Crh

Summary

Gene Symbol: Crh
Description: corticotropin releasing hormone
Alias: CRF, Gm1347, corticoliberin, corticotropin releasing factor
Species: mouse
Products:     Crh

Top Publications

  1. Sato Y, Suzuki H, Sato T, Suda T, Yoda T, Iwakura Y, et al. The role of endogenous glucocorticoids in lymphocyte development in melanocortin receptor 2-deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;403:253-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we analyzed the possible roles of endogenous glucocorticoids in hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis in MC2R(-/-) and CRH(-/-) mice as models of chronic adrenal insufficiency...
  2. Vale W, Spiess J, Rivier C, Rivier J. Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and beta-endorphin. Science. 1981;213:1394-7 pubmed
  3. King B, Smith R, Nicholson R. Novel glucocorticoid and cAMP interactions on the CRH gene promoter. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;194:19-28 pubmed
    Glucocorticoids inhibit corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) production in the hypothalamus but stimulate production from the placenta. We have sought to identify the key elements regulating the CRH gene...
  4. Stengel A, Goebel M, Million M, Stenzel Poore M, Kobelt P, Monnikes H, et al. Corticotropin-releasing factor-overexpressing mice exhibit reduced neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and food intake in response to fasting. Endocrinology. 2009;150:153-60 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress...
  5. Cheng Y, Zhang Q, Meng Q, Xia T, Huang Z, Wang C, et al. Leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss via increasing CRH expression in the hypothalamus and activating the sympathetic nervous system. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1624-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CNS plays an important role in regulating fat loss under leucine deprivation and thereby provide novel and important insights concerning the importance of CNS leucine in the regulation of energy homeostasis. ..
  6. Karalis K, Kontopoulos E, Muglia L, Majzoub J. Corticotropin-releasing hormone deficiency unmasks the proinflammatory effect of epinephrine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:7093-7 pubmed
    ..endocrine component of the pathway to inhibit acute inflammation via hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated secretion of glucocorticoid...
  7. Taniguchi H, He M, Wu P, Kim S, Paik R, Sugino K, et al. A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2011;71:995-1013 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, this approach will accelerate the study of GABAergic circuits throughout the mammalian brain. ..
  8. Dedic N, Touma C, Romanowski C, Schieven M, Kühne C, Ableitner M, et al. Assessing behavioural effects of chronic HPA axis activation using conditional CRH-overexpressing mice. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2012;32:815-28 pubmed publisher
    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its cognate receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders...
  9. Keegan C, Herman J, Karolyi I, O Shea K, Camper S, Seasholtz A. Differential expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in developing mouse embryos and adult brain. Endocrinology. 1994;134:2547-55 pubmed
    b>CRH mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization histochemistry in numerous regions of the adult mouse brain, including most prominently the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, the inferior olivary nucleus, and Barrington's ..

More Information

Publications97

  1. Alon T, Zhou L, Perez C, Garfield A, Friedman J, Heisler L. Transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the corticotropin-releasing hormone promoter. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5626-32 pubmed publisher
    b>CRH is widely expressed in the brain and is of broad functional relevance to a number of physiological processes, including stress response, parturition, immune response, and ingestive behavior...
  2. van Gaalen M, Stenzel Poore M, Holsboer F, Steckler T. Effects of transgenic overproduction of CRH on anxiety-like behaviour. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;15:2007-15 pubmed
  3. Venihaki M, Dikkes P, Carrigan A, Karalis K. Corticotropin-releasing hormone regulates IL-6 expression during inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2001;108:1159-66 pubmed
    ..the HPA axis during immune activation independent of the input of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
  4. Venihaki M, Zhao J, Karalis K. Corticotropin-releasing hormone deficiency results in impaired splenocyte response to lipopolysaccharide. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;141:3-9 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), a major mediator of the stress response, has been shown to exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the regulation of the immune system, in vivo...
  5. McGill B, Bundle S, Yaylaoglu M, Carson J, Thaller C, Zoghbi H. Enhanced anxiety and stress-induced corticosterone release are associated with increased Crh expression in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18267-72 pubmed
    ..We found increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the central amygdala, and the bed nucleus of ..
  6. Muglia L, Jacobson L, Dikkes P, Majzoub J. Corticotropin-releasing hormone deficiency reveals major fetal but not adult glucocorticoid need. Nature. 1995;373:427-32 pubmed
    ..Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a 41-amino-acid neuropeptide produced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and many regions of the ..
