Creb1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Creb1
Description: cAMP responsive element binding protein 1
Alias: 2310001E10Rik, 3526402H21Rik, AV083133, Creb, Creb-1, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Creb1

Top Publications

  1. Rudolph D, Tafuri A, Gass P, Hammerling G, Arnold B, Schutz G. Impaired fetal T cell development and perinatal lethality in mice lacking the cAMP response element binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4481-6 pubmed
    b>CREB, the cAMP response element binding protein, is a key transcriptional regulator of a large number of genes containing a CRE consensus sequence in their upstream regulatory regions...
  2. Koo S, Flechner L, Qi L, Zhang X, Screaton R, Jeffries S, et al. The CREB coactivator TORC2 is a key regulator of fasting glucose metabolism. Nature. 2005;437:1109-11 pubmed
    ..liver during fasting by stimulating the transcription of gluconeogenic genes via the cyclic AMP-inducible factor CREB (CRE binding protein)...
  3. Matsuo N, Tanaka S, Gordon M, Koch M, Yoshioka H, Ramirez F. CREB-AP1 protein complexes regulate transcription of the collagen XXIV gene (Col24a1) in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5445-52 pubmed
    ..cis-acting element, which is shared by both transcripts and is recognized by specific combinations of c-Jun, CREB1, ATF1, and ATF2 dimers...
  4. Blois J, Mataraza J, Mecklenbrauker I, Tarakhovsky A, Chiles T. B cell receptor-induced cAMP-response element-binding protein activation in B lymphocytes requires novel protein kinase Cdelta. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30123-32 pubmed
    The cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is activated by phosphorylation on Ser-133 and plays a key role in the proliferative and survival responses of mature B cells to B cell receptor (BCR) signaling...
  5. Baumann S, Kyewski B, Bleckmann S, Greiner E, Rudolph D, Schmid W, et al. CREB function is required for normal thymic cellularity and post-irradiation recovery. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:1961-71 pubmed
    Recent generation of genetically modified Creb1 mutant mice has revealed an important role for CREB (cAMP responsive element binding protein) and the related proteins CREM (cAMP responsive element modulator) and ATF1 (activating ..
  6. Magenta A, Cenciarelli C, De Santa F, Fuschi P, Martelli F, Caruso M, et al. MyoD stimulates RB promoter activity via the CREB/p300 nuclear transduction pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2893-906 pubmed
    ..by MyoD requires a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE) in the RB promoter, bound by the transcription factor CREB in differentiating myoblasts...
  7. Chen A, Ginty D, Fan C. Protein kinase A signalling via CREB controls myogenesis induced by Wnt proteins. Nature. 2005;433:317-22 pubmed
    ..We describe an unexpected role for protein kinase A (PKA) signalling via CREB in this induction...
  8. Walters C, Cleck J, Kuo Y, Blendy J. Mu-opioid receptor and CREB activation are required for nicotine reward. Neuron. 2005;46:933-43 pubmed
    ..Exposure to an environment previously associated with rewarding properties of nicotine results in an increase of CREB phosphorylation similar to that seen following nicotine administration, and this response is absent in MOR(-/-) ..
  9. Pittenger C, Fasano S, Mazzocchi Jones D, Dunnett S, Kandel E, Brambilla R. Impaired bidirectional synaptic plasticity and procedural memory formation in striatum-specific cAMP response element-binding protein-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2808-13 pubmed
    ..and plasticity in transgenic mice reversibly expressing a dominant-negative cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mutant in the dorsal striatum...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Han J, Kushner S, Yiu A, Cole C, Matynia A, Brown R, et al. Neuronal competition and selection during memory formation. Science. 2007;316:457-60 pubmed
    ..competition during memory formation, we conducted experiments with mice in which we manipulated the function of CREB (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein) in subsets of neurons...
  2. Viosca J, Malleret G, Bourtchouladze R, Benito E, Vronskava S, Kandel E, et al. Chronic enhancement of CREB activity in the hippocampus interferes with the retrieval of spatial information. Learn Mem. 2009;16:198-209 pubmed publisher
    The activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression is thought to be critical for the formation of different types of long-term memory...
