poueymirou W, Rojas J, Murphy A, Valenzuela D, Yancopoulos G, et al. Efficient differentiation and function of human macrophages in humanized CSF-1 mice. Blood. 2011;118:3119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Insertion of human CSF1 into the corresponding mouse locus of Balb/c Rag2(-/-) ?c(-/-) mice through VELOCIGENE technology resulted in ..
  37. Wiktor Jedrzejczak W, Ahmed A, Szczylik C, Skelly R. Hematological characterization of congenital osteopetrosis in op/op mouse. Possible mechanism for abnormal macrophage differentiation. J Exp Med. 1982;156:1516-27 pubmed
  38. Ladner M, Martin G, Noble J, Wittman V, Warren M, McGrogan M, et al. cDNA cloning and expression of murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor from L929 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:6706-10 pubmed
    ..Both clones can be expressed in COS cells and the recombinant protein is active in a mouse bone marrow colony assay. ..
  39. Erblich B, Zhu L, Etgen A, Dobrenis K, Pollard J. Absence of colony stimulation factor-1 receptor results in loss of microglia, disrupted brain development and olfactory deficits. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26317 pubmed publisher
    ..survive to adulthood and therefore to study the role of CSF-1R in olfaction we used the viable null mutants in the Csf1 (Csf1(op)) gene that encodes one of the two known CSF-1R ligands...
  40. Ryan G, Dai X, Dominguez M, Tong W, Chuan F, Chisholm O, et al. Rescue of the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)-nullizygous mouse (Csf1(op)/Csf1(op)) phenotype with a CSF-1 transgene and identification of sites of local CSF-1 synthesis. Blood. 2001;98:74-84 pubmed
    ..To investigate tissue CSF-1 regulation, CSF-1-null Csf1(op)/Csf1(op) mice expressing transgenes encoding the full-length membrane-spanning CSF-1 precursor driven by 3...
  41. Berezovskaya O, Maysinger D, Fedoroff S. The hematopoietic cytokine, colony-stimulating factor 1, is also a growth factor in the CNS: congenital absence of CSF-1 in mice results in abnormal microglial response and increased neuron vulnerability to injury. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1995;13:285-99 pubmed
    ..We report some indications that CSF-1, in addition to modulation of microglia, may also act directly on neurons. ..
  42. Wiktor Jedrzejczak W, Ratajczak M, Ptasznik A, Sell K, Ahmed Ansari A, Ostertag W. CSF-1 deficiency in the op/op mouse has differential effects on macrophage populations and differentiation stages. Exp Hematol. 1992;20:1004-10 pubmed
    b>Osteopetrosis and the absence of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) in op/op mice are associated with decreased cellularity of the bone marrow (to one tenth of the normal), a very significant reduction in the number of cells recovered ..
  43. Cohen P, Zhu L, Pollard J. Absence of colony stimulating factor-1 in osteopetrotic (csfmop/csfmop) mice disrupts estrous cycles and ovulation. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:110-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the major effect of CSF-1 on female reproductive function is on the frequency and rate of ovulation, indicating a major role for this growth factor in regulating follicular development and ovulation. ..
  44. Irvine K, Burns C, Wilks A, Su S, Hume D, Sweet M. A CSF-1 receptor kinase inhibitor targets effector functions and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production from murine macrophage populations. FASEB J. 2006;20:1921-3 pubmed
    ..CSF-1R inhibitors such as CYC10268 provide a powerful tool to dissect the role of the CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling system in a range of biological systems and have potential for a number of therapeutic applications. ..
  45. Lin E, Li J, Gnatovskiy L, Deng Y, Zhu L, Grzesik D, et al. Macrophages regulate the angiogenic switch in a mouse model of breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11238-46 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this study shows that tumor-associated macrophages play a key role in promoting tumor angiogenesis, an essential step in the tumor progression to malignancy. ..
  46. Wyckoff J, Wang Y, Lin E, Li J, Goswami S, Stanley E, et al. Direct visualization of macrophage-assisted tumor cell intravasation in mammary tumors. Cancer Res. 2007;67:2649-56 pubmed
    ..These results show that the interaction between macrophages and tumor cells lying in close proximity defines a microenvironment that is directly involved in the intravasation of cancer cells in mammary tumors. ..