  7. Bishop G, King J. Corticotropin releasing factor in the embryonic mouse cerebellum. Exp Neurol. 1999;160:489-99 pubmed
    b>Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a 41 amino acid peptide that has been localized throughout the mouse cerebellum on postnatal day (P0)...
  8. Michaud J, Rosenquist T, May N, Fan C. Development of neuroendocrine lineages requires the bHLH-PAS transcription factor SIM1. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3264-75 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly indicate that SIM1 functions upstream to maintain Brn2 expression, which in turn directs the terminal differentiation of specific neuroendocrine lineages within the PVN/SON. ..
  9. Wamsteeker Cusulin J, Fuzesi T, Watts A, Bains J. Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64943 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) initiate and control neuroendocrine responses to psychogenic and physical stress...
  10. Beckerman M, Van Kempen T, Justice N, Milner T, Glass M. Corticotropin-releasing factor in the mouse central nucleus of the amygdala: ultrastructural distribution in NMDA-NR1 receptor subunit expressing neurons as well as projection neurons to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Exp Neurol. 2013;239:120-32 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and glutamate are critical signaling molecules in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)...
  11. Muglia L, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Majzoub J. Expression of the mouse corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in vivo and targeted inactivation in embryonic stem cells. J Clin Invest. 1994;93:2066-72 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), one of the primary regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, exhibits abnormal regulation in pathologic states such as depression and anorexia nervosa...
  12. Gunn B, Cox C, Chen Y, Frotscher M, Gall C, Baram T, et al. The Endogenous Stress Hormone CRH Modulates Excitatory Transmission and Network Physiology in Hippocampus. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:4182-4198 pubmed publisher
    ..simulations to probe the role of the endogenous, stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in modulating hippocampal function...
  13. Zhao Shea R, DeGroot S, Liu L, Vallaster M, Pang X, Su Q, et al. Increased CRF signalling in a ventral tegmental area-interpeduncular nucleus-medial habenula circuit induces anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6770 pubmed publisher
    ..IPI activation during nicotine withdrawal was mediated by increased corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 expression and signalling, which modulated glutamatergic input from the medial ..
  14. Lee J, Cha M, Choi S, Hwang S, Kim D, Jahng J. Neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA level are increased in the hypothalamus of mouse bearing a human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Neuropeptides. 2004;38:345-50 pubmed
    ..Additionally, neuropeptide Y-induced feeding appears to be inhibited in this tumor anorexia model, and this may correlate with increased expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone. ..
  15. Wu H, Levitt P. Prenatal expression of MET receptor tyrosine kinase in the fetal mouse dorsal raphe nuclei and the visceral motor/sensory brainstem. Dev Neurosci. 2013;35:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that MET signaling may influence the development of neurons that are involved in central regulation of gastrointestinal function, tongue movement, swallowing, speech, stress and mood. ..
  16. Pirnik Z, Petrak J, Bundzikova J, Mravec B, Kvetnansky R, Kiss A. Response of hypothalamic oxytocinergic neurons to immobilization stress is not dependent on the presence of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH): a CRH knock-out mouse study. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60:77-82 pubmed
    ..OXY) neurons in response to immobilization (IMO) stress in corticotrophin releasing hormone deficient (CRH-KO) mice...
  17. Sanford C, Soden M, Baird M, Miller S, Schulkin J, Palmiter R, et al. A Central Amygdala CRF Circuit Facilitates Learning about Weak Threats. Neuron. 2017;93:164-178 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that produce the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)...
  18. Karalis K, Venihaki M, Zhao J, van Vlerken L, Chandras C. NF-kappaB participates in the corticotropin-releasing, hormone-induced regulation of the pituitary proopiomelanocortin gene. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10837-40 pubmed
    ..stimulated the activity of nuclear transcription factor B (NF-kappaB), whereas corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) inhibited both the constitutive and the oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity...
  19. Yang Y, Park H, Yang Y, Kim T, Bang S, Cho D. Enhancement of cell migration by corticotropin-releasing hormone through ERK1/2 pathway in murine melanoma cell line, B16F10. Exp Dermatol. 2007;16:22-7 pubmed
    ..This study examined how corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) affects the migration of melanoma cells in order to further understand the relationship between stress and tumor ..