  3. Ao H, Ko S, Zhuo M. CREB activity maintains the survival of cingulate cortical pyramidal neurons in the adult mouse brain. Mol Pain. 2006;2:15 pubmed
    Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) activity is known to contribute to important neuronal functions, such as synaptic plasticity, learning and memory...
  4. Parker D, Ferreri K, Nakajima T, LaMorte V, Evans R, Koerber S, et al. Phosphorylation of CREB at Ser-133 induces complex formation with CREB-binding protein via a direct mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:694-703 pubmed
    We have characterized a phosphoserine binding domain in the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) which interacts with the protein kinase A-phosphorylated, and hence activated, form of the cyclic AMP-responsive factor CREB...
  5. Götschel F, Kern C, Lang S, Sparna T, Markmann C, Schwager J, et al. Inhibition of GSK3 differentially modulates NF-kappaB, CREB, AP-1 and beta-catenin signaling in hepatocytes, but fails to promote TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1351-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, inhibition of GSK-3 was accompanied by marked upregulation of beta-catenin, AP-1, and CREB transcription factors...
  6. Elefteriou F, Ahn J, Takeda S, Starbuck M, Yang X, Liu X, et al. Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART. Nature. 2005;434:514-20 pubmed
    ..This sympathetic function requires phosphorylation (by protein kinase A) of ATF4, a cell-specific CREB-related transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation and function...
  7. Aguado F, Díaz Ruiz C, Parlato R, MARTINEZ A, Carmona M, Bleckmann S, et al. The CREB/CREM transcription factors negatively regulate early synaptogenesis and spontaneous network activity. J Neurosci. 2009;29:328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use CREB1(Nescre)CREM(-/-) (cAMP-responsive element modulator) mutants to investigate the role of these genes in stimulus-..
  8. Josselyn S, Kida S, Silva A. Inducible repression of CREB function disrupts amygdala-dependent memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2004;82:159-63 pubmed
    Evidence from Aplysia, Drosophila, mice, and rats indicates that the CREB (cAMP/Ca2+ responsive element binding protein) family of transcription factors is critical for long-term memory...
  9. Yoshizawa T, Hinoi E, Jung D, Kajimura D, Ferron M, Seo J, et al. The transcription factor ATF4 regulates glucose metabolism in mice through its expression in osteoblasts. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2807-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a transcriptional basis to the observation that osteoblasts fulfill endocrine functions and identify ATF4 as a regulator of most functions of osteoblasts. ..
  10. He L, Naik K, Meng S, Cao J, Sidhaye A, Ma A, et al. Transcriptional co-activator p300 maintains basal hepatic gluconeogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32069-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin suppresses HGP by phosphorylating CBP and disassembling the CREB-CBP complex from gluconeogenic genes...
  11. Barco A, Alarcon J, Kandel E. Expression of constitutively active CREB protein facilitates the late phase of long-term potentiation by enhancing synaptic capture. Cell. 2002;108:689-703 pubmed
    Restricted and regulated expression in mice of VP16-CREB, a constitutively active form of CREB, in hippocampal CA1 neurons lowers the threshold for eliciting a persistent late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the Schaffer ..
  12. Mantamadiotis T, Lemberger T, Bleckmann S, Kern H, Kretz O, Martin Villalba A, et al. Disruption of CREB function in brain leads to neurodegeneration. Nat Genet. 2002;31:47-54 pubmed
    ..To define its roles in the mouse central nervous system, we disrupted Creb1 in brain of developing and adult mice using the Cre/loxP system...
  13. Jhala U, Canettieri G, Screaton R, Kulkarni R, Krajewski S, Reed J, et al. cAMP promotes pancreatic beta-cell survival via CREB-mediated induction of IRS2. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1575-80 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice deficient in the activity of CREB, caused by expression of a dominant-negative A-CREB transgene in pancreatic beta-cells, develop diabetes secondary ..
