Gene Symbol: Crygd
Description: crystallin, gamma D
Alias: Aey4, Cryg-1, DGcry-1, Lop12, gamma-crystallin D, gamma-D-crystallin, gamma-crystallin 1, lens opacity 12
Species: mouse
Products:     Crygd

Top Publications

  1. Shinohara T, Robinson E, Appella E, Piatigorsky J. Multiple gamma-crystallins of the mouse lens: fractionation of mRNAs by cDNA cloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:2783-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that there are at least four similar gamma-crystallin mRNAs and suggest (but do not establish) the existence of a closely related family of gamma-crystallin genes. ..
  2. Lengler J, Krausz E, Tomarev S, Prescott A, Quinlan R, Graw J. Antagonistic action of Six3 and Prox1 at the gamma-crystallin promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:515-26 pubmed
    ..Computer analysis predicts homeodomain and paired-domain binding sites for all rodent CRYGD/e/f core promoters...
  3. Xie Q, Cvekl A. The orchestration of mammalian tissue morphogenesis through a series of coherent feed-forward loops. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43259-71 pubmed publisher
  4. Maeda A, Moriguchi T, Hamada M, Kusakabe M, Fujioka Y, Nakano T, et al. Transcription factor GATA-3 is essential for lens development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these observations suggest that GATA-3 is essential for lens cells differentiation and proper cell cycle control. ..
  5. Graw J, Löster J, Puk O, Münster D, Haubst N, Soewarto D, et al. Three novel Pax6 alleles in the mouse leading to the same small-eye phenotype caused by different consequences at target promoters. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:4671-83 pubmed
  6. Yoshimoto A, Saigou Y, Higashi Y, Kondoh H. Regulation of ocular lens development by Smad-interacting protein 1 involving Foxe3 activation. Development. 2005;132:4437-48 pubmed
    ..26 kb promoter, and are separate from lens-specific regulation. This is the first demonstration of the significance of Smad interaction in modulating Sip1 activity. ..
  7. Min J, Zhang Y, Moskophidis D, Mivechi N. Unique contribution of heat shock transcription factor 4 in ocular lens development and fiber cell differentiation. Genesis. 2004;40:205-17 pubmed
    ..Thus, HSF4 fulfills a central role in controlling spatial and temporal expression of genes critical for correct development and function of the lens. ..
  8. Fujimoto M, Izu H, Seki K, Fukuda K, Nishida T, Yamada S, et al. HSF4 is required for normal cell growth and differentiation during mouse lens development. EMBO J. 2004;23:4297-306 pubmed
  9. Kim S, Cheong C, Sohn Y, Goo Y, Oh W, Park J, et al. Multiple developmental defects derived from impaired recruitment of ASC-2 to nuclear receptors in mice: implication for posterior lenticonus with cataract. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8409-14 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a novel insight into the molecular and histopathological mechanism of posterior lenticonus with cataract and attest to the importance of ASC-2 as a pivotal transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors in vivo...