  20. Campbell S, Zhang C, Monte L, Roe A, Rice K, TACHE Y, et al. Increased tau phosphorylation and aggregation in the hippocampus of mice overexpressing corticotropin-releasing factor. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43:967-76 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CRF overexpressing (CRF-OE) mice are a model of chronic stress that display cognitive impairment at 9-10 month of age...
  21. Pisano F, Zampaglione E, McAlinden N, Roebber J, Dawson M, Mathieson K, et al. Large scale matching of function to the genetic identity of retinal ganglion cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15395 pubmed publisher
  22. Huang C, Shih M, Hsu N, Chien Y, Chung B. Fetal glucocorticoid synthesis is required for development of fetal adrenal medulla and hypothalamus feedback suppression. Endocrinology. 2012;153:4749-56 pubmed
    ..Cyp11a1 null embryos had decreased diencephalon Hsd11b1, increased diencephalon Crh, and increased pituitary Pomc expression, leading to higher adrenocorticotropin level in the plasma...
  23. Sharpe A, Coste S, Burkhart Kasch S, Li N, Stenzel Poore M, Phillips T. Mice deficient in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 exhibit normal ethanol-associated behaviors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:1601-9 pubmed
    ..Animal studies suggest an interaction between corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its receptors and the behavioral effects and consumption of alcohol...
  24. Herman A, Huang L, Murphey D, Garcia I, Arenkiel B. Cell type-specific and time-dependent light exposure contribute to silencing in neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2. elife. 2014;3:e01481 pubmed publisher
    ..DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01481.001. ..
  25. Fekete E, Zhao Y, Szucs A, Sabino V, Cottone P, Rivier J, et al. Systemic urocortin 2, but not urocortin 1 or stressin 1-A, suppresses feeding via CRF2 receptors without malaise and stress. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:1959-75 pubmed publisher
    Infusion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)/urocortin (Ucn) family peptides suppresses feeding in mice. We examined whether rats show peripheral CRF/Ucn-induced anorexia and determined its behavioural and pharmacological bases...
  26. Hanley K, Feingold K, Kömüves L, Elias P, Muglia L, Majzoub J, et al. Glucocorticoid deficiency delays stratum corneum maturation in the fetal mouse. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111:440-4 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that fetal glucocorticoid deficiency delays SC maturation, and suggests that normal levels of glucocorticoids are not absolutely required for SC development. ..
  27. Gay J, Kokkotou E, O Brien M, Pothoulakis C, Karalis K. Corticotropin-releasing hormone deficiency is associated with reduced local inflammation in a mouse model of experimental colitis. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3403-9 pubmed publisher
    b>CRH, the hypothalamic component of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, attenuates inflammation through stimulation of glucocorticoid release, whereas peripherally expressed CRH acts as a proinflammatory mediator...
  28. Swiergiel A, Leskov I, Dunn A. Effects of chronic and acute stressors and CRF on depression-like behavior in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2008;186:32-40 pubmed
    ..In unshocked mice, intracerebroventricular corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) consistently decreased immobility in the TST and the FST, with significant effects at the 100ng dose...
  29. Smith J, Wang L, Hiller H, Taylor C, de Kloet A, Krause E. Acute hypernatremia promotes anxiolysis and attenuates stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in male mice. Physiol Behav. 2014;136:91-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effect of acute hypernatremia on PVN neurons producing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), we used the Cre-lox system to generate mice that produced the red fluorescent protein, tdTomato, in cells that ..
  30. Venihaki M, Carrigan A, Dikkes P, Majzoub J. Circadian rise in maternal glucocorticoid prevents pulmonary dysplasia in fetal mice with adrenal insufficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:7336-41 pubmed
    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and pituitary corticotropin, is one of the first endocrine systems to develop during fetal life, probably because glucocorticoid ..
  31. Cipriano A, Gomes K, Nunes de Souza R. CRF receptor type 1 (but not type 2) located within the amygdala plays a role in the modulation of anxiety in mice exposed to the elevated plus maze. Horm Behav. 2016;81:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the neurotransmitters implicated in the control of emotional states, the corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is an important modulator, acting at CRF1 and CRF2 receptors...
  32. Garfield A, Li C, Madara J, Shah B, Webber E, Steger J, et al. A neural basis for melanocortin-4 receptor-regulated appetite. Nat Neurosci. 2015;18:863-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the satiating and appetitive nature of PVH(MC4R)→LPBN neurons supports the principles of drive reduction and highlights this circuit as a promising target for antiobesity drug development. ..