  47. Fleetwood A, Lawrence T, Hamilton J, Cook A. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and macrophage CSF-dependent macrophage phenotypes display differences in cytokine profiles and transcription factor activities: implications for CSF blockade in inflammation. J Immunol. 2007;178:5245-52 pubmed
  48. Marks S, Lane P. Osteopetrosis, a new recessive skeletal mutation on chromosome 12 of the mouse. J Hered. 1976;67:11-18 pubmed
    b>Osteopetrosis (op/op) is a new mutation in the mouse that is transmitted as an autosomal recessive linked with variant waddler (Va) on chromosome 12...
  49. Yoshida H, Hayashi S, Kunisada T, Ogawa M, Okamura H, Sudo T, et al. The murine mutation osteopetrosis is in the coding region of the macrophage colony stimulating factor gene. Nature. 1990;345:442-4 pubmed
    Mice homozygous for the recessive mutation osteopetrosis (op) on chromosome 3 have a restricted capacity for bone remodelling, and are severely deficient in mature macrophages and osteoclasts...
  50. El Chartouni C, Benner C, Eigner M, Lichtinger M, Rehli M. Transcriptional effects of colony-stimulating factor-1 in mouse macrophages. Immunobiology. 2010;215:466-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These motifs showed a strong positional preference on target promoters at -60, -30 and 0 bp upstream of the transcription start site, and define the common promoter structure of CSF-1-responsive genes. ..
  51. Kaku M, Tsutsui K, Motokawa M, Kawata T, Fujita T, Kohno S, et al. Amyloid beta protein deposition and neuron loss in osteopetrotic (op/op) mice. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2003;12:104-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Abeta deposition influence neuron loss and it may be suspected that expression of SPs may be in part regulated by microglia under physiological conditions...
  52. Nandi S, Gokhan S, Dai X, Wei S, Enikolopov G, Lin H, et al. The CSF-1 receptor ligands IL-34 and CSF-1 exhibit distinct developmental brain expression patterns and regulate neural progenitor cell maintenance and maturation. Dev Biol. 2012;367:100-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our results also indicate novel roles for the CSF-1R in the regulation of corticogenesis. ..
  53. Pollard J, Dominguez M, Mocci S, Cohen P, Stanley E. Effect of the colony-stimulating factor-1 null mutation, osteopetrotic (csfm(op)), on the distribution of macrophages in the male mouse reproductive tract. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:1290-300 pubmed
    ..Mice homozygous for a null mutation (csfm(op)) in the gene for the mononuclear phagocytic growth factor colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) have a ..
  54. Raivich G, Moreno Flores M, Moller J, Kreutzberg G. Inhibition of posttraumatic microglial proliferation in a genetic model of macrophage colony-stimulating factor deficiency in the mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 1994;6:1615-8 pubmed
    ..osteopetrotic (op/op) mice, with a genetic deficiency in biologically active macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF)...
  55. Shibata Y, Zsengeller Z, Otake K, Palaniyar N, Trapnell B. Alveolar macrophage deficiency in osteopetrotic mice deficient in macrophage colony-stimulating factor is spontaneously corrected with age and associated with matrix metalloproteinase expression and emphysema. Blood. 2001;98:2845-52 pubmed
    ..These data show that the AM deficiency observed in young Op/Op mice is spontaneously corrected with age and is associated with increased lung levels of IL-3, spontaneous MMP expression by AMs, and destruction of lung tissue. ..
  56. Huynh D, Dai X, Nandi S, Lightowler S, Trivett M, Chan C, et al. Colony stimulating factor-1 dependence of paneth cell development in the mouse small intestine. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:136-44, 144.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) in PC development...
  57. Oguma K, Oshima H, Aoki M, Uchio R, Naka K, Nakamura S, et al. Activated macrophages promote Wnt signalling through tumour necrosis factor-alpha in gastric tumour cells. EMBO J. 2008;27:1671-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that macrophage-derived TNF-alpha promotes Wnt/beta-catenin signalling through inhibition of GSK3beta, which may contribute to tumour development in the gastric mucosa. ..
