Gene Symbol: Cplx2
Description: complexin 2
Alias: 921-L, AI413745, AW492120, Gm34843, complexin-2, CPX II, complexin II, synaphin-1
Species: mouse
Products:     Cplx2

Top Publications

  1. Lin M, Rohan J, Cai H, Reim K, Ko C, Chow R. Complexin facilitates exocytosis and synchronizes vesicle release in two secretory model systems. J Physiol. 2013;591:2463-73 pubmed publisher
  2. Reim K, Mansour M, Varoqueaux F, McMahon H, Sudhof T, Brose N, et al. Complexins regulate a late step in Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release. Cell. 2001;104:71-81 pubmed
  3. Xue M, Lin Y, Pan H, Reim K, Deng H, Bellen H, et al. Tilting the balance between facilitatory and inhibitory functions of mammalian and Drosophila Complexins orchestrates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Neuron. 2009;64:367-80 pubmed publisher
  4. Strenzke N, Chanda S, Kopp Scheinpflug C, Khimich D, Reim K, Bulankina A, et al. Complexin-I is required for high-fidelity transmission at the endbulb of Held auditory synapse. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7991-8004 pubmed publisher
    ..Although sound encoding in the cochlea proceeds in the absence of complexins, CPX I is required for faithful processing of sound onset and offset in the cochlear nucleus. ..
  5. Maximov A, Tang J, Yang X, Pang Z, Sudhof T. Complexin controls the force transfer from SNARE complexes to membranes in fusion. Science. 2009;323:516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, complexin probably activates and clamps the force transfer from assembled trans-SNARE complexes onto fusing membranes. ..
  6. Cai H, Reim K, Varoqueaux F, Tapechum S, Hill K, Sørensen J, et al. Complexin II plays a positive role in Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by facilitating vesicle priming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that adrenal chromaffin cells from CPX II knockout mice exhibit markedly diminished releasable vesicle pools (comprising the readily and slowly releasable ..
  7. Xue M, Stradomska A, Chen H, Brose N, Zhang W, Rosenmund C, et al. Complexins facilitate neurotransmitter release at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in mammalian central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7875-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that at mammalian central nervous system synapses, Cplxs facilitate neurotransmitter release and do not simply act as inhibitory clamps of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. ..
  8. Takahashi S, Ujihara H, Huang G, Yagyu K, Sanbo M, Kaba H, et al. Reduced hippocampal LTP in mice lacking a presynaptic protein: complexin II. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:2359-66 pubmed
    ..To examine this possibility and to understand the physiological function of complexins, we generated complexin II knockout mice. The complexin-II-deficient mice (-/-) were viable and fertile, and appeared normal...
  9. Dhara M, Yarzagaray A, Schwarz Y, Dutta S, Grabner C, Moghadam P, et al. Complexin synchronizes primed vesicle exocytosis and regulates fusion pore dynamics. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:1123-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results illustrate how key features of CpxII, SytI, and their interplay transform the constitutively active SNARE-mediated fusion mechanism into a highly synchronized, Ca(2+)-triggered release apparatus. ..

