Cnr2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cnr2
Description: cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage)
Alias: CB-2, CB2, CB2-R, cannabinoid receptor 2, cannabinoid receptor 2 (spleen)
Species: mouse
Products:     Cnr2

Top Publications

  1. Lou Z, Chen C, He Q, Zhao C, Xiao B. Targeting CB(2) receptor as a neuroinflammatory modulator in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mol Immunol. 2011;49:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that manipulation of CB(2)R may have therapeutic value in MS, but its complexity remains to be considered and studied for further clinical application. ..
  2. Han K, Lim S, Ryu J, Lee C, Kim Y, Kang J, et al. CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors differentially regulate the production of reactive oxygen species by macrophages. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:378-86 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the mechanism by which cannabinoid receptors-1 (CB1) and -2 (CB2) modulate inflammatory activities of macrophages...
  3. Jarai Z, Wagner J, Varga K, Lake K, Compton D, Martin B, et al. Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14136-41 pubmed
    ..Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been cloned, and studies with the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A have implicated peripherally ..
  4. Karsak M, Gaffal E, Date R, Wang Eckhardt L, Rehnelt J, Petrosino S, et al. Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system. Science. 2007;316:1494-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a protective role of the endocannabinoid system in contact allergy in the skin and suggest a target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  5. Molina Holgado F, Rubio Araiz A, Garcia Ovejero D, Williams R, Moore J, Arevalo Martin A, et al. CB2 cannabinoid receptors promote mouse neural stem cell proliferation. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:629-34 pubmed
    ..In the present study we investigated the expression of CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the effect of exogenous cannabinoids on neural stem/precursor cell proliferation...
  6. Munro S, Thomas K, Abu Shaar M. Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Nature. 1993;365:61-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report the cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen. ..
  7. Montecucco F, Lenglet S, Braunersreuther V, Burger F, Pelli G, Bertolotto M, et al. CB(2) cannabinoid receptor activation is cardioprotective in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:612-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that JWH-133 administration during ischemia reduces the infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion through a direct cardioprotective activity on cardiomyocytes and neutrophils. ..
  8. Palazuelos J, Davoust N, Julien B, Hatterer E, Aguado T, Mechoulam R, et al. The CB(2) cannabinoid receptor controls myeloid progenitor trafficking: involvement in the pathogenesis of an animal model of multiple sclerosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13320-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, Haskó G, Liaudet L, Huffman J, et al. CB2-receptor stimulation attenuates TNF-alpha-induced human endothelial cell activation, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2210-8 pubmed

More Information

Publications75

  1. Maresz K, Pryce G, Ponomarev E, Marsicano G, Croxford J, Shriver L, et al. Direct suppression of CNS autoimmune inflammation via the cannabinoid receptor CB1 on neurons and CB2 on autoreactive T cells. Nat Med. 2007;13:492-7 pubmed
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that the cannabinoid system within the CNS plays a critical role in regulating autoimmune inflammation, with the CNS directly suppressing T-cell effector function via the CB(2) receptor. ..
  2. Mukhopadhyay S, Das S, Williams E, Moore D, Jones J, Zahm D, et al. Lipopolysaccharide and cyclic AMP regulation of CB(2) cannabinoid receptor levels in rat brain and mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Neuroimmunol. 2006;181:82-92 pubmed
    ..Forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased CB(2) receptor immunoreactivity, suggesting the involvement of the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A-Cyclic AMP response element pathway in the regulation of CB(2) receptor levels. ..
  3. Ofek O, Karsak M, Leclerc N, Fogel M, Frenkel B, Wright K, et al. Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:696-701 pubmed
    ..receptors, the predominantly central cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peripheral cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2)...
  4. Julien B, Grenard P, Teixeira Clerc F, Van Nhieu J, Li L, Karsak M, et al. Antifibrogenic role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in the liver. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:742-55 pubmed
    ..Cannabinoids are the active components of marijuana and act via 2 G-protein-coupled receptors, CB1 and CB2. Here, we investigated whether liver fibrogenic cells are a target of cannabinoids...
  5. Buckley N, McCoy K, Mezey E, Bonner T, Felder C, Glass M, et al. Immunomodulation by cannabinoids is absent in mice deficient for the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;396:141-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we conclude that the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor knockout mouse is a useful animal model in which to study the role of the cannabinoid system in immunoregulation. ..