  14. Viosca J, Lopez de Armentia M, Jancic D, Barco A. Enhanced CREB-dependent gene expression increases the excitability of neurons in the basal amygdala and primes the consolidation of contextual and cued fear memory. Learn Mem. 2009;16:193-7 pubmed publisher
    Regulated expression of a constitutively active form of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), VP16-CREB, lowers the threshold for the late phase of long-term potentiation in the Schaffer collateral pathway in a de novo gene ..
  15. Blendy J, Kaestner K, Schmid W, Gass P, Schutz G. Targeting of the CREB gene leads to up-regulation of a novel CREB mRNA isoform. EMBO J. 1996;15:1098-106 pubmed
    ..signaling in gene control, we have generated mice with a mutation in the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) gene. Mice carrying this mutation are viable but show an impairment in memory consolidation...
  16. Zhou Y, Won J, Karlsson M, Zhou M, Rogerson T, Balaji J, et al. CREB regulates excitability and the allocation of memory to subsets of neurons in the amygdala. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1438-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We manipulated CREB in a subset of lateral amygdala neurons in mice with a modified herpes simplex virus (HSV) and reversibly ..
  17. Remenyi J, Hunter C, Cole C, Ando H, Impey S, Monk C, et al. Regulation of the miR-212/132 locus by MSK1 and CREB in response to neurotrophins. Biochem J. 2010;428:281-91 pubmed publisher
  18. Illario M, Giardino Torchia M, Sankar U, Ribar T, Galgani M, Vitiello L, et al. Calmodulin-dependent kinase IV links Toll-like receptor 4 signaling with survival pathway of activated dendritic cells. Blood. 2008;111:723-31 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel link between TLR4 and a calcium-dependent signaling cascade comprising CaMKIV-CREB-Bcl-2 that is essential for DC survival.
  19. Wen A, Sakamoto K, Miller L. The role of the transcription factor CREB in immune function. J Immunol. 2010;185:6413-9 pubmed publisher
    b>CREB is a transcription factor that regulates diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, survival, and differentiation...
  20. Barton K, Muthusamy N, Chanyangam M, Fischer C, Clendenin C, Leiden J. Defective thymocyte proliferation and IL-2 production in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of CREB. Nature. 1996;379:81-5 pubmed
    The basic/leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor, CREB, binds to the CRE element (TGANNTCA). The transcriptional activity of CREB requires phosphorylation of the protein on a serine residue at position 119 (ref. 6)...
  21. Barrot M, Olivier J, Perrotti L, DiLeone R, Berton O, Eisch A, et al. CREB activity in the nucleus accumbens shell controls gating of behavioral responses to emotional stimuli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11435-40 pubmed
    The transcription factor cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) has been shown to regulate neural plasticity...
  22. Zhang X, Odom D, Koo S, Conkright M, Canettieri G, Best J, et al. Genome-wide analysis of cAMP-response element binding protein occupancy, phosphorylation, and target gene activation in human tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4459-64 pubmed
    ..cellular gene expression by means of the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133...
  23. Pittenger C, Huang Y, Paletzki R, Bourtchouladze R, Scanlin H, Vronskaya S, et al. Reversible inhibition of CREB/ATF transcription factors in region CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus disrupts hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Neuron. 2002;34:447-62 pubmed
    b>CREB is critical for long-lasting synaptic and behavioral plasticity in invertebrates. Its role in the mammalian hippocampus is less clear. We have interfered with CREB family transcription factors in region CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus...
  24. Kida S, Josselyn S, PENA DE ORTIZ S, Kogan J, Chevere I, Masushige S, et al. CREB required for the stability of new and reactivated fear memories. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:348-55 pubmed
    The cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors is thought to be critical in memory formation...
  25. Tan Y, Zhang S, Hoffmann T, Bading H. Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID) genes and promotes neuronal survival. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:48 pubmed publisher
    b>CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) is the prototypical signal-regulated transcription factor...
  26. Walters C, Blendy J. Different requirements for cAMP response element binding protein in positive and negative reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9438-44 pubmed
    ..will enable us to understand the role of final common mediators, such as cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), in the addiction process...
  27. Shankar D, Cheng J, Kinjo K, Federman N, Moore T, Gill A, et al. The role of CREB as a proto-oncogene in hematopoiesis and in acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cell. 2005;7:351-62 pubmed
    b>CREB is a transcription factor that functions in glucose homeostasis, growth factor-dependent cell survival, and memory. In this study, we describe a role of CREB in human cancer...
