Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Cryge
Description: crystallin, gamma E
Alias: Cryg-2, Cryg-6, DGcry-2, Elo, gamma-crystallin E, eye lens obsolescence, gamma-E-crystallin
- Nishiguchi S, Wood H, Kondoh H, Lovell Badge R, Episkopou V. Sox1 directly regulates the gamma-crystallin genes and is essential for lens development in mice. Genes Dev. 1998;12:776-81 pubmed..It appears that the direct interaction of the SOX1 protein with a promoter element conserved in all gamma-crystallin genes is responsible for their expression. ..
- Brakenhoff R, Henskens H, van Rossum M, Lubsen N, Schoenmakers J. Activation of the gamma E-crystallin pseudogene in the human hereditary Coppock-like cataract. Hum Mol Genet. 1994;3:279-83 pubmed..Reactivation of the psi gamma E gene and concomitant overexpression of the gamma-crystallin fragment could be the cause of the Coppock-like cataract. ..
- Graw J, Bors W, Gopinath P, Merkle S, Michel C, Reitmeir P, et al. Characterization of Cat-2t, a radiation-induced dominant cataract mutation in mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31:1353-61 pubmed..In contrast, the variations concerning vimentin and transglutaminase might be a biochemical indication of the changed development. Possible similarities to other dominantly expressed murine cataract mutants are discussed. ..
- Gonzalez M, Ruggiero F, Chang Q, Shi Y, Rich M, Kraner S, et al. Disruption of Trkb-mediated signaling induces disassembly of postsynaptic receptor clusters at neuromuscular junctions. Neuron. 1999;24:567-83 pubmed..These results demonstrate a novel role for neurotrophin signaling through TrkB receptors on muscle fibers in the ongoing maintenance of postsynaptic AChR regions. ..
- Quinlan P, Oda S, Breitman M, Tsui L. The mouse eye lens obsolescence (Elo) mutant: studies on crystallin gene expression and linkage analysis between the mutant locus and the gamma-crystallin genes. Genes Dev. 1987;1:637-44 pubmedPrevious studies showed that the mouse Elo (eye lens obsolescence) mutation is located on chromosome 1, at a site near the Len-1 locus, which is defined by a set of polymorphic gamma-crystallin proteins...
- Watanabe K, Fujisawa H, Oda S, Kameyama Y. Organ culture and immunohistochemistry of the genetically malformed lens, in eye lens obsolescence, Elo, of the mouse. Exp Eye Res. 1980;31:683-9 pubmed
- Lok S, Breitman M, Chepelinsky A, Piatigorsky J, Gold R, Tsui L. Lens-specific promoter activity of a mouse gamma-crystallin gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1985;5:2221-30 pubmed
- Sandilands A, Hutcheson A, Long H, Prescott A, Vrensen G, Löster J, et al. Altered aggregation properties of mutant gamma-crystallins cause inherited cataract. EMBO J. 2002;21:6005-14 pubmed..The mutant gamma-crystallins initially disrupt nuclear function, but then this progresses to a full cataract phenotype. ..
- Everett C, Glenister P, Taylor D, Lyon M, Kratochvilova Loester J, Favor J. Mapping of six dominant cataract genes in the mouse. Genomics. 1994;20:429-34 pubmed..In addition, the previously known mutant eye lens obsolescence, Elo, maps to the same point...
- Klopp N, Favor J, Loster J, Lutz R, Neuhauser Klaus A, Prescott A, et al. Three murine cataract mutants (Cat2) are defective in different gamma-crystallin genes. Genomics. 1998;52:152-8 pubmed..is caused by a replacement of 11 bp by 4 bp in the third exon of Crygb, while a C-->G transversion in exon 3 of Cryge has been found for the Cryget (formerly Cat2(t)) mutation...
- Oda S, Watanabe K, Fujisawa H, Kameyama Y. Impaired development of lens fibers in genetic microphthalmia, eye lens obsolescence, Elo, of the mouse. Exp Eye Res. 1980;31:673-81 pubmed
- Wigle J, Chowdhury K, Gruss P, Oliver G. Prox1 function is crucial for mouse lens-fibre elongation. Nat Genet. 1999;21:318-22 pubmed..Our data provide evidence that the progression of terminal fibre differentiation and elongation is dependent on Prox1 activity during lens development. ..
- Graw J, Neuhäuser Klaus A, Klopp N, Selby P, Löster J, Favor J. Genetic and allelic heterogeneity of Cryg mutations in eight distinct forms of dominant cataract in the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:1202-13 pubmed..mutations lead to amino acid exchanges, two are due to premature stop codons, and one is a 10-bp deletion in the Cryge gene...
- Moseley A, Graw J, Delamere N. Altered Na,K-ATPase pattern in gamma-crystallin mutant mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:1517-9 pubmedNa,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity is elevated in the lenses of murine cataract Cryge(t) and Cryge(ns) mutant mice...