  6. Brown S, Wager Miller J, Mackie K. Cloning and molecular characterization of the rat CB2 cannabinoid receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1576:255-64 pubmed
    ..The importance of the carboxy terminus in regulating CB2 receptor desensitization and internalization is well-established...
  7. Netherland C, Pickle T, Bales A, Thewke D. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) deficiency alters atherosclerotic lesion formation in hyperlipidemic Ldlr-null mice. Atherosclerosis. 2010;213:102-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine if cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) plays a role in atherosclerosis, we investigated the effects of systemic CB2 gene deletion on hyperlipidemia-induced atherogenesis in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice...
  8. Ziring D, Wei B, Velazquez P, Schrage M, Buckley N, Braun J. Formation of B and T cell subsets require the cannabinoid receptor CB2. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:714-25 pubmed
    ..The peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 is highly expressed in immune cell types (macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells), and pharmacologically alters ..
  9. Jorda M, Verbakel S, Valk P, Vankan Berkhoudt Y, Maccarrone M, Finazzi Agrò A, et al. Hematopoietic cells expressing the peripheral cannabinoid receptor migrate in response to the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Blood. 2002;99:2786-93 pubmed
    b>Cb2 is a novel protooncogene encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor. Previous studies demonstrated that 2 distinct noncoding first exons exist: exon-1A and exon-1B, which both splice to protein-coding exon-2...
  10. Ibrahim M, Porreca F, Lai J, Albrecht P, Rice F, Khodorova A, et al. CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation produces antinociception by stimulating peripheral release of endogenous opioids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3093-8 pubmed
    ..This mechanism allows for the local release of beta-endorphin, where CB(2) receptors are present, leading to anatomical specificity of opioid effects. ..
  11. Ofek O, Attar Namdar M, Kram V, Dvir Ginzberg M, Mechoulam R, Zimmer A, et al. CB2 cannabinoid receptor targets mitogenic Gi protein-cyclin D1 axis in osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:308-16 pubmed publisher
    b>CB2 is a Gi protein-coupled receptor activated by endo- and phytocannabinoids, thus inhibiting stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. CB2 is expressed in bone cells and Cb2 null mice show a marked age-related bone loss...
  12. Deveaux V, Cadoudal T, Ichigotani Y, Teixeira Clerc F, Louvet A, Manin S, et al. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor potentiates obesity-associated inflammation, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5844 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments were also performed in mice knock-out for CB2 receptors (Cnr2 -/-)...
  13. Schicho R, Bashashati M, Bawa M, McHugh D, Saur D, Hu H, et al. The atypical cannabinoid O-1602 protects against experimental colitis and inhibits neutrophil recruitment. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:1651-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, atypical cannabinoids represent a novel class of therapeutics that may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. ..
  14. Casanova M, Blazquez C, Martínez Palacio J, Villanueva C, Fernández Aceñero M, Huffman J, et al. Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:43-50 pubmed
    ..Abrogation of EGF-R function was also observed in cannabinoid-treated tumors. These results support a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of skin tumors. ..
  15. Bátkai S, Osei Hyiaman D, Pan H, El Assal O, Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, et al. Cannabinoid-2 receptor mediates protection against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. FASEB J. 2007;21:1788-800 pubmed
    ..Activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors by JWH133 protects against I/R damage by decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue ..
  16. Wang H, Guo Y, Wang D, Kingsley P, Marnett L, Das S, et al. Aberrant cannabinoid signaling impairs oviductal transport of embryos. Nat Med. 2004;10:1074-80 pubmed
    ..Besides uncovering a new regulatory mechanism, this study could be clinically relevant to ectopic pregnancy. ..
  17. Blazquez C, Carracedo A, Barrado L, Real P, Fernandez Luna J, Velasco G, et al. Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma. FASEB J. 2006;20:2633-5 pubmed
    ..Human melanomas and melanoma cell lines express CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors...
  18. Das S, Paria B, Chakraborty I, Dey S. Cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling in the mouse uterus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:4332-6 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate that the brain-type cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) mRNA, but not the spleen-type cannabinoid receptor (CB2-R) mRNA, is expressed in the mouse uterus and that this organ has the capacity to synthesize the putative ..
