Clu

Summary

Gene Symbol: Clu
Description: clusterin
Alias: AI893575, ApoJ, Cli, D14Ucla3, SP-40, Sgp-2, Sgp2, Sugp-2, clusterin, Apolipoprotein J, clustrin, complement lysis inhibitor, sulfated glycoprotein 2, testosterone repressed prostate message, testosterone repressed prostate message-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Clu

Top Publications

  1. Kim G, Kim G, Oh G, Yoon J, Kim H, Kim M, et al. SREBP-1c regulates glucose-stimulated hepatic clusterin expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:720-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin is a stress-response protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, tissue differentiation, inflammation, and lipid transport...
  2. Wang C, Jiang K, Gao D, Kang X, Sun C, Zhang Q, et al. Clusterin protects hepatocellular carcinoma cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress induced apoptosis through GRP78. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55981 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU) is a stress-activated chaperone, which plays an important role in cancer development and progression through promoting cell survival...
  3. Zhou W, Guan Q, Kwan C, Chen H, Gleave M, Nguan C, et al. Loss of clusterin expression worsens renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F568-78 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clusterin, a secreted glycoprotein, is an antiapoptotic protein in cancer cells...
  4. Wyatt A, Yerbury J, Poon S, Dabbs R, Wilson M. Chapter 6: The chaperone action of Clusterin and its putative role in quality control of extracellular protein folding. Adv Cancer Res. 2009;104:89-114 pubmed publisher
    The function(s) of clusterin may depend upon its topological location. A variety of intracellular "isoforms" of clusterin have been reported but further work is required to better define their identity...
  5. Kim H, Yoo E, Kim J, Choi Y, Lee H, Kim J, et al. Protective role of clusterin/apolipoprotein J against neointimal hyperplasia via antiproliferative effect on vascular smooth muscle cells and cytoprotective effect on endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1558-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin is induced in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during atherosclerosis and injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia. However, its functional roles in VSMCs and endothelial cells remain controversial and elusive...
  6. French L, Chonn A, Ducrest D, Baumann B, Belin D, Wohlwend A, et al. Murine clusterin: molecular cloning and mRNA localization of a gene associated with epithelial differentiation processes during embryogenesis. J Cell Biol. 1993;122:1119-30 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is a broadly distributed glycoprotein constitutively expressed by various tissues and cell types, that has been shown to be involved in cell-cell adhesion and expressed during cellular differentiation in vitro...
  7. Nizard P, Tetley S, Le Drean Y, Watrin T, Le Goff P, Wilson M, et al. Stress-induced retrotranslocation of clusterin/ApoJ into the cytosol. Traffic. 2007;8:554-65 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is a usually secreted glycoprotein with chaperone properties...
  8. Kempster S, Collins M, Aronow B, Simmons M, Green R, Edington N. Clusterin shortens the incubation and alters the histopathology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in mice. Neuroreport. 2004;15:1735-8 pubmed
    b>Clusterin accumulates in significant quantity in prion protein lesions associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and we therefore sought to elucidate its ability to alter BSE pathogenesis and incubation time by comparison of ..
  9. Leskov K, Klokov D, Li J, Kinsella T, Boothman D. Synthesis and functional analyses of nuclear clusterin, a cell death protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11590-600 pubmed
    Nuclear clusterin (nCLU) is an ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible protein that binds Ku70, and triggers apoptosis when overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. We demonstrate that endogenous nCLU synthesis is a product of alternative splicing...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Rosenberg M, Girton R, Finkel D, Chmielewski D, Barrie A, Witte D, et al. Apolipoprotein J/clusterin prevents a progressive glomerulopathy of aging. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1893-902 pubmed
    Apoliprotein J (apoJ)/clusterin has attracted considerable interest based on its inducibility in multiple injury processes and accumulation at sites of remodeling, regression, and degeneration...
  2. Jenne D, Tschopp J. Molecular structure and functional characterization of a human complement cytolysis inhibitor found in blood and seminal plasma: identity to sulfated glycoprotein 2, a constituent of rat testis fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7123-7 pubmed
    ..6% amino acid sequence homology to sulfated glycoprotein 2 (SGP-2), a major Sertoli cell-derived protein of rat testis fluid...