  28. Jagasia R, Steib K, Englberger E, Herold S, Faus Kessler T, Saxe M, et al. GABA-cAMP response element-binding protein signaling regulates maturation and survival of newly generated neurons in the adult hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7966-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling in adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
  29. Cox L, Hengst U, Gurskaya N, Lukyanov K, Jaffrey S. Intra-axonal translation and retrograde trafficking of CREB promotes neuronal survival. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..that axons of developing mammalian neurons contain mRNA encoding the cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB)...
  30. Wingate A, Martin K, Hunter C, Carr J, Clacher C, Arthur J. Generation of a conditional CREB Ser133Ala knockin mouse. Genesis. 2009;47:688-96 pubmed publisher
    Phosphorylation of Ser133 in the transcription factor CREB is an important mechanism for regulating its transcriptional activity, however recent work has suggested significant roles for other regulatory inputs into CREB...
  31. Lonze B, Riccio A, Cohen S, Ginty D. Apoptosis, axonal growth defects, and degeneration of peripheral neurons in mice lacking CREB. Neuron. 2002;34:371-85 pubmed
    CRE-binding protein (CREB) belongs to a family of transcription factors that mediates stimulus-dependent gene expression in neuronal and non-neuronal cells...
  32. Al Huseini L, Aw Yeang H, Hamdam J, Sethu S, Alhumeed N, Wong W, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates dendritic cell function through modulation of p38 MAPK-CREB/ATF1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:16442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) pathway is involved in the mediation of the phenotypic and ..
  33. Schauer I, Knaub L, Lloyd M, Watson P, Gliwa C, Lewis K, et al. CREB downregulation in vascular disease: a common response to cardiovascular risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:733-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the impact of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), an established mediator of atherosclerosis, on the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), which is a regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) quiescence.
  34. Avni D, Ernst O, Philosoph A, Zor T. Role of CREB in modulation of TNFalpha and IL-10 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1396-403 pubmed publisher
    The role of CREB in LPS signaling is controversial...
  35. Al Huseini L, Aw Yeang H, Sethu S, Alhumeed N, Hamdam J, Tingle Y, et al. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) modulates dendritic cell immune function through regulation of p38 MAPK-cAMP-responsive element binding protein/activating transcription factor 1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:22281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we provide evidence for increased phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), transcription factors that are downstream of p38 MAPK...
  36. Persaud S, Liu B, Sampaio H, Jones P, Muller D. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV controls glucose-induced Irs2 expression in mouse beta cells via activation of cAMP response element-binding protein. Diabetologia. 2011;54:1109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) stimulates beta cell Irs2 expression and is a major calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)(IV) target in ..
  37. Tamura S, Morikawa Y, Senba E. Up-regulated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein by peripheral inflammation in primary afferent neurons possibly through oncostatin M receptor. Neuroscience. 2005;133:797-806 pubmed
    ..transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (p-CREB) in the ipsilateral DRGs...
  38. Yadav V, Ryu J, Suda N, Tanaka K, Gingrich J, Schutz G, et al. Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum. Cell. 2008;135:825-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Serotonin acts on osteoblasts through the Htr1b receptor and CREB to inhibit their proliferation...
  39. Giachino C, De Marchis S, Giampietro C, Parlato R, Perroteau I, Schutz G, et al. cAMP response element-binding protein regulates differentiation and survival of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10105-18 pubmed
    The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in multiple aspects of neuronal development and plasticity...
  40. Lopez de Armentia M, Jancic D, Olivares R, Alarcon J, Kandel E, Barco A. cAMP response element-binding protein-mediated gene expression increases the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13909-18 pubmed
    To investigate the role of CREB-mediated gene expression on the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, we obtained intracellular recordings from pyramidal neurons of transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of CREB, VP16-..
  41. Oury F, Yadav V, Wang Y, Zhou B, Liu X, Guo X, et al. CREB mediates brain serotonin regulation of bone mass through its expression in ventromedial hypothalamic neurons. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2330-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Htr1b receptor present on osteoblasts have been identified and culminate in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) regulation of osteoblast proliferation...