  19. Montecucco F, Matias I, Lenglet S, Petrosino S, Burger F, Pelli G, et al. Regulation and possible role of endocannabinoids and related mediators in hypercholesterolemic mice with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205:433-41 pubmed publisher
  20. Kimball E, Schneider C, Wallace N, Hornby P. Agonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 inhibit experimental colitis induced by oil of mustard and by dextran sulfate sodium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G364-71 pubmed
    ..The demonstration of CB1R agonist effects in colitis support the neurogenic nature of the OM-induced colitis model and reinforce the importance of neuronal activation in intestinal inflammation. ..
  21. Sophocleous A, Landao Bassonga E, van t Hof R, Idris A, Ralston S. The type 2 cannabinoid receptor regulates bone mass and ovariectomy-induced bone loss by affecting osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2141-9 pubmed publisher
    The type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) has been reported to regulate bone mass and bone turnover but the mechanisms responsible are incompletely understood...
  22. Paria B, Song H, Wang X, Schmid P, Krebsbach R, Schmid H, et al. Dysregulated cannabinoid signaling disrupts uterine receptivity for embryo implantation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:20523-8 pubmed
    ..embryo development became asynchronous in mice that are deficient in brain-type (CB1) and/or spleen-type (CB2) cannabinoid receptor genes...
  23. Do Y, McKallip R, Nagarkatti M, Nagarkatti P. Activation through cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 on dendritic cells triggers NF-kappaB-dependent apoptosis: novel role for endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids in immunoregulation. J Immunol. 2004;173:2373-82 pubmed
    The precise role of cannabinoid receptors (CB)1 and CB2, as well as endogenous ligands for these receptors, on immune cells remains unclear...
  24. Tam J, Trembovler V, Di Marzo V, Petrosino S, Leo G, Alexandrovich A, et al. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor regulates bone formation by modulating adrenergic signaling. FASEB J. 2008;22:285-94 pubmed
    ..Elevation of bone 2-AG apparently suppresses NE release from bone sympathetic terminals, thus alleviating the inhibition of bone formation. The involvement of osteoblastic CB2 signaling in this process is minimal, if any.
  25. Carlisle S, Marciano Cabral F, Staab A, Ludwick C, Cabral G. Differential expression of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor by rodent macrophages and macrophage-like cells in relation to cell activation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2002;2:69-82 pubmed
    ..P388D, macrophage-like cells, and neonatal rat brain cortex microglia expressed the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) differentially in relation to cell activation...
  26. Defer N, Wan J, Souktani R, Escoubet B, Perier M, Caramelle P, et al. The cannabinoid receptor type 2 promotes cardiac myocyte and fibroblast survival and protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyopathy. FASEB J. 2009;23:2120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Ex vivo studies have demonstrated the cardioprotective anti-inflammatory effect of the cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor agonists within hours after IR...
  27. Wotherspoon G, Fox A, McIntyre P, Colley S, Bevan S, Winter J. Peripheral nerve injury induces cannabinoid receptor 2 protein expression in rat sensory neurons. Neuroscience. 2005;135:235-45 pubmed
    We have localized cannabinoid receptor 2 protein in rat and mouse somatic sensory nervous system, using an antibody that recognizes mouse cannabinoid receptor 2...
  28. Whyte L, Ryberg E, Sims N, Ridge S, Mackie K, Greasley P, et al. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 affects osteoclast function in vitro and bone mass in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this study also brings to light an effect of both the endogenous ligand, LPI, on osteoclasts and of the cannabis constituent, CBD, on osteoclasts and bone turnover in vivo. ..
  29. Idris A, Sophocleous A, Landao Bassonga E, van t Hof R, Ralston S. Regulation of bone mass, osteoclast function, and ovariectomy-induced bone loss by the type 2 cannabinoid receptor. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) has been reported to regulate bone mass, but conflicting results have been reported with regard to its effects on ..
  30. Palazuelos J, Aguado T, Egia A, Mechoulam R, Guzman M, Galve Roperh I. Non-psychoactive CB2 cannabinoid agonists stimulate neural progenitor proliferation. FASEB J. 2006;20:2405-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the CB2 cannabinoid receptor is abundant in the immune system and shows a restricted expression pattern in brain cells...
