Gene Symbol: Cplx1
Description: complexin 1
Alias: 921-S, complexin-1, CPX I, complexin I, synaphin-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Cplx1

Top Publications

  1. Freeman W, Morton A. Differential messenger RNA expression of complexins in mouse brain. Brain Res Bull. 2004;63:33-44 pubmed
  2. Hong W. SNAREs and traffic. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1744:120-44 pubmed
    ..In the post-genomic era, a fairly complete list of "all" SNAREs in several organisms (including human) can now be made. This review aims to summarize the key properties and the mechanism of action of SNAREs in mammalian cells. ..
  3. Xue M, Reim K, Chen X, Chao H, Deng H, Rizo J, et al. Distinct domains of complexin I differentially regulate neurotransmitter release. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:949-58 pubmed
    ..We show here that SNARE complex binding of complexin I (CplxI) via its central alpha-helix is necessary but, unexpectedly, not sufficient for its key function in ..
  4. Drew C, Kyd R, Morton A. Complexin 1 knockout mice exhibit marked deficits in social behaviours but appear to be cognitively normal. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2288-305 pubmed
    Complexins are presynaptic proteins that modulate neurotransmitter release. Abnormal expression of complexin 1 (Cplx1) is seen in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders in which disturbed social behaviour is commonplace...
  5. Glynn D, Sizemore R, Morton A. Early motor development is abnormal in complexin 1 knockout mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;25:483-95 pubmed
    ..Adult complexin 1 knockout (Cplx1(-/-)) mice are severely ataxic and show deficits in exploration and emotional reactivity...
  6. Xue M, Lin Y, Pan H, Reim K, Deng H, Bellen H, et al. Tilting the balance between facilitatory and inhibitory functions of mammalian and Drosophila Complexins orchestrates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Neuron. 2009;64:367-80 pubmed publisher
  7. Kielar C, Sawiak S, Navarro Negredo P, Tse D, Morton A. Tensor-based morphometry and stereology reveal brain pathology in the complexin1 knockout mouse. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32636 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cplx1 knockout mice (Cplx1(-/-)) have the earliest known onset of ataxia seen in a mouse model, although hitherto no ..
  8. Glynn D, Drew C, Reim K, Brose N, Morton A. Profound ataxia in complexin I knockout mice masks a complex phenotype that includes exploratory and habituation deficits. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2369-85 pubmed
    ..The abnormalities seen in the behaviour of Cplx1-/- mice reflect those predicted from the distribution of complexin I in the brain...
  9. Reim K, Wegmeyer H, Brandst tter J, Xue M, Rosenmund C, Dresbach T, et al. Structurally and functionally unique complexins at retinal ribbon synapses. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:669-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel CPXs III and IV may contribute to the unique release efficacy of retinal sensory neurons...