- Kratochvilova J, Favor J. Phenotypic characterization and genetic analysis of twenty dominant cataract mutations detected in offspring of irradiated male mice. Genet Res. 1988;52:125-34 pubmed
- Masaki S, Watanabe T. Linkage analysis of the mutation locus in the eye lens obsolescence (Elo) mouse. Genomics. 1989;5:259-63 pubmedTo map precisely the mutation locus of eye lens obsolescence (Elo) on mouse chromosome 1, subsequent linkage analysis was achieved using backcross mating between 129/SvSl-Elo (Elo/+) and 129/SvSl (+/+)...
- Graw J, Coban L, Liebstein A, Werner T. Murine gamma E-crystallin is distinct from murine gamma 2-crystallin. Gene. 1991;104:265-70 pubmed..There is no similar repeat structure in any other gamma-cry gene. No binding site for a common transcription factor could be detected among the 1100 bp of the 5'-region. ..
- Smith R, Hawes N, Chang B, Roderick T, Akeson E, Heckenlively J, et al. Lop12, a mutation in mouse Crygd causing lens opacity similar to human Coppock cataract. Genomics. 2000;63:314-20 pubmed..Lop12 is associated with a small nonrecombining segment that maps to mouse Chromosome 1 close to the eye lens obsolescence mutation (Cryge(Cat2-Elo)), a member of the gamma-crystallin gene cluster (Cryg)...
- Liu Y, Zacksenhaus E. E2F1 mediates ectopic proliferation and stage-specific p53-dependent apoptosis but not aberrant differentiation in the ocular lens of Rb deficient fetuses. Oncogene. 2000;19:6065-73 pubmed..Thus, inactivation of E2F1 reduces ectopic cell proliferation and stage-specific p53-dependent apoptosis but does not rescue the differentiation defects associated with loss of Rb during lens development. ..
- Cartier M, Breitman M, Tsui L. A frameshift mutation in the gamma E-crystallin gene of the Elo mouse. Nat Genet. 1992;2:42-5 pubmedThe murine Elo (eye lens obsolescence) mutation confers a dominant phenotype characterized by malformation of the eye lens...
- Graw J, Klopp N, Loster J, Soewarto D, Fuchs H, Becker Follmann J, et al. Ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation in mice leads to the expression of a novel protein in the eye and to dominant cataracts. Genetics. 2001;157:1313-20 pubmed..An A --> T mutation destroys the start codon of the Cryge gene in the mutants; this mutation was confirmed by the absence of a restriction site for NcoI in the ..
- Klopp N, Loster J, Graw J. Characterization of a 1-bp deletion in the gammaE-crystallin gene leading to a nuclear and zonular cataract in the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:183-7 pubmed..Because several members of this group have been confirmed as mutations in the gene cluster coding for gamma-crystallins (CRYG:), these genes were now tested as candidates for Cat2(nz)...
- Hirano M, Yamamoto A, Yoshimura N, Tokunaga T, Motohashi T, Ishizaki K, et al. Generation of structures formed by lens and retinal cells differentiating from embryonic stem cells. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:664-71 pubmed..The present culture system opens up the possibility of examining early stages of eye development and also of producing cells for use in cellular therapy for various diseases of the eye. ..
- Graw J, Favor J, Neuhauser Klaus A, Ehling U. Dominant cataract and recessive specific locus mutations in offspring of X-irradiated male mice. Mutat Res. 1986;159:47-54 pubmed..Two mutants had a statistically significantly reduced litter size and one mutant had a statistically significantly reduced penetrance. ..
- Graw J, Kratochvilova J, Löbke A, Reitmeir P, Schaffer E, Wulff A. Characterization of Scat (suture cataract), a dominant cataract mutation in mice. Exp Eye Res. 1989;49:469-77 pubmed..The genetical, morphological or biochemical data suggest that the effect of the Scat mutation is distinct from other described cataract mutations in mice. ..
- Yoshiki A, Hanazono M, Oda S, Wakasugi N, Sakakura T, Kusakabe M. Developmental analysis of the eye lens obsolescence (Elo) gene in the mouse: cell proliferation and Elo gene expression in the aggregation chimera. Development. 1991;113:1293-304 pubmedThis study investigates the primary effect of the eye lens obsolescence (Elo) gene of the mouse...
- Goring D, Breitman M, Tsui L. Temporal regulation of six crystallin transcripts during mouse lens development. Exp Eye Res. 1992;54:785-95 pubmed..The utility of the PCR technique in studying the relative abundance of steady-state gamma-crystallin mRNAs was also investigated. ..
- Kratochvilova J, Favor J. Allelism tests of 15 dominant cataract mutations in mice. Genet Res. 1992;59:199-203 pubmed..The biomicroscopic examination of the eyes showed that phenotypically similar as well as very distinct cataract mutations can be alleles of the same gene. Conversely, phenotypically similar mutations were shown to be non-allelic. ..
- Sato H, Sakai Y, Koiwai O, Watanabe T. Mapping of the mouse bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase gene (Gnt-1) to chromosome 1 by restriction fragment length variations. Biochem Genet. 1992;30:347-52 pubmed..From linkage analyses of the three-point cross test using Elo and En-1 as marker genes, the bilirubin UDPGT gene was mapped at position 37 on chromosome 1...