More Information


  1. Graw J, Löster J, Soewarto D, Fuchs H, Reis A, Wolf E, et al. V76D mutation in a conserved gD-crystallin region leads to dominant cataracts in mice. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:452-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, a T-->A exchange in exon 2 of the gammaD-crystallin encoding gene (symbol: Crygd) was demonstrated to be causative for the cataract phenotype; this particular mutation is, therefore, referred to ..
  2. Kawauchi S, Takahashi S, Nakajima O, Ogino H, Morita M, Nishizawa M, et al. Regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation by transcription factor c-Maf. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19254-60 pubmed
    ..The expression of crystallin genes was severely impaired in the c-maf-null mutant mouse lens. These results demonstrate that c-Maf is an indispensable regulator of lens differentiation during murine development. ..
  3. Murer Orlando M, Paterson R, Lok S, Tsui L, Breitman M. Differential regulation of gamma-crystallin genes during mouse lens development. Dev Biol. 1987;119:260-7 pubmed
    ..This complex pattern of gene regulation presumably accounts for one of the mechanisms determining the spatial distribution of different gamma-crystallins within the lens. ..
  4. Santhiya S, Abd alla S, Loster J, Graw J. Reduced levels of gamma-crystallin transcripts during embryonic development of murine Cat2nop mutant lenses. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1995;233:795-800 pubmed
    ..This result represents an additional line of argument that the gamma-crystallin genes may be the target of the mutation in the Cat2 mice. ..
  5. Adkison L, Skow L, Thomas T, Petrash M, Womack J. Somatic cell mapping and restriction fragment analysis of bovine genes for fibronectin and gamma crystallin. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1988;47:155-9 pubmed
  6. Pietrowski D, Durante M, Liebstein A, Schmitt John T, Werner T, Graw J. Alpha-crystallins are involved in specific interactions with the murine gamma D/E/F-crystallin-encoding gene. Gene. 1994;144:171-8 pubmed
    ..The results reported here point to a novel function of alpha-Cry besides the structural properties in the lens. ..
  7. Chen Q, Ash J, Branton P, Fromm L, Overbeek P. Inhibition of crystallin expression and induction of apoptosis by lens-specific E1A expression in transgenic mice. Oncogene. 2002;21:1028-37 pubmed
  8. Breitman M, Lok S, Wistow G, Piatigorsky J, Treton J, Gold R, et al. Gamma-crystallin family of the mouse lens: structural and evolutionary relationships. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:7762-6 pubmed
    ..The significance of these differences in terms of the structure and function of the gamma-crystallins in the mouse lens is discussed. ..
  9. Wang K, Cheng C, Li L, Liu H, Huang Q, Xia C, et al. GammaD-crystallin associated protein aggregation and lens fiber cell denucleation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3719-28 pubmed
    ..This work also suggests that gammaD-crystallin is one of the crucial components for the formation of cold cataracts in vivo. ..
  10. Puk O, Löster J, Dalke C, Soewarto D, Fuchs H, Budde B, et al. Mutation in a novel connexin-like gene (Gjf1) in the mouse affects early lens development and causes a variable small-eye phenotype. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1525-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mutants, the expression pattern of Pax6, Prox1, Six3, and Crygd are modified, but not the pattern of Pax2...
  11. Sandilands A, Hutcheson A, Long H, Prescott A, Vrensen G, Löster J, et al. Altered aggregation properties of mutant gamma-crystallins cause inherited cataract. EMBO J. 2002;21:6005-14 pubmed
    ..The mutant gamma-crystallins initially disrupt nuclear function, but then this progresses to a full cataract phenotype. ..
  12. Liu Y, Zacksenhaus E. E2F1 mediates ectopic proliferation and stage-specific p53-dependent apoptosis but not aberrant differentiation in the ocular lens of Rb deficient fetuses. Oncogene. 2000;19:6065-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, inactivation of E2F1 reduces ectopic cell proliferation and stage-specific p53-dependent apoptosis but does not rescue the differentiation defects associated with loss of Rb during lens development. ..
  13. Goring D, Breitman M, Tsui L. Temporal regulation of six crystallin transcripts during mouse lens development. Exp Eye Res. 1992;54:785-95 pubmed
    ..The utility of the PCR technique in studying the relative abundance of steady-state gamma-crystallin mRNAs was also investigated. ..
  14. Smith R, Hawes N, Chang B, Roderick T, Akeson E, Heckenlively J, et al. Lop12, a mutation in mouse Crygd causing lens opacity similar to human Coppock cataract. Genomics. 2000;63:314-20 pubmed
    ..b>Lens opacity 12 (Lop12) is a semidominant mutation that results in an irregular nuclear lens opacity similar to the human ..
  15. Wigle J, Chowdhury K, Gruss P, Oliver G. Prox1 function is crucial for mouse lens-fibre elongation. Nat Genet. 1999;21:318-22 pubmed
    ..Our data provide evidence that the progression of terminal fibre differentiation and elongation is dependent on Prox1 activity during lens development. ..
  16. Masaki S, Watanabe T. Linkage analysis of the mutation locus in the eye lens obsolescence (Elo) mouse. Genomics. 1989;5:259-63 pubmed
    ..Among 223 mice analyzed, recombination between Elo and Idh-1 loci was observed in three offsprings; and that between Cryg-1 or Cryg-4 and Idh-1 loci, in one offspring. No recombination occurred between Cryg-1 and Cryg-4 alleles. ..
  17. Skow L. Location of a gene controlling electrophoretic variation in mouse gamma-crystallins. Exp Eye Res. 1982;34:509-16 pubmed
  18. Zhao H, Yang Y, Partanen J, Ciruna B, Rossant J, Robinson M. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (Fgfr1) is not essential for lens fiber differentiation in mice. Mol Vis. 2006;12:15-25 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results demonstrate that Fgfr1 is not cell autonomously essential for lens development and suggests functional redundancy among different FGF receptor genes with respect to lens fiber differentiation. ..
  19. Quinlan P, Oda S, Breitman M, Tsui L. The mouse eye lens obsolescence (Elo) mutant: studies on crystallin gene expression and linkage analysis between the mutant locus and the gamma-crystallin genes. Genes Dev. 1987;1:637-44 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 0.9 cM, whereas that between gamma 6 and the distantly linked gamma 2 gene is 2.7 +/- 1.3 cM. Our data also suggest the possibility of recombination hot spots with the gamma-crystallin gene cluster. ..
  20. Tasheva E, Ke A, Deng Y, Jun C, Takemoto L, Koester A, et al. Differentially expressed genes in the lens of mimecan-null mice. Mol Vis. 2004;10:403-16 pubmed
    ..Our results provide insight into the function of mimecan in the lens and enable further characterization of molecular mechanisms by which this protein exerts its biological roles. ..
  21. Graw J, Neuhäuser Klaus A, Klopp N, Selby P, Löster J, Favor J. Genetic and allelic heterogeneity of Cryg mutations in eight distinct forms of dominant cataract in the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:1202-13 pubmed
    ..Morphologically, mutant carriers expressed nonsyndromic cataracts, ranging from diffuse lenticular opacities (Crygd(ENU910) and Cryge(ENU449)), to dense nuclear and subcortical opacity (Crygd(K10), Crygc(MNU8), Cryge(Z2), Crygd(..
  22. Nishiguchi S, Wood H, Kondoh H, Lovell Badge R, Episkopou V. Sox1 directly regulates the gamma-crystallin genes and is essential for lens development in mice. Genes Dev. 1998;12:776-81 pubmed
    ..It appears that the direct interaction of the SOX1 protein with a promoter element conserved in all gamma-crystallin genes is responsible for their expression. ..
  23. Gonzalez M, Ruggiero F, Chang Q, Shi Y, Rich M, Kraner S, et al. Disruption of Trkb-mediated signaling induces disassembly of postsynaptic receptor clusters at neuromuscular junctions. Neuron. 1999;24:567-83 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a novel role for neurotrophin signaling through TrkB receptors on muscle fibers in the ongoing maintenance of postsynaptic AChR regions. ..
  24. Klopp N, Favor J, Loster J, Lutz R, Neuhauser Klaus A, Prescott A, et al. Three murine cataract mutants (Cat2) are defective in different gamma-crystallin genes. Genomics. 1998;52:152-8 pubmed
    ..All three mutations are predicted to alter protein folding of the gamma-crystallins and result in lens cataract, but the phenotype for each is quite distinctive. ..