  3. Jung G, Kim M, Jung Y, Kim H, Park I, Min B, et al. Clusterin attenuates the development of renal fibrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:73-85 pubmed publisher
    Upregulation of clusterin occurs in several renal diseases and models of nephrotoxicity, but whether this promotes injury or is a protective reaction to injury is unknown...
  4. Khan Q, Press C, Sehic A, Landin M, Risnes S, Osmundsen H. Expression of prion gene and presence of prion protein during development of mouse molar tooth germ. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..g. enamel matrix proteins (Amelx, Ambn, Enam), Aplp1, Clstn1, and Clu]...
  5. Bettuzzi S, Davalli P, Davoli S, Chayka O, Rizzi F, Belloni L, et al. Genetic inactivation of ApoJ/clusterin: effects on prostate tumourigenesis and metastatic spread. Oncogene. 2009;28:4344-52 pubmed publisher
    ApoJ/Clusterin (CLU) is a heterodimeric protein localized in the nucleus, cytoplasm or secretory organelles and involved in cell survival and neoplastic transformation. Its function in human cancer is still highly controversial...
  6. Chayka O, Corvetta D, Dews M, Caccamo A, Piotrowska I, Santilli G, et al. Clusterin, a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:663-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin expression in various types of human cancers may be higher or lower than in normal tissue, and clusterin may promote or inhibit apoptosis, cell motility, and inflammation...
  7. Osmundsen H, Landin M, From S, Kolltveit K, Risnes S. Changes in gene-expression during development of the murine molar tooth germ. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:803-13 pubmed
    ..Such data is therefore useful in directing attention towards genes, or cellular activities, which likely are worthy of further studies as regards their involvement in odontogenesis...
  8. Thomas Tikhonenko A, Viard Leveugle I, Dews M, Wehrli P, Sevignani C, Yu D, et al. Myc-transformed epithelial cells down-regulate clusterin, which inhibits their growth in vitro and carcinogenesis in vivo. Cancer Res. 2004;64:3126-36 pubmed
    ..A surprisingly short list of deregulated genes included the cDNA for clusterin, an extracellular glycoprotein without a firmly established function...
  9. Wyatt A, Yerbury J, Berghofer P, Greguric I, Katsifis A, Dobson C, et al. Clusterin facilitates in vivo clearance of extracellular misfolded proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:3919-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about the specific mechanisms that act to suppress this process in vivo. Clusterin (CLU) is an extracellular chaperone that forms stable and soluble complexes with misfolded client proteins...
  10. Adel Moallem S, Hales B. Transglutaminase and clusterin induction during normal and abnormal limb development in the mouse. Biol Reprod. 1996;55:281-90 pubmed
    ..the mouse limb during normal and abnormal development as well as the expression of tissue transglutaminase and clusterin, two proteins associated with apoptotic cell death...
  11. Peters L, Eicher E, Azim A, Chishti A. The gene encoding the erythrocyte membrane skeleton protein dematin (Epb4.9) maps to mouse chromosome 14. Genomics. 1995;26:634-5 pubmed
  12. Cho C, Primakoff P, White J, Myles D. Chromosomal assignment of four testis-expressed mouse genes from a new family of transmembrane proteins (ADAMs) involved in cell-cell adhesion and fusion. Genomics. 1996;34:413-7 pubmed
  13. Wicher G, Aldskogius H. Adult motor neurons show increased susceptibility to axotomy-induced death in mice lacking clusterin. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:2024-8 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is a highly conserved, amphiphatic glycoprotein present in most tissues...
  14. Wu R, Xu Z, Rao X, Xu F. Development- and activity-dependent expression of clusterin in the mouse olfactory bulb. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2013;31:550-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin, a protein involved in many biological processes, is expressed broadly in the central nervous system, but its functions remain largely unknown...