  33. Bayatti N, Hermann H, Lutz B, Behl C. Corticotropin-releasing hormone-mediated induction of intracellular signaling pathways and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression is inhibited by the activation of the endocannabinoid system. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1205-13 pubmed
    b>CRH receptor (CRHR) 1 and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) are both G protein-coupled receptors...
  34. Elliott E, Ezra Nevo G, Regev L, Neufeld Cohen A, Chen A. Resilience to social stress coincides with functional DNA methylation of the Crf gene in adult mice. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1351-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that methylation regulated the expression of the Crf (also known as Crh) gene and that chronic social stress in adult mice induced long-term demethylation of this genomic region...
  35. Karunaratne A, Xi L, Bentley L, Sykes D, Boyde A, Esapa C, et al. Multiscale alterations in bone matrix quality increased fragility in steroid induced osteoporosis. Bone. 2016;84:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a mouse model with an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced corticotrophin releasing hormone promoter mutation (Crh(-120/+)) that developed hypercorticosteronaemia and osteoporosis, we utilized in situ mechanical testing with small ..
  36. Weninger S, Muglia L, Jacobson L, Majzoub J. CRH-deficient mice have a normal anorectic response to chronic stress. Regul Pept. 1999;84:69-74 pubmed
    Many studies have implicated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) as a mediator of stress-induced decreases in food intake...
  37. Lachize S, APOSTOLAKIS E, van der Laan S, Tijssen A, Xu J, de Kloet E, et al. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 is necessary for regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone by chronic stress and glucocorticoids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8038-42 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs via activation of hormonal and neuronal signaling cascades in which corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role...
  38. Cui Z, Yokoi N, Kuramoto T, Kitada K, Serikawa T. Extension of conserved regions in the rat and mouse genomes by chromosomal assignments of 29 rat genes. Exp Anim. 1998;47:83-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, four conserved regions were newly revealed. The method described in this study appears to be simple and efficient for constructing a whole genome comparative map of the rat and mouse. ..
  39. Koob G, Bloom F. Corticotropin-releasing factor and behavior. Fed Proc. 1985;44:259-63 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has behavioral activating effects when injected intracerebroventricularly in rats. CRF dose-dependently increased activity in a familiar photocell cage environment...
  40. Colley W, Altshuller Y, Sue Ling C, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Cloning and expression analysis of murine phospholipase D1. Biochem J. 1997;326 ( Pt 3):745-53 pubmed
    ..Thus the two PLDs probably carry out distinct roles in restricted subsets of cells rather than ubiquitous roles in all cells. ..
  41. Peeters P, Fierens F, van den Wyngaert I, Goehlmann H, Swagemakers S, Kass S, et al. Gene expression profiles highlight adaptive brain mechanisms in corticotropin releasing factor overexpressing mice. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;129:135-50 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays an important role in mediating central and peripheral responses to stress...
  42. Gafford G, Jasnow A, Ressler K. Grin1 receptor deletion within CRF neurons enhances fear memory. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111009 pubmed publisher
    b>Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) dysregulation is implicated in mood and anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
  43. Jacobson L. Lower weight loss and food intake in protein-deprived, corticotropin releasing hormone-deficient mice correlate with glucocorticoid insufficiency. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3543-51 pubmed
    To determine if CRH and glucocorticoids are respectively required for hypophagia and catabolism in malnutrition, we have subjected wild-type (WT) and CRH knockout (KO) mice to dietary protein deprivation...
  44. Denaxa M, Kalaitzidou M, Garefalaki A, Achimastou A, Lasrado R, Maes T, et al. Maturation-promoting activity of SATB1 in MGE-derived cortical interneurons. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1351-62 pubmed publisher
  45. Kaneta T, Kusnecov A. The role of central corticotropin-releasing hormone in the anorexic and endocrine effects of the bacterial T cell superantigen, Staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Brain Behav Immun. 2005;19:138-46 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the role of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in promoting these effects of SEA was addressed via intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha-helical ..
  46. Nishii H, Nomura M, Aono H, Fujimoto N, Matsumoto T. Up-regulation of galanin and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNAs in the key hypothalamic and amygdaloid nuclei in a mouse model of visceral pain. Regul Pept. 2007;141:105-12 pubmed
    ..the effects of CP-induced cystitis on the levels of mRNAs encoding galanin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), substance P, and enkephalins in the hypothalamic and limbic nuclei using in situ hybridization histochemistry in ..