  31. Paria B, Das S, Dey S. The preimplantation mouse embryo is a target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9460-4 pubmed
    ..reverse transcription-coupled PCR, we demonstrated that both brain and spleen type cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R and CB2-R, respectively) mRNAs are expressed in the preimplantation mouse embryo...
  32. Sagredo O, Gonzalez S, Aroyo I, Pazos M, Benito C, Lastres Becker I, et al. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: relevance for Huntington's disease. Glia. 2009;57:1154-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that only compounds able to activate CB2 receptors were capable of protecting striatal projection neurons from malonate-induced death...
  33. Pereira J, An J, Xu Y, Huang Y, Cyster J. Cannabinoid receptor 2 mediates the retention of immature B cells in bone marrow sinusoids. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), a Galpha(i) protein-coupled receptor upregulated in immature B cells, was required for sinusoidal ..
  34. Agudo J, Martin M, Roca C, Molas M, Bura A, Zimmer A, et al. Deficiency of CB2 cannabinoid receptor in mice improves insulin sensitivity but increases food intake and obesity with age. Diabetologia. 2010;53:2629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice deficient in CB2R (Cb2 ( -/- ) [also known as Cnr2]) were studied at different ages (2-12 months)...
  35. Liu Q, Pan C, Hishimoto A, Li C, Xi Z, Llorente Berzal A, et al. Species differences in cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2 gene): identification of novel human and rodent CB2 isoforms, differential tissue expression and regulation by cannabinoid receptor ligands. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:519-30 pubmed publisher
    ..endocannabinoids and marijuana activate two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CB-Rs), CB1-Rs and CB2-Rs...
  36. Freeman Anderson N, Pickle T, Netherland C, Bales A, Buckley N, Thewke D. Cannabinoid (CB2) receptor deficiency reduces the susceptibility of macrophages to oxidized LDL/oxysterol-induced apoptosis. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:2338-46 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), the predominant macrophage cannabinoid receptor, modulates several macrophage processes associated ..
  37. Storr M, Keenan C, Emmerdinger D, Zhang H, Yüce B, Sibaev A, et al. Targeting endocannabinoid degradation protects against experimental colitis in mice: involvement of CB1 and CB2 receptors. J Mol Med (Berl). 2008;86:925-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, drugs targeting EC degradation offer therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Furthermore, reduction of FAAH mRNA expression is involved in the pathophysiological response to colitis. ..
  38. Kaplan B, Ouyang Y, Rockwell C, Rao G, Kaminski N. 2-Arachidonoyl-glycerol suppresses interferon-gamma production in phorbol ester/ionomycin-activated mouse splenocytes independent of CB1 or CB2. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;77:966-74 pubmed
    2-Arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), has previously been demonstrated to modulate immune functions including suppression of interleukin-2 expression and nuclear factor ..
  39. Rowley S, Sun X, Lima I, Tavenier A, de Oliveira A, Dey S, et al. Cannabinoid receptor 1/2 double-knockout mice develop epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2017;58:e162-e166 pubmed publisher
    ..on cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is widely expressed in the brain, but recent work also implicates cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in modulating neuronal activity...
  40. López Cardona A, Pérez Cerezales S, Fernandez Gonzalez R, Laguna Barraza R, Pericuesta E, Agirregoitia N, et al. CB1 cannabinoid receptor drives oocyte maturation and embryo development via PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. FASEB J. 2017;31:3372-3382 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) was unable to rescue these effects...
  41. Sun X, Wang H, Okabe M, Mackie K, Kingsley P, Marnett L, et al. Genetic loss of Faah compromises male fertility in mice. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the results show that aberrant endocannabinoid signaling via CNR1 impairs normal sperm function. Besides unveiling a new regulatory mechanism of sperm function, this study has clinical significance in male fertility. ..
  42. Trebicka J, Racz I, Siegmund S, Cara E, Granzow M, Schierwagen R, et al. Role of cannabinoid receptors in alcoholic hepatic injury: steatosis and fibrogenesis are increased in CB2 receptor-deficient mice and decreased in CB1 receptor knockouts. Liver Int. 2011;31:860-70 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, in CB(1) knockouts, the effect of ethanol was attenuated, suggesting aggravation of fibrogenesis and SREBP-1c-mediated steatosis via CB(1) receptor expression after ethanol intake. ..