- Graw J, Neuhäuser Klaus A, Löster J, Klopp N, Favor J. Ethylnitrosourea-induced base pair substitution affects splicing of the mouse gammaE-crystallin encoding gene leading to the expression of a hybrid protein and to a cataract. Genetics. 2002;161:1633-40 pubmed..An A --> G exchange in the middle of intron 1 of the Cryge gene was found as the only alteration cosegregating with the cataractous phenotype...
- Pietrowski D, Durante M, Liebstein A, Schmitt John T, Werner T, Graw J. Alpha-crystallins are involved in specific interactions with the murine gamma D/E/F-crystallin-encoding gene. Gene. 1994;144:171-8 pubmed..The results reported here point to a novel function of alpha-Cry besides the structural properties in the lens. ..
- Nag N, Peterson K, Wyatt K, Hess S, Ray S, Favor J, et al. Endogenous retroviral insertion in Cryge in the mouse No3 cataract mutant. Genomics. 2007;89:512-20 pubmed..However, DNA walking identified a murine endogenous retrovirus (IAPLTR1: ERVK) insertion in exon 3 of Cryge, disrupting the coding sequence for gammaE-crystallin...
- Hrabe de Angelis M, Flaswinkel H, Fuchs H, Rathkolb B, Soewarto D, Marschall S, et al. Genome-wide, large-scale production of mutant mice by ENU mutagenesis. Nat Genet. 2000;25:444-7 pubmed..Our mutant lines are freely accessible to non-commercial users (for information, see http://www.gsf.de/ieg/groups/enu-mouse.html). ..
- Takeuchi T, Kudo T, Ogata K, Hamada M, Nakamura M, Kito K, et al. Neither MafA/L-Maf nor MafB is essential for lens development in mice. Genes Cells. 2009;14:941-7 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that c-Maf alone is essential for lens development, and that MafA/L-Maf and MafB are dispensable in mice. ..
- Kawauchi S, Takahashi S, Nakajima O, Ogino H, Morita M, Nishizawa M, et al. Regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation by transcription factor c-Maf. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19254-60 pubmed..The expression of crystallin genes was severely impaired in the c-maf-null mutant mouse lens. These results demonstrate that c-Maf is an indispensable regulator of lens differentiation during murine development. ..
- Loster J, Pretsch W, Sandulache R, Schmitt John T, Lyon M, Graw J. Close linkage of the dominant cataract mutations (Cat-2) with Idh-1 and cryge on mouse chromosome 1. Genomics. 1994;23:240-2 pubmed
- Breitman M, Lok S, Wistow G, Piatigorsky J, Treton J, Gold R, et al. Gamma-crystallin family of the mouse lens: structural and evolutionary relationships. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:7762-6 pubmed..The significance of these differences in terms of the structure and function of the gamma-crystallins in the mouse lens is discussed. ..
- Campos Y, Qiu X, Zanoteli E, Moshiach S, Vergani N, Bongiovanni A, et al. Ozz-E3 ubiquitin ligase targets sarcomeric embryonic myosin heavy chain during muscle development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9866 pubmed publisher..Our findings identify Ozz-E3 as the ubiquitin ligase complex that interacts with and regulates myosin within its fully assembled cytoskeletal structure. ..
- Yoshimoto A, Saigou Y, Higashi Y, Kondoh H. Regulation of ocular lens development by Smad-interacting protein 1 involving Foxe3 activation. Development. 2005;132:4437-48 pubmed..26 kb promoter, and are separate from lens-specific regulation. This is the first demonstration of the significance of Smad interaction in modulating Sip1 activity. ..
- Min J, Zhang Y, Moskophidis D, Mivechi N. Unique contribution of heat shock transcription factor 4 in ocular lens development and fiber cell differentiation. Genesis. 2004;40:205-17 pubmed..Thus, HSF4 fulfills a central role in controlling spatial and temporal expression of genes critical for correct development and function of the lens. ..
- Fujimoto M, Izu H, Seki K, Fukuda K, Nishida T, Yamada S, et al. HSF4 is required for normal cell growth and differentiation during mouse lens development. EMBO J. 2004;23:4297-306 pubmed
- Lengler J, Krausz E, Tomarev S, Prescott A, Quinlan R, Graw J. Antagonistic action of Six3 and Prox1 at the gamma-crystallin promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:515-26 pubmed..Their promoters constitute excellent models to analyse tissue-specific gene expression. We investigated murine CRYGE/f promoters of different length in lens epithelial cell lines...
- Favor J, Neuhauser Klaus A. Saturation mutagenesis for dominant eye morphological defects in the mouse Mus musculus. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:520-5 pubmed
- Graw J. Cataract mutations and lens development. Prog Retin Eye Res. 1999;18:235-67 pubmed..These data indicate a decreasing effect of the lens for the regulation of eye development during embryogenesis. ..
- Kratochvilova J. Dominant cataract mutations detected in offspring of gamma-irradiated male mice. J Hered. 1981;72:302-7 pubmed..The rate of dominant mutations affecting an organ system in mice is of main importance for the quantification of the overall genetic damage due to dominant mutations in man. ..