  47. Heinrich N, Meyer M, Furkert J, Sasse A, Beyermann M, Bönigk W, et al. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonists stimulate testosterone production in mouse leydig cells through CRF receptor-1. Endocrinology. 1998;139:651-8 pubmed
    The influence of CRF on testosterone production in primary mouse Leydig cell cultures was studied, and the type of CRF receptor (CRF-R) involved in this activity was determined...
  48. Pournajafi Nazarloo H, Tanaka Y, Dorobantu M, Hashimoto K. Modulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 mRNA expression by CRH deficiency or stress in the mouse heart. Regul Pept. 2003;115:131-8 pubmed
    The actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the related peptides are coordinated by two receptors, CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH receptor type 2 (CRH-R2)...
  49. Wu J, Ma D, Ling E, Tang F. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the hippocampus of the mouse pilocarpine model of status epilepticus. Neurosci Lett. 2012;512:83-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the cellular localization and progressive changes of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the mouse hippocampus, during and after pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (PISE) and subsequent epileptogenesis...
  50. Benou C, Wang Y, Imitola J, VanVlerken L, Chandras C, Karalis K, et al. Corticotropin-releasing hormone contributes to the peripheral inflammatory response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2005;174:5407-13 pubmed
    Peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is thought to have proinflammatory effects. We used the model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to study the role of CRH in an immune-mediated disease...
  51. Goldberg L, Aujla P, Raetzman L. Persistent expression of activated Notch inhibits corticotrope and melanotrope differentiation and results in dysfunction of the HPA axis. Dev Biol. 2011;358:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..cells are eliminated in the first two postnatal weeks in these mice, resulting in a modest increase in CRH expression in the paraventricular nucleus, hypoplastic adrenal glands and decreased stress-induced corticosterone ..
  52. Nostramo R, Tillinger A, Serova L, Kvetnansky R, Sabban E. Bradykinin B2 receptor in the adrenal medulla of male rats and mice: glucocorticoid-dependent increase with immobilization stress. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3729-38 pubmed publisher
    ..to IMO, the stress-triggered rise in plasma corticosterone and adrenomedullary B2R mRNA levels was attenuated in CRH-knockout mice and absent in pharmacologically adrenalectomized rats, indicating a requirement for glucocorticoids ..
  53. Yamano M, Tohyama M. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the developing mouse cerebellum. Neurosci Res. 1994;19:387-96 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like immunoreactive (IR) fibers were investigated ontogenically in the mouse cerebellum. CRF-IR was detected in the climbing fiber and mossy fibers as in other species...
  54. Reichardt H, Schutz G. Feedback control of glucocorticoid production is established during fetal development. Mol Med. 1996;2:735-44 pubmed
    ..GR-dependent regulation of the HPA axis is established during fetal development, suggesting that maternal factors have an important role in influencing the HPA axis of the adult offspring. ..
  55. Krashes M, Shah B, Madara J, Olson D, Strochlic D, Garfield A, et al. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger. Nature. 2014;507:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated. ..
  56. Hooper A, Fuller P, Maguire J. Hippocampal corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons support recognition memory and modulate hippocampal excitability. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0191363 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling in the hippocampus has been established to be important for mediating the effects of stress on learning and memory...
  57. Dunn A, Swiergiel A. Behavioral responses to stress are intact in CRF-deficient mice. Brain Res. 1999;845:14-20 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been implicated in endocrine and behavioral responses associated with stress. We have now studied the behavior of mice lacking the CRF gene (CRFko), comparing them to wild-type (WT) mice...
  58. Bina K, Cincotta A. Dopaminergic agonists normalize elevated hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in ob/ob mice. Neuroendocrinology. 2000;71:68-78 pubmed
    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) influence feeding and levels of plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, and triglycerides...
  59. Korosi A, Veening J, Kozicz T, Henckens M, Dederen J, Groenink L, et al. Distribution and expression of CRF receptor 1 and 2 mRNAs in the CRF over-expressing mouse brain. Brain Res. 2006;1072:46-54 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts through CRF 1 and CRF 2 receptors (CRF1, CRF2)...