  58. Dai X, Ryan G, Hapel A, Dominguez M, Russell R, Kapp S, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene results in osteopetrosis, mononuclear phagocyte deficiency, increased primitive progenitor cell frequencies, and reproductive defects. Blood. 2002;99:111-20 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of Csf1(-)/Csf1r(-) mice closely resembled the phenotype of CSF-1-nullizygous (Csf1(op)/Csf1(op)) mice, including the ..
  59. Guleria I, Pollard J. Aberrant macrophage and neutrophil population dynamics and impaired Th1 response to Listeria monocytogenes in colony-stimulating factor 1-deficient mice. Infect Immun. 2001;69:1795-807 pubmed
    ..Using mice homozygous for a null mutation (Csf1(op)) in the gene for the mononuclear phagocytic growth factor colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), we have ..
  60. Nagahama S, Cunningham M, Lee M, Byers M. Normal development of dental innervation and nerve/tissue interactions in the colony-stimulating factor-1 deficient osteopetrotic mouse. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:52-9 pubmed
    ..This study shows that op/op mice develop normal innervation in dental tissues and that dental nerve development proceeds independently of bone abnormalities and root failure in this animal. ..
  61. Cecchini M, Dominguez M, Mocci S, Wetterwald A, Felix R, Fleisch H, et al. Role of colony stimulating factor-1 in the establishment and regulation of tissue macrophages during postnatal development of the mouse. Development. 1994;120:1357-72 pubmed
    ..Macrophages involved in inflammatory and immune (pathological) responses appear to be dependent on other factors for their ontogenesis and function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  62. Wiktor Jedrzejczak W, Bartocci A, Ferrante A, Ahmed Ansari A, Sell K, Pollard J, et al. Total absence of colony-stimulating factor 1 in the macrophage-deficient osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4828-32 pubmed
    Osteopetrotic (op/op) mutant mice suffer from congenital osteopetrosis due to a severe deficiency of osteoclasts. Furthermore, the total number of mononuclear phagocytes is extremely low in affected mice...
  63. Amemiya H, Kono H, Fujii H. Liver regeneration is impaired in macrophage colony stimulating factor deficient mice after partial hepatectomy: the role of M-CSF-induced macrophages. J Surg Res. 2011;165:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, M-CSF-induced hepatic macrophages play an important role in liver regeneration after PH. ..
  64. Dai X, Zong X, Sylvestre V, Stanley E. Incomplete restoration of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) function in CSF-1-deficient Csf1op/Csf1op mice by transgenic expression of cell surface CSF-1. Blood. 2004;103:1114-23 pubmed
    ..Residual osteopetrosis, significantly delayed trabecular bone resorption in the subepiphyseal region of the long bone, and incomplete ..
  65. Pyonteck S, Gadea B, Wang H, Gocheva V, Hunter K, Tang L, et al. Deficiency of the macrophage growth factor CSF-1 disrupts pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor development. Oncogene. 2012;31:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..crossed the RIP1-Tag2 (RT2) mouse model of pancreatic islet cancer to colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-deficient Csf1(op/op) mice, which have reduced numbers of tissue macrophages...
  66. Tagliani E, Shi C, Nancy P, Tay C, Pamer E, Erlebacher A. Coordinate regulation of tissue macrophage and dendritic cell population dynamics by CSF-1. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1901-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide cellular and molecular insight into the regulation of M? tissue densities under noninflammatory conditions and reveal a central role for CSF-1 in the coordination of M? and DC homeostasis. ..
  67. Sherr C, Rettenmier C, Sacca R, Roussel M, Look A, Stanley E. The c-fms proto-oncogene product is related to the receptor for the mononuclear phagocyte growth factor, CSF-1. Cell. 1985;41:665-76 pubmed
    ..The murine c-fms proto-oncogene product and the CSF-1 receptor are therefore related, and possibly identical, molecules. ..