  15. Leskov K, Araki S, Lavik J, Gomez J, Gama V, Gonos E, et al. CRM1 protein-mediated regulation of nuclear clusterin (nCLU), an ionizing radiation-stimulated, Bax-dependent pro-death factor. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:40083-90 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the clusterin (CLU) gene results in the synthesis of a conventional secretory isoform set (pre- and mature secretory clusterin proteins, psCLU/sCLU), as well as another set of intracellular isoforms, appearing in the ..
  16. Seo H, Kim M, Jung Y, Jang B, Yoo E, Park K, et al. Clusterin decreases hepatic SREBP-1c expression and lipid accumulation. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clusterin, an 80-kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein, has been functionally implicated in several physiological ..
  17. Itahana Y, Piens M, Sumida T, Fong S, Muschler J, Desprez P. Regulation of clusterin expression in mammary epithelial cells. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:943-51 pubmed
    ..b>Clusterin is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is involved in the differentiation and morphogenesis of epithelia, and ..
  18. Poon S, Easterbrook Smith S, Rybchyn M, Carver J, Wilson M. Clusterin is an ATP-independent chaperone with very broad substrate specificity that stabilizes stressed proteins in a folding-competent state. Biochemistry. 2000;39:15953-60 pubmed
    We recently reported that the ubiquitous, secreted protein clusterin has chaperone activity in vitro [Humphreys et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 6875-6881]...
  19. Foucher I, Volovitch M, Frain M, Kim J, Souberbielle J, Gan L, et al. Hoxa5 overexpression correlates with IGFBP1 upregulation and postnatal dwarfism: evidence for an interaction between Hoxa5 and Forkhead box transcription factors. Development. 2002;129:4065-74 pubmed
  20. Hamada N, Miyata M, Eto H, Ikeda Y, Shirasawa T, Akasaki Y, et al. Loss of clusterin limits atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice via reduced expression of Egr-1 and TNF-?. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2011;18:209-16 pubmed
    Whether clusterin/apolipoprotein J is antiatherogenic or proatherogenic is controversial...
  21. Santilli G, Aronow B, Sala A. Essential requirement of apolipoprotein J (clusterin) signaling for IkappaB expression and regulation of NF-kappaB activity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38214-9 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein J/clusterin is an enigmatic protein highly regulated in inflammation, apoptosis, and cancer. Despite extensive studies, its biological function has remained obscure...
  22. Shapiro L, Marks A, Whitaker Azmitia P. Increased clusterin expression in old but not young adult S100B transgenic mice: evidence of neuropathological aging in a model of Down Syndrome. Brain Res. 2004;1010:17-21 pubmed
    ..In the current study, we have examined the expression of clusterin, a protein expressed in aging neurons, in the mice at two ages...
  23. Fink D, Fazli L, Aronow B, Gleave M, Ong C. Clusterin is not essential for androgen-regulated involution and regeneration of the normal mouse prostate. Prostate. 2006;66:1445-54 pubmed
    Inhibition of clusterin expression has been shown to enhance the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to chemo and hormone therapy...
  24. Charnay Y, Imhof A, Vallet P, Hakkoum D, Lathuiliere A, Poku N, et al. Clusterin expression during fetal and postnatal CNS development in mouse. Neuroscience. 2008;155:714-24 pubmed publisher
    Clusterin (or apolipoprotein J) is a widely distributed multifunctional glycoprotein involved in CNS plasticity and post-traumatic remodeling...
  25. Gil S, Youn B, Byun K, Huang H, Namkoong C, Jang P, et al. Clusterin and LRP2 are critical components of the hypothalamic feeding regulatory pathway. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1862 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that central administration of clusterin, also called apolipoprotein J, causes anorexia, weight loss and activation of hypothalamic signal transduction-activated transcript-3 in ..
  26. Kwon M, Ju T, Heo J, Kim Y, Kim J, Won K, et al. Deficiency of clusterin exacerbates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in male mice. Endocrinology. 2014;155:2089-101 pubmed publisher
    The present study examined the role of clusterin in insulin resistance in high fat-fed wild-type and clusterin knockout (KO) mice...
  27. Kaisman Elbaz T, Sekler I, Fishman D, Karol N, Forberg M, Kahn N, et al. Cell death induced by zinc and cadmium is mediated by clusterin in cultured mouse seminiferous tubules. J Cell Physiol. 2009;220:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clusterin, is a glycoprotein produced abundantly by Sertoli cells, and associated with either apoptosis or cell survival...