  42. Zhang J, Klemm D, Vinson C, Lane M. Role of CREB in transcriptional regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta gene during adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4471-8 pubmed
    ..promoter of the C/EBPbeta gene possesses dual cis regulatory elements (TGA1 and TGA2), both of which contain core CREB binding sites...
  43. Gau D, Lemberger T, Von Gall C, Kretz O, Le Minh N, Gass P, et al. Phosphorylation of CREB Ser142 regulates light-induced phase shifts of the circadian clock. Neuron. 2002;34:245-53 pubmed
    ..Light-induced phase shifting of this clock is correlated with phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133 in the SCN...
  44. Bird A, Flecknoe S, Tan K, Olsson P, Antony N, Mantamadiotis T, et al. cAMP response element binding protein is required for differentiation of respiratory epithelium during murine development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17843 pubmed publisher
    The cAMP response element binding protein 1 (Creb1) transcription factor regulates cellular gene expression in response to elevated levels of intracellular cAMP...
  45. Bleckmann S, Blendy J, Rudolph D, Monaghan A, Schmid W, Schutz G. Activating transcription factor 1 and CREB are important for cell survival during early mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1919-25 pubmed
    Activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), CREB, and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element modulatory protein (CREM), which constitute a subfamily of the basic leucine zipper transcription factors, activate gene expression by binding as ..
  46. Rozenberg J, Rishi V, Orosz A, Moitra J, Glick A, Vinson C. Inhibition of CREB function in mouse epidermis reduces papilloma formation. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:654-64 pubmed publisher
    We used a double transgenic tetracycline system to conditionally express A-CREB, a dominant negative protein that prevents the DNA binding and function of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family members, in mouse basal ..
  47. Herzig S, Long F, Jhala U, Hedrick S, Quinn R, Bauer A, et al. CREB regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis through the coactivator PGC-1. Nature. 2001;413:179-83 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice carrying a targeted disruption of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein gene, or overexpressing a dominant-negative CREB inhibitor, exhibit fasting hypoglycaemia [corrected] and ..
  48. Ananieva O, Darragh J, Johansen C, Carr J, McIlrath J, Park J, et al. The kinases MSK1 and MSK2 act as negative regulators of Toll-like receptor signaling. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1028-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency in MSK1 and MSK2 prevented the binding of phosphorylated transcription factors CREB and ATF1 to the promoters of the genes encoding interleukin 10 and DUSP1...
  49. Fentzke R, Korcarz C, Lang R, Lin H, Leiden J. Dilated cardiomyopathy in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative CREB transcription factor in the heart. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:2415-26 pubmed
    ..Here we show that transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of the CREB transcription factor (CREBA133) under the control of the cardiac myocyte-specific alpha-MHC promoter develop ..
  50. Matus M, Lewin G, Stümpel F, Buchwalow I, Schneider M, Schutz G, et al. Cardiomyocyte-specific inactivation of transcription factor CREB in mice. FASEB J. 2007;21:1884-92 pubmed
    The transcription factor cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB, Creb1) plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in response to activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway, which is implicated in the ..
  51. Cheng J, Kinjo K, Judelson D, Chang J, Wu W, Schmid I, et al. CREB is a critical regulator of normal hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. Blood. 2008;111:1182-92 pubmed
    The cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a 43-kDa nuclear transcription factor that regulates cell growth, memory, and glucose homeostasis...
  52. Suzuki A, Fukushima H, Mukawa T, Toyoda H, Wu L, Zhao M, et al. Upregulation of CREB-mediated transcription enhances both short- and long-term memory. J Neurosci. 2011;31:8786-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain ..
  53. Zhao L, Li G, Zhou G. SOX9 directly binds CREB as a novel synergism with the PKA pathway in BMP-2-induced osteochondrogenic differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:826-36 pubmed publisher
    ..SOX9 action with the PKA pathway was further shown to occur through direct physical association between SOX9 and CREB, a prototypical PKA downstream transcription factor...