More Information


  1. Ahmad M, Polepalli J, Goswami D, Yang X, Kaeser Woo Y, Sudhof T, et al. Postsynaptic complexin controls AMPA receptor exocytosis during LTP. Neuron. 2012;73:260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a complexin-dependent molecular mechanism for regulating AMPAR delivery to synapses, a mechanism that is surprisingly similar to presynaptic exocytosis but controlled by regulators other than synaptotagmin-1. ..
  2. Yu H, Zhao Y, He W, Li X, Zhou Y, Liu L. [Effects of neonatal isolation stress on hyperlocomotion of complexin II knockout mouse]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2011;63:300-4 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of neonatal isolation stress on hyperlocomotion in complexin II knockout mouse (Cplx2(-/-))...
  3. Glynn D, Gibson H, Harte M, Reim K, Jones S, Reynolds G, et al. Clorgyline-mediated reversal of neurological deficits in a Complexin 2 knockout mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3402-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Complexin 2 is a protein modulator of neurotransmitter release that is downregulated in humans suffering from depression, animal models of depression and neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease in which depression is a major ..
  4. Yang Y, Kim A, Yamada T, Wu B, Bilimoria P, Ikeuchi Y, et al. A Cdc20-APC ubiquitin signaling pathway regulates presynaptic differentiation. Science. 2009;326:575-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The NeuroD2 target gene encoding Complexin II, which acts locally at presynaptic sites, mediated the ability of NeuroD2 to suppress presynaptic ..
  5. Gibson H, Reim K, Brose N, Morton A, Jones S. A similar impairment in CA3 mossy fibre LTP in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease and in the complexin II knockout mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1701-12 pubmed
    b>Complexin II is reduced in Huntington's disease (HD) patients and in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Mice lacking complexin II (Cplx2-/- mice) show selective cognitive deficits that reflect those seen in R6/2 mice...
  6. Raevskaya N, Dergunova L, Vladychenskaya I, Stavchansky V, Oborina M, Poltaraus A, et al. Structural organization of the human complexin 2 gene (CPLX2) and aspects of its functional activity. Gene. 2005;359:127-37 pubmed
    We report here on the in vitro and in silico characterization of the organization of the human complexin 2 (CPLX2) gene. This encodes for a protein of 134 amino acid residues, contains five exons, is localized on human chromosome 5q35...
  7. Yamauchi Y, Qin L, Nishihara M, Sawada K, Kato K, Inoue S. Vulnerability of synaptic plasticity in the complexin II knockout mouse to maternal deprivation stress. Brain Res. 2005;1056:59-67 pubmed
    ..Postmortem studies in schizophrenic patients have shown that expression of complexin II, which is involved in neurotransmitter release at central nervous system synapses, is decreased in the brain...
  8. Hong W. SNAREs and traffic. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1744:120-44 pubmed
    ..In the post-genomic era, a fairly complete list of "all" SNAREs in several organisms (including human) can now be made. This review aims to summarize the key properties and the mechanism of action of SNAREs in mammalian cells. ..
  9. Freeman W, Morton A. Differential messenger RNA expression of complexins in mouse brain. Brain Res Bull. 2004;63:33-44 pubmed
  10. Morton A, Edwardson J. Progressive depletion of complexin II in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. J Neurochem. 2001;76:166-72 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the specific and progressive loss of complexin II from the brains of mice carrying the HD mutation (R6/2 line), and the later appearance of this protein in a ..
  11. Vardar G, Chang S, Arancillo M, Wu Y, Trimbuch T, Rosenmund C. Distinct Functions of Syntaxin-1 in Neuronal Maintenance, Synaptic Vesicle Docking, and Fusion in Mouse Neurons. J Neurosci. 2016;36:7911-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our work provides insights into differential functions of Stx1 in neuronal maintenance and neurotransmission, with the latter explored further into its functions in vesicle docking and fusion. ..
  12. Kurokawa A, Narukawa M, Ohmoto M, Yoshimoto J, Abe K, Misaka T. Expression of the synaptic exocytosis-regulating molecule complexin 2 in taste buds and its participation in peripheral taste transduction. J Neurochem. 2015;133:806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Among four Cplx isoforms, strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in type III taste cells...
  13. Imig C, Min S, Krinner S, Arancillo M, Rosenmund C, Südhof T, et al. The morphological and molecular nature of synaptic vesicle priming at presynaptic active zones. Neuron. 2014;84:416-31 pubmed publisher
  14. Takahashi S, Yamamoto H, Matsuda Z, Ogawa M, Yagyu K, Taniguchi T, et al. Identification of two highly homologous presynaptic proteins distinctly localized at the dendritic and somatic synapses. FEBS Lett. 1995;368:455-60 pubmed
    ..Immuno-electron microscopic study revealed that both 921 proteins are localized at the presynaptic terminal, indicating that the 921 proteins are differentially expressed at the dendritic and somatic presynapses. ..
  15. Wang Z, Wei X, Liu K, Zhang X, Yang F, Zhang H, et al. NOX2 deficiency ameliorates cerebral injury through reduction of complexin II-mediated glutamate excitotoxicity in experimental stroke. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;65:942-951 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we first identified the upregulation of complexin II in the ischemic brain and evaluated its potential role in ischemic stroke showing that gene silencing of ..
  16. Huang G, Ujihara H, Takahashi S, Kaba H, Yagi T, Inoue S. Involvement of complexin II in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus: the use of complexin II-lacking mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2000;84:179-87 pubmed
    An electrophysiological study was performed with mice lacking complexin II, a presynaptic protein...
  17. Radyushkin K, El Kordi A, Boretius S, Castaneda S, Ronnenberg A, Reim K, et al. Complexin2 null mutation requires a 'second hit' for induction of phenotypic changes relevant to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:592-602 pubmed publisher
    ..As dysfunction in synaptic transmission plays a key role in schizophrenia, and complexin2 (CPLX2) gene expression is reduced in hippocampus of schizophrenic patients, we developed a mouse model with Cplx2 null ..
  18. Medrihan L, Rohlmann A, Fairless R, Andrae J, Döring M, Missler M, et al. Neurobeachin, a protein implicated in membrane protein traffic and autism, is required for the formation and functioning of central synapses. J Physiol. 2009;587:5095-106 pubmed publisher
  19. Reim K, Wegmeyer H, Brandst tter J, Xue M, Rosenmund C, Dresbach T, et al. Structurally and functionally unique complexins at retinal ribbon synapses. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:669-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel CPXs III and IV may contribute to the unique release efficacy of retinal sensory neurons...
  20. Butterworth M, Frizzell R, Johnson J, Peters K, Edinger R. PKA-dependent ENaC trafficking requires the SNARE-binding protein complexin. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;289:F969-77 pubmed
    ..b>Complexin II mRNA coexpressed with alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes reduced sodium currents ..
  21. Glynn D, Reim K, Brose N, Morton A. Depletion of Complexin II does not affect disease progression in a mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD); support for role for complexin II in behavioural pathology in a mouse model of HD. Brain Res Bull. 2007;72:108-20 pubmed
    ..One protein that may contribute to neurological dysfunction in HD is complexin II. Complexins are presynaptic proteins that are believed to modulate neurotransmitter release...
  22. Glynn D, Bortnick R, Morton A. Complexin II is essential for normal neurological function in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2431-48 pubmed
    ..Given that decreased expression of CPLXII is seen in HD and schizophrenic patients, a role for CPLXII depletion should be considered in other diseases where motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms co-exist. ..
  23. Ha T, Swanson D, Kirova R, Yeung J, Choi K, Tong Y, et al. Genome-wide microarray comparison reveals downstream genes of Pax6 in the developing mouse cerebellum. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2888-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The candidate genes identified in this way represent direct or indirect Pax6-downstream genes involved in cerebellar development. ..
  24. Freeman W, Morton A. Regional and progressive changes in brain expression of complexin II in a mouse transgenic for the Huntington's disease mutation. Brain Res Bull. 2004;63:45-55 pubmed
    ..We have shown previously that there is a decrease in protein levels of the SNARE-associated protein, complexin II (CPLXII) in Huntington's disease brain and in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease...
  25. Yang X, Cao P, Sudhof T. Deconstructing complexin function in activating and clamping Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by comparing knockout and knockdown phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20777-82 pubmed publisher