  43. Cherif H, Argaw A, Cécyre B, Bouchard A, Gagnon J, Javadi P, et al. Role of GPR55 during Axon Growth and Target Innervation. Eneuro. 2015;2: pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that GPR55 modulates the growth rate and the targets innervation of retinal projections and highlight, for the first time, an important role of GPR55 in axon refinement during development. ..
  44. López Rodríguez A, Acaz Fonseca E, Viveros M, Garcia Segura L. Changes in cannabinoid receptors, aquaporin 4 and vimentin expression after traumatic brain injury in adolescent male mice. Association with edema and neurological deficit. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128782 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), blood brain barrier proteins (AQP4) and astrogliosis markers (vimentin) to neurological deficit and brain edema ..
  45. Kim J, Li Y. Chronic activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus increases excitatory synaptic transmission. J Physiol. 2015;593:871-86 pubmed publisher
    ..cannabinoids are primarily mediated by two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 receptors in the nervous system and CB2 receptors in the immune system...
  46. Cécyre B, Zabouri N, Huppé Gourgues F, Bouchard J, Casanova C. Roles of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 on the retinal function of adult mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:8079-90 pubmed publisher
    ..by recording electroretinographic responses (ERGs) from mice lacking either CB1 or CB2 receptors (cnr1(-/-) and cnr2(-/-), respectively). We also documented the precise distribution of CB2R by immunohistochemistry...
  47. García Gutiérrez M, Ortega Alvaro A, Busquets Garcia A, Pérez Ortiz J, Caltana L, Ricatti M, et al. Synaptic plasticity alterations associated with memory impairment induced by deletion of CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2013;73:388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results revealed that CB?r are involved in memory consolidation, suggesting that this receptor could be a promising target for developing novel treatments for different cognitive impairment-related disorders. ..
  48. Gui H, Sun Y, Luo Z, Su D, Dai S, Liu X. Cannabinoid receptor 2 protects against acute experimental sepsis in mice. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:741303 pubmed publisher
    ..And the effects of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) on the sepsis still remain undefined...
  49. Gennequin B, Otte D, Zimmer A. CRISPR/Cas-induced double-strand breaks boost the frequency of gene replacements for humanizing the mouse Cnr2 gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:815-9 pubmed publisher
    ..to enhance the genetic engineering of large target sequences using a construct for "humanizing" the mouse Cnr2 gene locus...
  50. Adhikary S, Kocieda V, Yen J, Tuma R, Ganea D. Signaling through cannabinoid receptor 2 suppresses murine dendritic cell migration by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression. Blood. 2012;120:3741-9 pubmed publisher
    Administration of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonists in inflammatory and autoimmune disease and CNS injury models results in significant attenuation of clinical disease, and reduction of inflammatory mediators...
  51. Szczesniak A, Porter R, Toguri J, Borowska Fielding J, Gebremeskel S, Siwakoti A, et al. Cannabinoid 2 receptor is a novel anti-inflammatory target in experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Neuropharmacology. 2017;113:627-638 pubmed publisher
    ..CB2R may represent a therapeutic target to prevent PVR progression and vision loss. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Lipid Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptors in the CNS'. ..
  52. Palomo Garo C, Gómez Gálvez Y, García C, Fernández Ruiz J. Targeting the cannabinoid CB2 receptor to attenuate the progression of motor deficits in LRRK2-transgenic mice. Pharmacol Res. 2016;110:181-192 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling system in the basal ganglia during the progression of the disease in these mice, paying emphasis in the CB2 receptor, which has emerged as a promising target in PD, and (ii) evaluating the potential of compounds selectively ..
  53. Desroches J, Bouchard J, Gendron L, Beaulieu P. Involvement of cannabinoid receptors in peripheral and spinal morphine analgesia. Neuroscience. 2014;261:23-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In cnr1 and cnr2 knockout (KO) mice, at the dose used the antinociceptive effect of intra paw morphine in the inflammatory phase of ..