  28. Nelms K, Snow A, Hu Li J, Paul W. FRIP, a hematopoietic cell-specific rasGAP-interacting protein phosphorylated in response to cytokine stimulation. Immunity. 1998;9:13-24 pubmed
    ..FRIP expression is significantly reduced in T cells from hr/hr mice. FRIP may negatively regulate proliferation by acting as an adapter molecule between rasGAP and receptor complexes. ..
  29. Leeb C, Eresheim C, Nimpf J. Clusterin is a ligand for apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and signals via the Reelin-signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:4161-72 pubmed publisher
    Clusterin, also known as apolipoprotein J, is a multifunctional glycoprotein with the capacity to interact with a wide range of molecules...
  30. Furlong E, Keon N, Thornton F, Rein T, Martin F. Expression of a 74-kDa nuclear factor 1 (NF1) protein is induced in mouse mammary gland involution. Involution-enhanced occupation of a twin NF1 binding element in the testosterone-repressed prostate message-2/clusterin promoter. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:29688-97 pubmed
    b>Testosterone repressed prostate message-2 (TRPM-2)/clusterin gene expression is rapidly induced in early involution of the mouse mammary gland, after weaning, and in the rat ventral prostate, after castration...
  31. Bailey R, Aronow B, Harmony J, Griswold M. Heat shock-initiated apoptosis is accelerated and removal of damaged cells is delayed in the testis of clusterin/ApoJ knock-out mice. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:1042-53 pubmed
    The secretion and localization of clusterin in the testis has led to the hypothesis that clusterin plays a role in spermatogenesis...
  32. Oh G, Kim G, Yoon J, Kim G, Kim S. The E-box-like sterol regulatory element mediates the insulin-stimulated expression of hepatic clusterin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;465:501-6 pubmed publisher
    Clusterin (also known as apolipoprotein J) is a highly conserved glycoprotein involved in various biological processes, including attenuation of complement activity, sperm maturation, apoptosis, and reverse lipid transport...
  33. Grizenkova J, Akhtar S, Collinge J, Lloyd S. The retinoic acid receptor beta (Rarb) region of Mmu14 is associated with prion disease incubation time in mouse. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15019 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clusterin (Clu) was considered to be of particular interest as it has already been implicated in prion disease...
  34. Tesseur I, Wyss Coray T. A role for TGF-beta signaling in neurodegeneration: evidence from genetically engineered models. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2006;3:505-13 pubmed
    ..Future studies will have to determine whether dysregulation of TGF-beta signaling in neurodegenerative diseases is significant and whether this signaling pathway may even be a target for treatment. ..
  35. Lund L, Rømer J, Thomasset N, Solberg H, Pyke C, Bissell M, et al. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways. Development. 1996;122:181-93 pubmed
  36. Griffiths G, Galileo D, Aravindan R, Martin DeLeon P. Clusterin facilitates exchange of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked SPAM1 between reproductive luminal fluids and mouse and human sperm membranes. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Monomers are stabilized by hydrophobic interactions with clusterin (CLU), a lipid carrier that is abundantly expressed in LFs...
  37. You K, Ji Y, Kwon O. Clusterin overexpression is responsible for the anti-apoptosis effect in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, B103. Z Naturforsch C. 2003;58:148-51 pubmed
    The functional role of clusterin in apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry. Clusterin cDNA was transfected into the mouse neuroblastoma cell line, B103, in order to determine if clusterin overexpression inhibits apoptosis...
  38. Brown T, Moulton B, Witte D, Swertfeger D, Harmony J. Apolipoprotein J/clusterin expression defines distinct stages of blastocyst implantation in the mouse uterus. Biol Reprod. 1996;55:740-7 pubmed
    ..One such gene, apolipoprotein J (apoJ), encodes a secretory glycoprotein capable of binding lipids and membrane-active proteins...
