Gene Symbol: Cnn1
Description: calponin 1
Alias: CnnI, calponin-1, basic calponin, calponin H1, smooth muscle
Species: mouse
Products:     Cnn1

Top Publications

  1. Nobrega M, Shiozawa M, Koike G, Jacob H, Miano J. Gene structure and chromosomal mapping of the rat smooth muscle calponin gene. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:115-9 pubmed
    ..we define the gene structure, 5' promoter analysis, and chromosomal mapping of the rat smooth muscle calponin (CnnI) gene. The rat CnnI gene is comprised of seven exons spanning approximately 8 kb of genomic sequence...
  2. Strasser P, Gimona M, Moessler H, Herzog M, Small J. Mammalian calponin. Identification and expression of genetic variants. FEBS Lett. 1993;330:13-8 pubmed
    ..The sequence data demonstrate that the two mammalian calponin variants do not arise via alternative splicing but are encoded by different genes. ..
  3. Pan Y, Balazs L, Tigyi G, Yue J. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation. ..
  4. Albinsson S, Suarez Y, Skoura A, Offermanns S, Miano J, Sessa W. MicroRNAs are necessary for vascular smooth muscle growth, differentiation, and function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Dicer-dependent miRNAs are important for VSM development and function by regulating proliferation and contractile differentiation. ..
  5. Chen Z, Wu J, Yang C, Fan P, Balazs L, Jiao Y, et al. DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein-mediated microRNA biogenesis is essential for vascular smooth muscle cell development in mice. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In DGCR8 cKO embryos and knockout VSMCs, differentiation marker genes, including ?SMA, SM22, and CNN1, were significantly down-regulated, and the survival pathways of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the ..
  6. Fujishige A, Takahashi K, Tsuchiya T. Altered mechanical properties in smooth muscle of mice with a mutated calponin locus. Zoolog Sci. 2002;19:167-74 pubmed
    The mechanical properties of smooth muscles in aorta and vas deferens were studied in mice with a mutated basic calponin locus to learn the physiological function of calponin...
  7. Pfuhl M, Al Sarayreh S, El Mezgueldi M. The calponin regulatory region is intrinsically unstructured: novel insight into actin-calponin and calmodulin-calponin interfaces using NMR spectroscopy. Biophys J. 2011;100:1718-28 pubmed publisher
  8. Kim I, Ramakrishna S, Gusarova G, Yoder H, Costa R, Kalinichenko V. The forkhead box m1 transcription factor is essential for embryonic development of pulmonary vasculature. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22278-86 pubmed
    ..In summary, development of mouse lungs depends on the Foxm1 transcription factor, which regulates expression of genes essential for mesenchyme proliferation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and vasculogenesis. ..
  9. Cao D, Wang Z, Zhang C, Oh J, Xing W, Li S, et al. Modulation of smooth muscle gene expression by association of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases with myocardin. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:364-76 pubmed
    ..These findings point to myocardin as a nexus for positive and negative regulation of smooth muscle gene expression by changes in chromatin acetylation. ..

More Information


  1. Masuki S, Takeoka M, Taniguchi S, Yokoyama M, Nose H. Impaired arterial pressure regulation during exercise due to enhanced muscular vasodilatation in calponin knockout mice. J Physiol. 2003;553:203-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, impaired MAP regulation in KO mice during exercise was caused by a blunted muscle vascular alpha-adrenergic contractile response and by the attenuated HR response to spontaneous change in MAP due to reduced baroreflex sensitivity. ..
  2. Long X, Slivano O, Cowan S, Georger M, Lee T, Miano J. Smooth muscle calponin: an unconventional CArG-dependent gene that antagonizes neointimal formation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2172-80 pubmed publisher
    Smooth muscle calponin (CNN1) contains multiple conserved intronic CArG elements that bind serum response factor and display enhancer activity in vitro...
  3. Martín Alonso M, García Redondo A, Guo D, Camafeita E, Martínez F, Alfranca A, et al. Deficiency of MMP17/MT4-MMP proteolytic activity predisposes to aortic aneurysm in mice. Circ Res. 2015;117:e13-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The rescue of part of the vessel-wall phenotype by a lentiviral strategy opens avenues for therapeutic intervention in these life-threatening disorders. ..
  4. Miano J, Thomas S, Disteche C. Expression and chromosomal mapping of the mouse smooth muscle calponin gene. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:187-91 pubmed
    Smooth muscle calponin (Cnn1) is a multifunctional protein whose expression is tightly restricted to differentiated smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineages during embryonic and post-natal life...
  5. Li L, Zhang Y, Zhou C. Phosphorylation of h1 calponin by PKC epsilon may contribute to facilitate the contraction of uterine myometrium in mice during pregnancy and labor. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012;10:37 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that in mice myometrium, phosphorylation of h1 calponin induced by the PKC-epsilon might facilitate the contraction of uterine in labor and regulate pregnant myometrial contractility. ..
  6. Ivey K, Sutcliffe D, Richardson J, Clyman R, Garcia J, Srivastava D. Transcriptional regulation during development of the ductus arteriosus. Circ Res. 2008;103:388-95 pubmed publisher
  7. Mao X, Debenedittis P, Sun Y, Chen J, Yuan K, Jiao K, et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell Smad4 gene is important for mouse vascular development. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide important insight into the role of Smad4 and its upstream Smads in regulating SMC function and vascular development of mice. ..
  8. Young K, Krebs L, Tweedie E, Conley B, Mancini M, Arthur H, et al. Endoglin is required in Pax3-derived cells for embryonic blood vessel formation. Dev Biol. 2016;409:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a requirement for endoglin in descendants of Pax3-expressing vascular cell precursors, and thus provides new insight into the cellular basis underlying adult vascular diseases such as HHT. ..
  9. Lopes M, Goupille O, Saint Cloment C, Robert B. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites. Biol Open. 2012;1:376-84 pubmed publisher
    ..At birth Msx1(lacZ) expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature. ..
  10. Liu N, Bezprozvannaya S, Williams A, Qi X, Richardson J, Bassel Duby R, et al. microRNA-133a regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and suppresses smooth muscle gene expression in the heart. Genes Dev. 2008;22:3242-54 pubmed publisher
  11. Ustiyan V, Wang I, Ren X, Zhang Y, Snyder J, Xu Y, et al. Forkhead box M1 transcriptional factor is required for smooth muscle cells during embryonic development of blood vessels and esophagus. Dev Biol. 2009;336:266-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Foxm1 is critical for proliferation of smooth muscle cells and is required for proper embryonic development of blood vessels and esophagus. ..
  12. Jayewickreme C, Shivdasani R. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1. Dev Biol. 2015;405:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors. ..
  13. Takeda M, Miura R, Shiota K, Hirasawa K, Lee M, Itagaki S, et al. Distribution of viral RNA in the spinal cord of DBA/2 mice developing biphasic paralysis following infection with the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D). Int J Exp Pathol. 1995;76:441-7 pubmed
  14. Miano J, Olson E. Expression of the smooth muscle cell calponin gene marks the early cardiac and smooth muscle cell lineages during mouse embryogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7095-103 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the temporospatial expression pattern of the SMC calponin gene (formerly h1 or basic calponin) during mouse embryogenesis and in adult mouse tissues and cell lines...
  15. Kaneko M, Takeoka M, Oguchi M, Koganehira Y, Murata H, Ehara T, et al. Calponin h1 suppresses tumor growth of Src-induced transformed 3Y1 cells in association with a decrease in angiogenesis. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002;93:935-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CNh1 plays a role as tumor suppressor in SR-3Y1 mainly by decreasing VEGF expression and angiogenesis in vivo and partially through reducing cellular proliferative potential and cell motility. ..
  16. Babu G, Celia G, Rhee A, Yamamura H, Takahashi K, Brozovich F, et al. Effects of h1-calponin ablation on the contractile properties of bladder versus vascular smooth muscle in mice lacking SM-B myosin. J Physiol. 2006;577:1033-42 pubmed
  17. Baeten J, Jackson A, McHugh K, Lilly B. Loss of Notch2 and Notch3 in vascular smooth muscle causes patent ductus arteriosus. Genesis. 2015;53:738-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Notch2 and Notch3 have overlapping roles in promoting development of vascular smooth muscle cells, and together contribute to functional closure of the DA. ..
  18. Yang J, Zeini M, Lin C, Lin C, Xiong Y, Shang C, et al. Epicardial calcineurin-NFAT signals through Smad2 to direct coronary smooth muscle cell and arterial wall development. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;101:120-9 pubmed publisher
  19. Yamada H, Akishita M, Ito M, Tamura K, Daviet L, Lehtonen J, et al. AT2 receptor and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation in vascular development. Hypertension. 1999;33:1414-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the AT2 receptor promotes vascular differentiation and contributes to vasculogenesis. ..
  20. Turlo K, Noel O, Vora R, Larussa M, Fassler R, Hall Glenn F, et al. An essential requirement for ?1 integrin in the assembly of extracellular matrix proteins within the vascular wall. Dev Biol. 2012;365:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It further establishes a critical role of ?1 integrin in the protection against aneurysms that is particularly confined to the ascending aorta and its branches. ..
  21. Nanda V, Miano J. Leiomodin 1, a new serum response factor-dependent target gene expressed preferentially in differentiated smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:2459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Such activity is abolished upon mutation of both CArG boxes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Lmod1 is a new SMC-restricted SRF/MYOCD target gene. ..
  22. Hoggatt A, Kim J, Ustiyan V, Ren X, Kalin T, Kalinichenko V, et al. The transcription factor Foxf1 binds to serum response factor and myocardin to regulate gene transcription in visceral smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28477-87 pubmed publisher
  23. Trembley M, Velasquez L, de Mesy Bentley K, Small E. Myocardin-related transcription factors control the motility of epicardium-derived cells and the maturation of coronary vessels. Development. 2015;142:21-30 pubmed publisher
  24. Wang X, Astrof S. Neural crest cell-autonomous roles of fibronectin in cardiovascular development. Development. 2016;143:88-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate an essential role of the localized synthesis of Fn1 in cardiovascular development and spatial regulation of Notch signaling. ..
  25. Losa M, Latorre V, Andrabi M, Ladam F, SAGERSTROM C, Novoa A, et al. A tissue-specific, Gata6-driven transcriptional program instructs remodeling of the mature arterial tree. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Gata6-directed differentiation of NC to SMCs as an essential mechanism that specifies the aortic tree, and provide a new framework for how mutations in GATA6 lead to congenital heart disorders in humans. ..
  26. Shiroyanagi Y, Liu B, Cao M, Agras K, Li J, Hsieh M, et al. Urothelial sonic hedgehog signaling plays an important role in bladder smooth muscle formation. Differentiation. 2007;75:968-77 pubmed
    ..Based on Shh expression by urothelium and the effects of Shh inhibition on bladder SM induction, we hypothesize that urothelial-derived Shh orchestrates induction of SM in the fetal mouse bladder. ..
  27. Bannai M, Yoshimoto R, Mitsui Saito M, Hori M, Nishihara M, Takahashi K, et al. Increased locomotor activity, increased food and water intake and decreased PVN neurons in H1 calponin gene-deficient mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:153-5 pubmed
  28. Miano J, Kitchen C, Chen J, Maltby K, Kelly L, Weiler H, et al. Expression of human smooth muscle calponin in transgenic mice revealed with a bacterial artificial chromosome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H1793-803 pubmed
    ..These BAC mice represent a new model system in which to systematically assess regulatory elements governing SM-Calp transcription in vivo. ..
  29. Cohen E, Ihida Stansbury K, Lu M, Panettieri R, Jones P, Morrisey E. Wnt signaling regulates smooth muscle precursor development in the mouse lung via a tenascin C/PDGFR pathway. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2538-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data define a Wnt/Tnc/Pdgfr signaling axis that is critical for smooth muscle development and disease progression in the lung. ..
  30. Gao J, Hwang J, Jin J. Complete nucleotide sequence, structural organization, and an alternatively spliced exon of mouse h1-calponin gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;218:292-7 pubmed
    ..Isolation and structural characterization of the h1-calponin gene provides information to further investigate the expression regulation of this smooth muscle-specific gene. ..
  31. Shah N, Groves A, Anderson D. Alternative neural crest cell fates are instructively promoted by TGFbeta superfamily members. Cell. 1996;85:331-43 pubmed
    ..Like neuregulin, BMP2 and TGFbeta1 act instructively rather than selectively. The neural crest and hematopoietic systems may therefore utilize growth factors in different ways to generate cellular diversity. ..
  32. El Mezgueldi M, Strasser P, Fattoum A, Gimona M. Expressing functional domains of mouse calponin: involvement of the region around alanine 145 in the actomyosin ATPase inhibitory activity of calponin. Biochemistry. 1996;35:3654-61 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that the stretch VKYAEK is crucial for ATPase inhibition by calponin but represents only part of the actin-binding domain. These results are discussed in terms of multiple contact sites between actin and calponin. ..
  33. Tollet J, Everett A, Sparrow M. Spatial and temporal distribution of nerves, ganglia, and smooth muscle during the early pseudoglandular stage of fetal mouse lung development. Dev Dyn. 2001;221:48-60 pubmed
    ..By using fluorescent markers and confocal microscopy, we present the developing lung as a dynamic structure with smooth muscle and neural tissue in a prime position to influence growth and development. ..
  34. Taniguchi S, Takeoka M, Ehara T, Hashimoto S, Shibuki H, Yoshimura N, et al. Structural fragility of blood vessels and peritoneum in calponin h1-deficient mice, resulting in an increase in hematogenous metastasis and peritoneal dissemination of malignant tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7627-34 pubmed
    ..The CN(-/-) mice, which exhibit fragile blood vessels and peritoneum, could serve as sensitive and useful host models to investigate cancer metastasis. ..
  35. Su N, Chen M, Chen S, Li C, Xie Y, Zhu Y, et al. Overexpression of H1 calponin in osteoblast lineage cells leads to a decrease in bone mass by disrupting osteoblast function and promoting osteoclast formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:660-71 pubmed publisher
    H1 calponin (CNN1) is known as a smooth muscle-specific, actin-binding protein which regulates smooth muscle contractive activity. Although previous studies have shown that CNN1 has effect on bone, the mechanism is not well defined...
  36. Guo C, Sun Y, Zhou B, Adam R, Li X, Pu W, et al. A Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway controls mammalian cardiovascular and craniofacial morphogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings reveal a Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway that is crucial for mammalian cardiocraniofacial morphogenesis and provide insights into the pathogenesis of human del22q11 syndromes. ..
  37. Fan P, Chen Z, Tian P, Liu W, Jiao Y, Xue Y, et al. miRNA biogenesis enzyme Drosha is required for vascular smooth muscle cell survival. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60888 pubmed publisher
    ..The VSMC differentiation marker genes, including ?SMA, SM22, and CNN1, and endothelial cell marker CD31 were significantly downregulated in Drosha cKO mice compared to controls...
  38. Masuki S, Takeoka M, Taniguchi S, Nose H. Enhanced baroreflex sensitivity in free-moving calponin knockout mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H939-46 pubmed
  39. Masuki S, Todo T, Nakano Y, Okamura H, Nose H. Reduced alpha-adrenoceptor responsiveness and enhanced baroreflex sensitivity in Cry-deficient mice lacking a biological clock. J Physiol. 2005;566:213-24 pubmed
    ..01). These results suggest that CRY genes are involved in generating the circadian rhythm of baroreflex sensitivity, partially by regulating alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in peripheral vessels. ..
  40. Kuang S, Medina Martinez O, Guo D, Gong L, Regalado E, Reynolds C, et al. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:948-61 pubmed publisher
  41. Matthew J, Khromov A, McDuffie M, Somlyo A, Somlyo A, Taniguchi S, et al. Contractile properties and proteins of smooth muscles of a calponin knockout mouse. J Physiol. 2000;529 Pt 3:811-24 pubmed bladder and vas deferens of mice carrying a targeted mutation in both alleles designed to inactivate the basic calponin gene. These calponin knockout (KO) mice displayed no detectable h1-calponin in their smooth muscles...
  42. Yamamura H, Hirano N, Koyama H, Nishizawa Y, Takahashi K. Loss of smooth muscle calponin results in impaired blood vessel maturation in the tumor-host microenvironment. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:757-63 pubmed
    ..We investigated the roles of smooth muscle calponin (Cnn1, also called calponin h1 or basic calponin) in the development of tumor vascul ature in vivo by analyzing mutant mice lacking the Cnn1 gene...
  43. Yin Z, Jones G, Towns W, Zhang X, Abel E, Binkley P, et al. Heart-specific ablation of Prkar1a causes failure of heart development and myxomagenesis. Circulation. 2008;117:1414-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These biochemical changes lead to myxoma-like changes, indicating that these mice may be a good model with which to study the formation of these tumors. ..
  44. Samaha F, Ip H, Morrisey E, Seltzer J, Tang Z, Solway J, et al. Developmental pattern of expression and genomic organization of the calponin-h1 gene. A contractile smooth muscle cell marker. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:395-403 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the calponin-h1 gene will serve as an excellent model system with which to examine the molecular mechanisms that regulate SMC lineage specification, differentiation, and phenotypic modulation. ..
  45. Yoshikawa H, Taniguchi S, Yamamura H, Mori S, Sugimoto M, Miyado K, et al. Mice lacking smooth muscle calponin display increased bone formation that is associated with enhancement of bone morphogenetic protein responses. Genes Cells. 1998;3:685-95 pubmed
    ..We investigated the in vivo function of smooth muscle calponin (also called basic calponin or calponin h1) by generating mice carrying a targeted mutation in both alleles of the calponin gene...
  46. Xu H, Wu F, Zhang H, Yang C, Li K, Wang H, et al. Actin cytoskeleton mediates BMP2-Smad signaling via calponin 1 in preosteoblast under simulated microgravity. Biochimie. 2017;138:184-193 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that siRNA mediated knockdown of calponin 1 (CNN1), an actin binding protein, markedly promoted BMP2-Smad signaling and abolished both inhibition of CB, SMG ..