  54. Buchweitz J, Karmaus P, Williams K, Harkema J, Kaminski N. Targeted deletion of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 produced enhanced inflammatory responses to influenza A/PR/8/34 in the absence and presence of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:785-96 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the immune and airway epithelial cell responses to PR8 challenge in Delta(9)-THC-treated CB(1)-/-/CB(2)-/- and wild-type mice indicated the involvement of CB(1)/CB(2) receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  55. Palazuelos J, Ortega Z, Díaz Alonso J, Guzman M, Galve Roperh I. CB2 cannabinoid receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation via mTORC1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1198-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these findings provide a mechanism of action and a rationale for the use of nonpsychotomimetic CB(2) receptor-selective ligands as a novel strategy for the control of NP cell proliferation and neurogenesis. ..
  56. Onaivi E, Ishiguro H, Gong J, Patel S, Meozzi P, Myers L, et al. Functional expression of brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors are involved in the effects of drugs of abuse and in depression. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1139:434-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Many laboratories were not able to detect the presence of CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2-Rs) in healthy brains, but CB2-R expression has been demonstrated in rat microglial ..
  57. Tang Y, Bao J, Su J, Huang W. MicroRNA-139 modulates Alzheimer's-associated pathogenesis in SAMP8 mice by targeting cannabinoid receptor type 2. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..The level of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), a potential target gene of miR-139, was inversely correlated with the miR-139 expression in primary hippocampal ..
  58. Wang H, Xie H, Dey S. Loss of cannabinoid receptor CB1 induces preterm birth. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3320 pubmed publisher
    ..Exploiting mouse models with targeted deletion of Cnr1, Cnr2 and Ptgs1 encoding CB1, CB2 and cyclooxygenase-1, respectively, we examined consequences of CB1 or CB2 silencing on ..
  59. Gómez Gálvez Y, Palomo Garo C, Fernández Ruiz J, García C. Potential of the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor as a pharmacological target against inflammation in Parkinson's disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;64:200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor has been investigated as a potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective target in different ..
  60. Duerr G, Heinemann J, Suchan G, Kolobara E, Wenzel D, Geisen C, et al. The endocannabinoid-CB2 receptor axis protects the ischemic heart at the early stage of cardiomyopathy. Basic Res Cardiol. 2014;109:425 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocannabinoids and the cannabinoid receptor CB2 have been claimed to be involved, but their potential role in cardioprotection is not well understood...
  61. Ueda N, Tsuboi K, Uyama T. Metabolism of endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines: canonical and alternative pathways. FEBS J. 2013;280:1874-94 pubmed publisher
    Endocannabinoids are endogenous ligands of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Two arachidonic acid derivatives, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, are considered to be physiologically important ..
  62. Jackson A, Hegde V, Nagarkatti P, Nagarkatti M. Characterization of endocannabinoid-mediated induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells involving mast cells and MCP-1. J Leukoc Biol. 2014;95:609-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate for the first time that endocannaboinids activate CB1 on mast cells to induce MCP-1, which facilitates recruitment of monocytic MDSCs. ..
  63. Gijsen H, De Cleyn M, Surkyn M, Van Lommen G, Verbist B, Nijsen M, et al. 5-sulfonyl-benzimidazoles as selective CB2 agonists-part 2. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:547-52 pubmed publisher
    In a previous communication, the SAR of a series of potent and selective 5-sulfonyl-benzimidazole CB2-receptor agonists was described...
  64. Palazuelos J, Aguado T, Pazos M, Julien B, Carrasco C, Resel E, et al. Microglial CB2 cannabinoid receptors are neuroprotective in Huntington's disease excitotoxicity. Brain. 2009;132:3152-64 pubmed publisher
  65. Atwood B, Straiker A, Mackie K. CB? cannabinoid receptors inhibit synaptic transmission when expressed in cultured autaptic neurons. Neuropharmacology. 2012;63:514-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus neuronal CB? is well suited to integrate into conventional neuronal endocannabinoid signaling processes, with its specific role determined by its unique and highly inducible expression profile. ..
  66. Akhmetshina A, Dees C, Busch N, Beer J, Sarter K, Zwerina J, et al. The cannabinoid receptor CB2 exerts antifibrotic effects in experimental dermal fibrosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1129-36 pubmed publisher
    The cannabinoid receptor CB2 is predominantly expressed in non-neuronal tissue and exerts potent immunomodulatory effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of CB2 in the pathogenesis of dermal fibrosis...