  39. Moll S, Menoud P, French L, Sappino A, Pastore Y, Schifferli J, et al. Tubular up-regulation of clusterin mRNA in murine lupus-like nephritis. Am J Pathol. 1998;152:953-62 pubmed
    b>Clusterin, a widely distributed glycoprotein, is detected in most tissues and in numerous physiological fluids...
  40. Caporali A, Davalli P, Astancolle S, D Arca D, Brausi M, Bettuzzi S, et al. The chemopreventive action of catechins in the TRAMP mouse model of prostate carcinogenesis is accompanied by clusterin over-expression. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:2217-24 pubmed
    b>Clusterin (CLU) protein is widely distributed in animal tissues and is involved in many different processes, including apoptosis and neoplastic transformation...
  41. Hughes A, Guilding C, Lennox L, Samuels R, McMahon D, Piggins H. Live imaging of altered period1 expression in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of Vipr2-/- mice. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1646-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that intercellular communication via the VPAC(2) receptor is important for SCN neurons to sustain robust, synchronous oscillations in clock gene expression. ..
  42. Jeong S, Ledee D, Gordon G, Itakura T, Patel N, Martin A, et al. Interaction of clusterin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and its implication for epithelial homeostasis and inflammation. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:2028-39 pubmed publisher
    ..presented here show that the anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective intracellular and extracellular chaperone protein clusterin (CLU) interacts with MMP-9 both inside and outside epithelial cells...
  43. Materia S, Cater M, Klomp L, Mercer J, La Fontaine S. Clusterin and COMMD1 independently regulate degradation of the mammalian copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:2485-99 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clusterin and COMMD1 were previously identified as interacting partners of these Cu-ATPases...
  44. Popper P, Farber D, Micevych P, Minoofar K, Bronstein J. TRPM-2 expression and tunel staining in neurodegenerative diseases: studies in wobbler and rd mice. Exp Neurol. 1997;143:246-54 pubmed
    ..In the wobbler spinal cords dying motoneurons were not labeled. These data suggest that the process of neurodegenerative motoneuron cell death in wobbler mice is different from the apoptotic process of rd photoreceptors. ..
  45. Purrello M, Bettuzzi S, Di Pietro C, Mirabile E, Di Blasi M, Rimini R, et al. The gene for SP-40,40, human homolog of rat sulfated glycoprotein 2, rat clusterin, and rat testosterone-repressed prostate message 2, maps to chromosome 8. Genomics. 1991;10:151-6 pubmed
    ..orthologous human gene is that coding for serum protein-40,40 (SP-40,40), a serum protein also called complement lysis inhibitor (CLI), SP-40,40 has been shown to act as a control mechanism of the complement cascade: in fact, it ..
  46. Habiel D, Camelo A, Espindola M, Burwell T, Hanna R, Miranda E, et al. Divergent roles for Clusterin in Lung Injury and Repair. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15444 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report that extracellular Clusterin promoted epithelial cell apoptosis whereas intracellular Clusterin maintained epithelium viability during lung ..
  47. Norman D, Feng L, Cheng S, Gubbay J, Chan E, Heintz N. The lurcher gene induces apoptotic death in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Development. 1995;121:1183-93 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we have examined the expression of the sulfated glycoprotein 2 (SGP2), whose mRNA is induced in both T-cells and prostate epithelial cells undergoing apoptotic death...
  48. Michel D, Chatelain G, North S, Brun G. Stress-induced transcription of the clusterin/apoJ gene. Biochem J. 1997;328 ( Pt 1):45-50 pubmed
    b>Clusterin/apoJ is an intriguing gene frequently isolated by differential screening in laboratories from different areas of molecular biology, since it is overexpressed in numerous cases of degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's ..
  49. Lee M, Hwang I, Choi Y, Paik S, Lee H, Baik M. EGF inhibits expression of WDNM1 and sulfated glycoprotein-2 genes in mammary epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;240:104-7 pubmed
    ..Results demonstrate that EGF inhibits expression of WDNM1 and SGP-2 genes in mammary epithelial cells. ..
  50. Kang B, Shim Y, Tae Y, Song J, Choi B, Park I, et al. Clusterin stimulates the chemotactic migration of macrophages through a pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor and G??-dependent pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;445:645-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin induces the expression of various chemotactic cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in macrophages and is involved in the cell migration...
  51. Lee S, Hong S, Min B, Shim Y, Lee K, Lee I, et al. Essential role of clusterin in pancreas regeneration. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:605-15 pubmed publisher
    Based on our previous observations that clusterin induction accompanies pancreas regeneration in the rat, we sought to determine if regeneration might be impaired in mice that lacked clusterin...
  52. Monks D, Morrow B. Identification of putative retinoic acid target genes downstream of mesenchymal Tbx1 during inner ear development. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..were chosen for biological validation including quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (Otor, Mia, Col2a1, Clu, Adm, Myt1, Dlx3, Itgb3, and Itga2b)...
  53. Byun K, Gil S, Namkoong C, Youn B, Huang H, Shin M, et al. Clusterin/ApoJ enhances central leptin signaling through Lrp2-mediated endocytosis. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:801-8 pubmed publisher
    Hypothalamic leptin signaling plays a central role in maintaining body weight homeostasis. Here, we show that clusterin/ApoJ, recently identified as an anorexigenic neuropeptide, is an important regulator in the hypothalamic leptin ..
  54. Afanasyeva M, Britanova L, Korneev K, Mitkin N, Kuchmiy A, Kuprash D. Clusterin is a potential lymphotoxin beta receptor target that is upregulated and accumulates in germinal centers of mouse spleen during immune response. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98349 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin is a multifunctional protein that participates in tissue remodeling, apoptosis, lipid transport, complement-mediated cell lysis and serves as an extracellular chaperone...
  55. Suh E, Wang Z, Swain G, Tenniswood M, Traber P. Clusterin gene transcription is activated by caudal-related homeobox genes in intestinal epithelium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;280:G149-56 pubmed
    ..Using cDNA differential display, we identified clusterin as a prominently induced gene in a Cdx2-regulated cellular model of intestinal differentiation...
  56. Lee S, Shin J, Sagong B, Kim U, Bok J. Spatiotemporal expression patterns of clusterin in the mouse inner ear. Cell Tissue Res. 2017;370:89-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU) is an extracellular chaperone protein that is implicated in diverse physiological and pathophysiological cellular processes...
  57. Lavery R, Chassot A, Pauper E, Gregoire E, Klopfenstein M, de Rooij D, et al. Testicular differentiation occurs in absence of R-spondin1 and Sox9 in mouse sex reversals. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003170 pubmed publisher
    ..The dogma that considers female differentiation as a default pathway therefore needs to be definitively revised. ..
  58. Wright M, Mi R, Connor E, Reed N, Vyas A, Alspalter M, et al. Novel roles for osteopontin and clusterin in peripheral motor and sensory axon regeneration. J Neurosci. 2014;34:1689-700 pubmed publisher
    ..pathways were identified and two secreted factors were selected for further analysis: osteopontin (OPN) and clusterin (CLU) which were upregulated in denervated motor and sensory pathways, respectively...
  59. DeMattos R, Cirrito J, Parsadanian M, May P, O Dell M, Taylor J, et al. ApoE and clusterin cooperatively suppress Abeta levels and deposition: evidence that ApoE regulates extracellular Abeta metabolism in vivo. Neuron. 2004;41:193-202 pubmed
    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) and clusterin can influence structure, toxicity, and accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide in brain. Both molecules may also be involved in Abeta metabolism prior to its deposition...
  60. Smith S, Bora N, McCool D, Kutty G, Wong P, Kutty R, et al. Photoreceptor cells in the vitiligo mouse die by apoptosis. TRPM-2/clusterin expression is increased in the neural retina and in the retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:2193-201 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the expression of a gene associated with apoptosis, TRPM-2/clusterin, was examined...
  61. Baiersdörfer M, Schwarz M, Seehafer K, Lehmann C, Heit A, Wagner H, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 mediates expression of clusterin/apolipoprotein J in vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated with RNA released from necrotic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:3489-500 pubmed publisher
    Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J is a protein that is upregulated in a broad spectrum of diverse pathological processes...