  60. Jacobson L, Muglia L, Weninger S, Pacak K, Majzoub J. CRH deficiency impairs but does not block pituitary-adrenal responses to diverse stressors. Neuroendocrinology. 2000;71:79-87 pubmed
    ..significant, albeit decreased, corticosterone responses to restraint stress in corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-deficient (knockout, CRH KO) mice...
  61. Regev L, Tsoory M, Gil S, Chen A. Site-specific genetic manipulation of amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor reveals its imperative role in mediating behavioral response to challenge. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71:317-26 pubmed publisher
    Faulty regulation of the central extrahypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression is associated with stress-related psychopathologies including anxiety disorders and depression...
  62. Fortes P, Albrechet Souza L, Vasconcelos M, Ascoli B, Menegolla A, de Almeida R. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2017;39:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals...
  63. Knapp L, Keegan C, Seasholtz A, Camper S. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) maps to mouse chromosome 3. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:615-7 pubmed
  64. Brewer J, Bethin K, Schaefer M, Muglia L, Vogt S, Weninger S, et al. Dissecting adrenal and behavioral responses to stress by targeted gene inactivation in mice. Stress. 2003;6:121-5 pubmed
    ..Studies in mice deficient in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) have revealed the essential role for CRH in adrenal glucocorticoid production in response to many physiological ..
  65. Wang W, Lufkin T. The murine Otp homeobox gene plays an essential role in the specification of neuronal cell lineages in the developing hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2000;227:432-49 pubmed
    ..The involvement of Otp and Sim1 in specifying specific hypothalamic neurosecretory cell lineages is shown to operate via distinct signaling pathways that partially overlap with Brn2. ..
  66. Bethin K, Vogt S, Muglia L. Interleukin-6 is an essential, corticotropin-releasing hormone-independent stimulator of the adrenal axis during immune system activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9317-22 pubmed
    ..IL-6) for augmentation of adrenal function, we exploited mice deficient in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), IL-6, or both...
  67. Funk D, Li Z, Le A. Effects of environmental and pharmacological stressors on c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in rat brain: Relationship to the reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Neuroscience. 2006;138:235-43 pubmed
    ..in situ hybridization of the mRNAs for c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a stress-related peptide we have shown to be critical to footshock-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking...
  68. Kasahara M, Groenink L, Bijlsma E, Olivier B, Sarnyai Z. Lifelong, central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpression is associated with individual differences in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;753:151-7 pubmed publisher
    Stress, through corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), influences all aspects of cocaine addiction. Earlier studies suggest that individual differences in responsivity to stress affect susceptibility to develop addiction...
  69. Tsatsanis C, Androulidaki A, Alissafi T, Charalampopoulos I, Dermitzaki E, Roger T, et al. Corticotropin-releasing factor and the urocortins induce the expression of TLR4 in macrophages via activation of the transcription factors PU.1 and AP-1. J Immunol. 2006;176:1869-77 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) augments LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages...
  70. Benes J, Tomankova H, Novakova M, Rohan Z, Kvetnansky R, Myslivecek J. Corticotropin-releasing hormone affects short immobilization stress-induced changes in lung cytosolic and membrane glucocorticoid binding sites. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2013;33:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid action is probably mediated via membrane receptors (mGR). In corticotropin-releasing hormone knockouts (CRH-KO), basal plasma glucocorticoid levels do differ from wild type levels (WT), but are approximately ten times lower ..
  71. Guo Q, Zheng H, Justice N. Central CRF system perturbation in an Alzheimer's disease knockin mouse model. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:2678-91 pubmed publisher
    ..amyloid beta (hA?), and presenilin 1 (PS1), in their endogenous patterns (APP/hA?/PS1 animals), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) levels are increased in key stress-related nuclei, resting corticosteroid levels are elevated, ..
  72. Duplan S, Boucher F, Alexandrov L, Michaud J. Impact of Sim1 gene dosage on the development of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:2239-49 pubmed publisher
    ..and oxytocin-producing cells in the PVN by about 50 and 80%, respectively, but does not affect the development of Crh, Trh and Ss neurons...
  73. Muglia L, Bae D, Brown T, Vogt S, Alvarez J, Sunday M, et al. Proliferation and differentiation defects during lung development in corticotropin-releasing hormone-deficient mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1999;20:181-8 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone-deficient (CRH-KO) mice, which as a consequence are also glucocorticoid-insufficient, exhibit neonatal lethality when derived from CRH-KO mothers...