More Information


  1. Takahashi S, Yamamoto H, Matsuda Z, Ogawa M, Yagyu K, Taniguchi T, et al. Identification of two highly homologous presynaptic proteins distinctly localized at the dendritic and somatic synapses. FEBS Lett. 1995;368:455-60 pubmed
    ..Immuno-electron microscopic study revealed that both 921 proteins are localized at the presynaptic terminal, indicating that the 921 proteins are differentially expressed at the dendritic and somatic presynapses. ..
  2. Reim K, Mansour M, Varoqueaux F, McMahon H, Sudhof T, Brose N, et al. Complexins regulate a late step in Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release. Cell. 2001;104:71-81 pubmed
  3. Lahut S, Gispert S, Omur O, Depboylu C, Seidel K, Domínguez Bautista J, et al. Blood RNA biomarkers in prodromal PARK4 and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder show role of complexin 1 loss for risk of Parkinson's disease. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10:619-631 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of complexin 1 (CPLX1) mRNA was correlated with genotype, but the expression of other Parkinson's disease genes was not...
  4. Kaeser Woo Y, Yang X, Sudhof T. C-terminal complexin sequence is selectively required for clamping and priming but not for Ca2+ triggering of synaptic exocytosis. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2877-85 pubmed publisher
  5. Chang S, Reim K, Pedersen M, Neher E, Brose N, Taschenberger H. Complexin stabilizes newly primed synaptic vesicles and prevents their premature fusion at the mouse calyx of held synapse. J Neurosci. 2015;35:8272-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore studied consequences of genetic ablation of Cplx1 in the mouse calyx of Held synapse, and discovered a developmentally exacerbating phenotype of reduced spontaneous ..
  6. Hook P, McClymont S, Cannon G, Law W, Morton A, Goff L, et al. Single-Cell RNA-Seq of Mouse Dopaminergic Neurons Informs Candidate Gene Selection for Sporadic Parkinson Disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2018;102:427-446 pubmed publisher
    ..As proof of principle, we confirm that the nigrostriatal pathway is compromised in Cplx1-null mice...
  7. Imig C, Min S, Krinner S, Arancillo M, Rosenmund C, Südhof T, et al. The morphological and molecular nature of synaptic vesicle priming at presynaptic active zones. Neuron. 2014;84:416-31 pubmed publisher
  8. Ahmad M, Polepalli J, Goswami D, Yang X, Kaeser Woo Y, Sudhof T, et al. Postsynaptic complexin controls AMPA receptor exocytosis during LTP. Neuron. 2012;73:260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a complexin-dependent molecular mechanism for regulating AMPAR delivery to synapses, a mechanism that is surprisingly similar to presynaptic exocytosis but controlled by regulators other than synaptotagmin-1. ..
  9. Yang X, Kaeser Woo Y, Pang Z, Xu W, Sudhof T. Complexin clamps asynchronous release by blocking a secondary Ca(2+) sensor via its accessory ? helix. Neuron. 2010;68:907-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, complexin performs mechanistically distinct activation and clamping functions that operate in conjunction with synaptotagmin-1 by controlling trans-SNARE-complex assembly. ..
  10. Abderrahmani A, Niederhauser G, Plaisance V, Roehrich M, Lenain V, Coppola T, et al. Complexin I regulates glucose-induced secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2239-47 pubmed
    The neuronal-specific protein complexin I (CPX I) plays an important role in controlling the Ca(2+)-dependent neurotransmitter release...
  11. Maximov A, Tang J, Yang X, Pang Z, Sudhof T. Complexin controls the force transfer from SNARE complexes to membranes in fusion. Science. 2009;323:516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, complexin probably activates and clamps the force transfer from assembled trans-SNARE complexes onto fusing membranes. ..
  12. Dietz J, Li Y, Chung L, Yandell B, Schlamp C, Nickells R. Rgcs1, a dominant QTL that affects retinal ganglion cell death after optic nerve crush in mice. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:74 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel dominant locus has been identified that affects sensitivity of ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. The allele responsible for this sensitivity may also be a susceptibility allele for glaucoma. ..
  13. Xue M, Stradomska A, Chen H, Brose N, Zhang W, Rosenmund C, et al. Complexins facilitate neurotransmitter release at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in mammalian central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7875-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that at mammalian central nervous system synapses, Cplxs facilitate neurotransmitter release and do not simply act as inhibitory clamps of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. ..
  14. Zhao L, Shi X, Li L, Miller D. Dynamin 2 associates with complexins and is found in the acrosomal region of mammalian sperm. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:750-7 pubmed
    Previous data showed that complexin I, a SNARE regulatory protein, is localized in and/or around the acrosome and is necessary for the acrosome reaction in sperm...
  15. Zhao L, Burkin H, Shi X, Li L, Reim K, Miller D. Complexin I is required for mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis. Dev Biol. 2007;309:236-44 pubmed
    ..Therefore, complexin I functions in exocytosis in two related but morphologically distinct secretory processes...
  16. Lin M, Rohan J, Cai H, Reim K, Ko C, Chow R. Complexin facilitates exocytosis and synchronizes vesicle release in two secretory model systems. J Physiol. 2013;591:2463-73 pubmed publisher
  17. Vardar G, Chang S, Arancillo M, Wu Y, Trimbuch T, Rosenmund C. Distinct Functions of Syntaxin-1 in Neuronal Maintenance, Synaptic Vesicle Docking, and Fusion in Mouse Neurons. J Neurosci. 2016;36:7911-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our work provides insights into differential functions of Stx1 in neuronal maintenance and neurotransmission, with the latter explored further into its functions in vesicle docking and fusion. ..
  18. Kurokawa A, Narukawa M, Ohmoto M, Yoshimoto J, Abe K, Misaka T. Expression of the synaptic exocytosis-regulating molecule complexin 2 in taste buds and its participation in peripheral taste transduction. J Neurochem. 2015;133:806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2- knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction. ..
  19. Gispert S, Kurz A, Brehm N, Rau K, Walter M, Riess O, et al. Complexin-1 and Foxp1 Expression Changes Are Novel Brain Effects of Alpha-Synuclein Pathology. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular complexin-1 (Cplx1), Rabl2a and 14-3-3epsilon (Ywhae) downregulation, as well as upregulation of the midbrain-specific factor ..
  20. Yang X, Cao P, Sudhof T. Deconstructing complexin function in activating and clamping Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by comparing knockout and knockdown phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20777-82 pubmed publisher
  21. Strenzke N, Chanda S, Kopp Scheinpflug C, Khimich D, Reim K, Bulankina A, et al. Complexin-I is required for high-fidelity transmission at the endbulb of Held auditory synapse. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7991-8004 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explored the role of CPXs in the mouse auditory system. Hearing was impaired in CPX I knock-out mice but normal in knock-out mice for CPXs II, III, IV, and III/IV as measured by auditory brainstem ..
  22. Sawiak S, Wood N, Carpenter T, Morton A. Huntington's disease mouse models online: high-resolution MRI images with stereotaxic templates for computational neuroanatomy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e53361 pubmed publisher
    ..There will be no constraints placed on the use of the datasets included here. The original data will be easily and permanently accessible via the University of Cambridge data repository (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243361)...
  23. Zhao L, Reim K, Miller D. Complexin-I-deficient sperm are subfertile due to a defect in zona pellucida penetration. Reproduction. 2008;136:323-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, complexin-I-deficient sperm are subfertile due to faulty zona pellucida penetration...
  24. Xue M, Craig T, Xu J, Chao H, Rizo J, Rosenmund C. Binding of the complexin N terminus to the SNARE complex potentiates synaptic-vesicle fusogenicity. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:568-75 pubmed publisher
  25. Wragg R, Snead D, Dong Y, Ramlall T, Menon I, Bai J, et al. Synaptic vesicles position complexin to block spontaneous fusion. Neuron. 2013;77:323-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the SV pool serves as a platform to sequester and position complexin where it can intercept the rapidly assembling SNAREs and control the rate of spontaneous fusion. ..
  26. Tang J, Maximov A, Shin O, Dai H, Rizo J, Sudhof T. A complexin/synaptotagmin 1 switch controls fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Cell. 2006;126:1175-87 pubmed