  62. Guo J, Guan Q, Liu X, Wang H, Gleave M, Nguan C, et al. Relationship of clusterin with renal inflammation and fibrosis after the recovery phase of ischemia-reperfusion injury. BMC Nephrol. 2016;17:133 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clusterin (CLU) is a chaperone-like protein that reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and enhances tissue repair ..
  63. Han B, DeMattos R, Dugan L, Kim Han J, Brendza R, Fryer J, et al. Clusterin contributes to caspase-3-independent brain injury following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Nat Med. 2001;7:338-43 pubmed
    Clusterin, also known as apolipoprotein J, is a ubiquitously expressed molecule thought to influence a variety of processes including cell death...
  64. Lee K, Ji Y, Lim H, Lee S, You K. Molecular cloning and sequencing of sulfated glycoprotein-2 cDNA from testis of mouse: implications of two different mRNAs of SGP-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;194:1175-80 pubmed
  65. Chesnokova V, Zonis S, Zhou C, Ben Shlomo A, Wawrowsky K, Toledano Y, et al. Lineage-specific restraint of pituitary gonadotroph cell adenoma growth. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17924 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these adenomas all expressed p16, and >90% abundantly expressed cytoplasmic clusterin associated with induction of the Cdk inhibitor p15 in 70% of gonadotroph and in 26% of somatotroph lineage ..
  66. Wong P, Borst D, Farber D, Danciger J, Tenniswood M, Chader G, et al. Increased TRPM-2/clusterin mRNA levels during the time of retinal degeneration in mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa. Biochem Cell Biol. 1994;72:439-46 pubmed
    ..Elevated levels of TRPM-2/clusterin mRNA, a marker for the apoptotic process, have been reported in retinas from patients with advanced stage RP...
  67. Birkenmeier E, Letts V, Frankel W, Magenheimer B, Calvet J. Sulfated glycoprotein-2 (Sgp-2) maps to mouse chromosome 14. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:131-2 pubmed
  68. Krijnen P, Niessen H. The antiapoptotic protein clusterin protects cardiomyocytes against ischemia-induced cell death. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H3223; author reply H3224 pubmed
  69. Witte D, Aronow B, Dry J, Harmony J. Temporally and spatially restricted expression of apolipoprotein J in the developing heart defines discrete stages of valve morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1994;201:290-6 pubmed
    ..b>Apolipoprotein J (ApoJ), a secreted glycoprotein expressed in a variety of cell types at tissue interfaces, exhibits a highly ..
  70. Takase O, Minto A, Puri T, Cunningham P, Jacob A, Hayashi M, et al. Inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent Bcl-xL expression by clusterin promotes albumin-induced tubular cell apoptosis. Kidney Int. 2008;73:567-77 pubmed
    ..and inflammation, important contributors to the progression of chronic kidney disease, can be influenced by clusterin (a secreted glycoprotein that regulates apoptosis) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB, a transcription factor ..
  71. Hong G, Kwon H, Moon K, Park S, Park S, Lee K, et al. Clusterin Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Attenuating CCL20-Mediated Dendritic Cell Recruitment. J Immunol. 2016;196:2021-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Because asthma is a disease that is closely associated with oxidative stress, we hypothesized that clusterin, an oxidative stress regulatory molecule, may have a role in the development of allergic airway inflammation...
  72. Donner L, Fälker K, Gremer L, Klinker S, Pagani G, Ljungberg L, et al. Platelets contribute to amyloid-β aggregation in cerebral vessels through integrin αIIbβ3-induced outside-in signaling and clusterin release. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra52 pubmed publisher
    ..matrix protein fibrinogen, and stimulated the secretion of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and the chaperone protein clusterin from platelets...
  73. Wilson M, Easterbrook Smith S. Clusterin is a secreted mammalian chaperone. Trends Biochem Sci. 2000;25:95-8 pubmed
  74. Humphreys D, Carver J, Easterbrook Smith S, Wilson M. Clusterin has chaperone-like activity similar to that of small heat shock proteins. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:6875-81 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is a highly conserved protein which is expressed at increased levels by many cell types in response to a broad variety of stress conditions. A genuine physiological function for clusterin has not yet been established...
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