Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Chrnb2
Description: cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta polypeptide 2 (neuronal)
Alias: Acrb-2, Acrb2, C030030P04Rik, [b]2-nAchR, neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2, acetylcholine receptor beta 2 neural
- Zoli M, Lena C, Picciotto M, Changeux J. Identification of four classes of brain nicotinic receptors using beta2 mutant mice. J Neurosci. 1998;18:4461-72 pubmed..Type 4 nAChRs also exhibit faster desensitization than type 3 nAChRs at high doses of nicotine. Knock-out animals lacking individual alpha subunits should allow a further dissection of nAChR subclasses. ..
- Granon S, Faure P, Changeux J. Executive and social behaviors under nicotinic receptor regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9596-601 pubmed..Such deficits in executive functions resemble the rigid and asocial behavior found in some psychopathological disorders such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ..
- Picciotto M, Zoli M, Lena C, Bessis A, Lallemand Y, Le Novère N, et al. Abnormal avoidance learning in mice lacking functional high-affinity nicotine receptor in the brain. Nature. 1995;374:65-7 pubmed..Paradoxically, mutant mice are able to perform better than their non-mutant siblings on this task. ..
- Maskos U, Molles B, Pons S, Besson M, Guiard B, Guilloux J, et al. Nicotine reinforcement and cognition restored by targeted expression of nicotinic receptors. Nature. 2005;436:103-7 pubmed..We thus demonstrate the sufficient role of the VTA in both nicotine reinforcement and endogenous cholinergic regulation of cognitive functions. ..
- Champtiaux N, Gotti C, Cordero Erausquin M, David D, Przybylski C, Léna C, et al. Subunit composition of functional nicotinic receptors in dopaminergic neurons investigated with knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7820-9 pubmed
- Stafford B, Sher A, Litke A, Feldheim D. Spatial-temporal patterns of retinal waves underlying activity-dependent refinement of retinofugal projections. Neuron. 2009;64:200-12 pubmed publisher..Quantitative analysis suggests that wave directionality, coupled with short-range correlated bursting patterns of RGCs, work together to refine retinofugal projections. ..
- Serreau P, Chabout J, Suarez S, Naude J, Granon S. Beta2-containing neuronal nicotinic receptors as major actors in the flexible choice between conflicting motivations. Behav Brain Res. 2011;225:151-9 pubmed publisher..Indeed, the ability to show flexible behaviours and to display adapted social interactions is profoundly impaired in a myriad of psychiatric disorders. ..
- David R, Ciuraszkiewicz A, Simeone X, Orr Urtreger A, Papke R, McIntosh J, et al. Biochemical and functional properties of distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the superior cervical ganglion of mice with targeted deletions of nAChR subunit genes. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:978-93 pubmed publisher..Our data, based on biochemical and functional experiments and several mouse KO models, clarify and significantly extend previous observations on the function of nAChRs in heterologous systems and the SCG. ..
- Salas R, Pieri F, De Biasi M. Decreased signs of nicotine withdrawal in mice null for the beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10035-9 pubmed..We also show that the upregulation of epibatidine binding sites attributable to chronic nicotine, an effect associated with beta2-containing receptors, is probably not related to the mechanisms underlying withdrawal. ..
- Muir Robinson G, Hwang B, Feller M. Retinogeniculate axons undergo eye-specific segregation in the absence of eye-specific layers. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5259-64 pubmed..These results indicate that spontaneous neural activity may independently regulate eye-specific segregation and the formation of layers at the developing retinothalamic projection. ..
- Xu W, Orr Urtreger A, Nigro F, Gelber S, Sutcliffe C, Armstrong D, et al. Multiorgan autonomic dysfunction in mice lacking the beta2 and the beta4 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9298-305 pubmed..The phenotype of the beta2-/-beta4-/- and alpha3-/- mice resembles the autosomal recessive megacystis-microcolon-hypoperistalsis syndrome in humans. ..
- Ibanez Tallon I, Miwa J, Wang H, Adams N, Crabtree G, Sine S, et al. Novel modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by association with the endogenous prototoxin lynx1. Neuron. 2002;33:893-903 pubmed
- Mameli Engvall M, Evrard A, Pons S, Maskos U, Svensson T, Changeux J, et al. Hierarchical control of dopamine neuron-firing patterns by nicotinic receptors. Neuron. 2006;50:911-21 pubmed
- Avale M, Faure P, Pons S, Robledo P, Deltheil T, David D, et al. Interplay of beta2* nicotinic receptors and dopamine pathways in the control of spontaneous locomotion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15991-6 pubmed publisher..These findings highlight the crucial interplay of nAChRs over the DA control of spontaneous locomotion...
- Portugal G, Kenney J, Gould T. Beta2 subunit containing acetylcholine receptors mediate nicotine withdrawal deficits in the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2008;89:106-13 pubmed..In addition, nicotine withdrawal selectively affects acquisition but not recall or expression of the learned response. ..
- Avale M, Chabout J, Pons S, Serreau P, de Chaumont F, Olivo Marin J, et al. Prefrontal nicotinic receptors control novel social interaction between mice. FASEB J. 2011;25:2145-55 pubmed publisher..Together, these data reveal that social interactions particularly mobilize the PrL area of the mouse PFC and that the presence of functional PrL ?2*-nAChRs is necessary for this integrated behavior to emerge. ..
- Rossi F, Pizzorusso T, Porciatti V, Marubio L, Maffei L, Changeux J. Requirement of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta 2 subunit for the anatomical and functional development of the visual system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6453-8 pubmed..We conclude that the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is necessary for the anatomical and functional development of the visual system. ..
- Picciotto M, Zoli M, Rimondini R, Lena C, Marubio L, Pich E, et al. Acetylcholine receptors containing the beta2 subunit are involved in the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Nature. 1998;391:173-7 pubmed..Our results strongly support the idea that the beta2-containing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in mediating the reinforcing properties of nicotine. ..
- Pfeiffenberger C, Yamada J, Feldheim D. Ephrin-As and patterned retinal activity act together in the development of topographic maps in the primary visual system. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12873-84 pubmed
- Besson M, Suarez S, Cormier A, Changeux J, Granon S. Chronic nicotine exposure has dissociable behavioural effects on control and beta2-/- mice. Behav Genet. 2008;38:503-14 pubmed publisher..These data support the proposal that beta2-/- mice represent a relevant model for cognitive disorders in humans and that nicotine administered chronically at low dose may relieve some of these. ..
- Bourgeois J, Meas Yeadid V, Lesourd A, Faure P, Pons S, Maskos U, et al. