Gene Symbol: Cnmd
Description: chondromodulin
Alias: Bricd3, ChM-I, Chmd, Lect1, leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1, Chondromodulin 1, chondromodulin-1, chondromodulin-I, leukocyte cell derived chemotaxin 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Cnmd

Top Publications

  1. Yukata K, Matsui Y, Shukunami C, Takimoto A, Goto T, Nishizaki Y, et al. Altered fracture callus formation in chondromodulin-I deficient mice. Bone. 2008;43:1047-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in the absence of Chm1, predominant primary bone healing occurs due to an indirect effect induced by reduction of cartilaginous callus rather than to a direct effect on osteogenic function, resulting in a delayed union. ..
  2. Shukunami C, Iyama K, Inoue H, Hiraki Y. Spatiotemporal pattern of the mouse chondromodulin-I gene expression and its regulatory role in vascular invasion into cartilage during endochondral bone formation. Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43:39-49 pubmed
  3. Shukunami C, Takimoto A, Miura S, Nishizaki Y, Hiraki Y. Chondromodulin-I and tenomodulin are differentially expressed in the avascular mesenchyme during mouse and chick development. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;332:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the expression domains of ChM-I and TeM during vertebrate development incorporate the typical avascular regions of the mesenchymal tissues. ..
  4. Yoshioka M, Yuasa S, Matsumura K, Kimura K, Shiomi T, Kimura N, et al. Chondromodulin-I maintains cardiac valvular function by preventing angiogenesis. Nat Med. 2006;12:1151-9 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that chondromodulin-I has a pivotal role in maintaining valvular normal function by preventing angiogenesis that may lead to VHD. ..
  5. Shukunami C, Oshima Y, Hiraki Y. Chondromodulin-I and tenomodulin: a new class of tissue-specific angiogenesis inhibitors found in hypovascular connective tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333:299-307 pubmed
    ..In this overview, we discuss the structural characteristics of this class of anti-angiogenic molecules and their pathophysiological role in the control of vascularity. ..
  6. Nakamichi Y, Shukunami C, Yamada T, Aihara K, Kawano H, Sato T, et al. Chondromodulin I is a bone remodeling factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:636-44 pubmed
    b>Chondromodulin I (ChM-I) was supposed from its limited expression in cartilage and its functions in cultured chondrocytes as a major regulator in cartilage development...
  7. Hiraki Y, Tanaka H, Inoue H, Kondo J, Kamizono A, Suzuki F. Molecular cloning of a new class of cartilage-specific matrix, chondromodulin-I, which stimulates growth of cultured chondrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;175:971-7 pubmed
    ..On northern blot analysis, expression of chondromodulin-I mRNA was observed only in cartilage. ..
  8. Shukunami C, Hiraki Y. Role of cartilage-derived anti-angiogenic factor, chondromodulin-I, during endochondral bone formation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2001;9 Suppl A:S91-101 pubmed
    ..ChM-I is involved in the anti-angiogenic property of cartilage and its absence creates a permissive microenvironment for vascular invasion into cartilage under physiological and pathological conditions. ..
  9. Oshima Y, Shukunami C, Honda J, Nishida K, Tashiro F, Miyazaki J, et al. Expression and localization of tenomodulin, a transmembrane type chondromodulin-I-related angiogenesis inhibitor, in mouse eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:1814-23 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a potential role for TeM in prevention of vascular invasion in the mouse eye and the possibility of both TeM and ChM-I as candidates for use in gene therapy approaches to treatment of ocular angiogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Vickerman L, Neufeld S, Cobb J. Shox2 function couples neural, muscular and skeletal development in the proximal forelimb. Dev Biol. 2011;350:323-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Shox2 is required for normal skeletal, neural and muscular development in the forelimb at a similar early developmental stage in each tissue. ..
  2. Docheva D, Hunziker E, Fassler R, Brandau O. Tenomodulin is necessary for tenocyte proliferation and tendon maturation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:699-705 pubmed
    ..It is predominantly expressed in tendons, ligaments, and eyes, whereas the only other family member, chondromodulin I (ChM-I), is highly expressed in cartilage and at lower levels in the eye and thymus...
  3. Tamamura Y, Otani T, Kanatani N, Koyama E, Kitagaki J, Komori T, et al. Developmental regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signals is required for growth plate assembly, cartilage integrity, and endochondral ossification. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19185-95 pubmed
  4. Sugimoto Y, Takimoto A, Akiyama H, Kist R, Scherer G, Nakamura T, et al. Scx+/Sox9+ progenitors contribute to the establishment of the junction between cartilage and tendon/ligament. Development. 2013;140:2280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Scx(+)/Sox9(+) progenitor pool is a unique multipotent cell population that gives rise to tenocytes, ligamentocytes and chondrocytes for the establishment of the chondro-tendinous/ligamentous junction. ..
  5. Miura S, Kondo J, Takimoto A, Sano Takai H, Guo L, Shukunami C, et al. The N-terminal cleavage of chondromodulin-I in growth-plate cartilage at the hypertrophic and calcified zones during bone development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94239 pubmed publisher
  6. Hattori T, Müller C, Gebhard S, Bauer E, Pausch F, Schlund B, et al. SOX9 is a major negative regulator of cartilage vascularization, bone marrow formation and endochondral ossification. Development. 2010;137:901-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that downregulation of Sox9 in the hypertrophic zone of the normal growth plate is essential for allowing vascular invasion, bone marrow formation and endochondral ossification. ..
  7. Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Tao R, Xia H, Zheng R, et al. The influence of Chm-I knockout on ectopic cartilage regeneration and homeostasis maintenance. Tissue Eng Part A. 2015;21:782-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this study also provides a novel model based on tissue engineering strategy to properly evaluate the function of other targeted genes. ..
  8. Zhou G, Jiang X, Zhang H, Lu Y, Liu A, Ma X, et al. Zbtb20 regulates the terminal differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes via repression of Sox9. Development. 2015;142:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings point to Zbtb20 as a crucial regulator governing the terminal differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes at least partially through repression of Sox9. ..
  9. Li J, Ran C, Li E, Gordon F, Comstock G, Siddiqui H, et al. Synergistic function of E2F7 and E2F8 is essential for cell survival and embryonic development. Dev Cell. 2008;14:62-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify E2F7 and E2F8 as a unique repressive arm of the E2F transcriptional network that is critical for embryonic development and control of the E2F1-p53 apoptotic axis. ..
  10. Setoguchi K, Misaki Y, Kawahata K, Shimada K, Juji T, Tanaka S, et al. Suppression of T cell responses by chondromodulin I, a cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitory factor: therapeutic potential in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:828-39 pubmed
    b>Chondromodulin I (ChM-I), a cartilage matrix protein, promotes the growth and proteoglycan synthesis of chondrocytes. However, it also inhibits angiogenesis...
  11. Michikami I, Fukushi T, Tanaka M, Egusa H, Maeda Y, Ooshima T, et al. Krüppel-like factor 4 regulates membranous and endochondral ossification. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:311-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Klf4 regulates normal skeletal development through coordinating the differentiation and migration of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, vascular endothelial cells and osteoclasts. ..
  12. Spencer J, Misra R. Expression of the serum response factor gene is regulated by serum response factor binding sites. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:16535-43 pubmed
    ..Maximal transcriptional activity of the promoter also requires two CCAATT box sites located 90 and 123 nucleotides upstream of the start site. ..
  13. Hakuno D, Kimura N, Yoshioka M, Mukai M, Kimura T, Okada Y, et al. Periostin advances atherosclerotic and rheumatic cardiac valve degeneration by inducing angiogenesis and MMP production in humans and rodents. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2292-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression patterns of periostin and chondromodulin I, an angioinhibitory factor that maintains cardiac valvular function, were mutually exclusive...
  14. Miura S, Shukunami C, Mitsui K, Kondo J, Hiraki Y. Localization of chondromodulin-I at the feto-maternal interface and its inhibitory actions on trophoblast invasion in vitro. BMC Cell Biol. 2011;12:34 pubmed publisher
  15. Takeda S, Bonnamy J, Owen M, Ducy P, Karsenty G. Continuous expression of Cbfa1 in nonhypertrophic chondrocytes uncovers its ability to induce hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and partially rescues Cbfa1-deficient mice. Genes Dev. 2001;15:467-81 pubmed
    ..These results identify Cbfa1 as a hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation factor and provide a genetic argument for a common regulation of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation mediated by Cbfa1. ..
  16. Inada M, Yasui T, Nomura S, Miyake S, Deguchi K, Himeno M, et al. Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:279-90 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation. ..
  17. Klinger P, Surmann Schmitt C, Brem M, Swoboda B, Distler J, Carl H, et al. Chondromodulin 1 stabilizes the chondrocyte phenotype and inhibits endochondral ossification of porcine cartilage repair tissue. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:2721-31 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of chondromodulin 1 on the phenotype of osteochondral progenitor cells in cartilage repair tissue...
  18. Feenstra J, Kanaya K, Pira C, Hoffman S, Eppey R, Oberg K. Detection of genes regulated by Lmx1b during limb dorsalization. Dev Growth Differ. 2012;54:451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides the most comprehensive characterization of genes regulated by Lmx1b during limb development to-date and provides targets for further investigation. ..
  19. Ishijima M, Suzuki N, Hozumi K, Matsunobu T, Kosaki K, Kaneko H, et al. Perlecan modulates VEGF signaling and is essential for vascularization in endochondral bone formation. Matrix Biol. 2012;31:234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, perlecan in cartilage plays a critical role in endochondral bone formation by promoting angiogenesis essential for cartilage matrix remodeling and subsequent endochondral bone formation. ..
  20. Duverger O, Isaac J, Zah A, Hwang J, Berdal A, Lian J, et al. In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in neural crest-derived craniofacial bones. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:654-64 pubmed publisher
    ..similarly affected in frontal bones and mandibles (Sost, Mepe, Bglap, Alp, Ibsp, Agt), several genes, including Lect1 and Calca, were specifically affected in frontal bones...
  21. Brandau O, Meindl A, Fassler R, Aszodi A. A novel gene, tendin, is strongly expressed in tendons and ligaments and shows high homology with chondromodulin-I. Dev Dyn. 2001;221:72-80 pubmed
    ..In adult mice, tendin is expressed in neurons of all brain regions and the spinal cord. The tendin gene is localized in the human Xq22 region, to which several human diseases have been mapped. ..