  74. Han P, Fletcher C, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Yaremko L, Michaeli T. Assignment of the mouse Pde7A gene to the proximal region of chromosome 3 and of the human PDE7A gene to chromosome 8q13. Genomics. 1998;48:275-6 pubmed
  75. Flint M, Morgan J, Shreve S, Tinkle S. Restraint stress and corticotropin releasing hormone modulation of murine cutaneous POMC mRNA. Stress. 2003;6:59-62 pubmed
    ..mild, acute restraint stress activation of the cutaneous corticotropin releasing hormone-pro-opiomelanocortin (CRH-POMC) axis...
  76. Zhu Y, Xu J, Hauswirth W, DeVries S. Genetically targeted binary labeling of retinal neurons. J Neurosci. 2014;34:7845-61 pubmed publisher
  77. Tillinger A, Nostramo R, Kvetnansky R, Serova L, Sabban E. Stress-induced changes in gene expression of urocortin 2 and other CRH peptides in rat adrenal medulla: involvement of glucocorticoids. J Neurochem. 2013;125:185-92 pubmed publisher
    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family regulates the endocrine stress response. Here, we examined the effect of immobilization stress (IMO) on gene expression of adrenomedullary CRH family members...
  78. Makino S, Tanaka Y, Nazarloo H, Noguchi T, Nishimura K, Hashimoto K. Expression of type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus following restraint stress in CRH-deficient mice. Brain Res. 2005;1048:131-7 pubmed
    Previous studies have demonstrated that various types of stress increase type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor (currently abbreviated to CRF1 receptor) mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats, but ..
  79. Shaliapina V, Rakitskaia V, Rybnikova E. [Corticotropin-releasing hormone in the regulation of adaptive behavior]. Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2003;34:75-92 pubmed
    Recent findings on the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the regulation of stress and its consequences are summarized and analyzed in the review...
  80. Rassouli O, Liapakis G, Lazaridis I, Sakellaris G, Gkountelias K, Gravanis A, et al. A novel role of peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on dermal fibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21654 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, or factor, (CRH or CRF) exerts important biological effects in multiple peripheral tissues via paracrine/autocrine actions...
  81. Schluger J, Bart G, Green M, Ho A, Kreek M. Corticotropin-releasing factor testing reveals a dose-dependent difference in methadone maintained vs control subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:985-94 pubmed
  82. Arvaniti K, Huang Q, Richard D. Effects of leptin and corticosterone on the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone, agouti-related protein, and proopiomelanocortin in the brain of ob/ob mouse. Neuroendocrinology. 2001;73:227-36 pubmed
    ..conducted to assess the effect of leptin and corticosterone on the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) in the mouse brain...
  83. Sanford L, Yang L, Wellman L, Dong E, Tang X. Mouse strain differences in the effects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) on sleep and wakefulness. Brain Res. 2008;1190:94-104 pubmed
    Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) plays a major role in central nervous system responses to stressors and has been implicated in stress-induced alterations in sleep...
  84. Phumsatitpong C, Moenter S. Estradiol-Dependent Stimulation and Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Firing Activity by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Female Mice. Endocrinology. 2018;159:414-425 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids...
  85. Giannogonas P, Apostolou A, Manousopoulou A, Theocharis S, Macari S, Psarras S, et al. Identification of a novel interaction between corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) and macroautophagy. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23342 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report a functional interaction between macroautophagy and Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (Crh) in the gut...
  86. Kawashima S, Sakihara S, Kageyama K, Nigawara T, Suda T. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in the acute anorexic effect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone: a study using CRF-deficient mice. Peptides. 2008;29:2169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a candidate for mediating the anorexic effect of alpha-MSH...
  87. Zhang N, Lin J, Chen J, Liu X, Liu J, Luo H, et al. MicroRNA 375 mediates the signaling pathway of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulating pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase 8. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10361-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of melanocortin-related peptides in the pituitary and primarily regulated by corticotropin- releasing factor (CRF)...
  88. Luque R, Park S, Kineman R. Severity of the catabolic condition differentially modulates hypothalamic expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone in the fasted mouse: potential role of neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinology. 2007;148:300-9 pubmed
    ..A sequential rise in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and CRH mRNA levels preceded the fall in GHRH expression, where fasting-induced changes in CRH and GHRH mRNA levels were ..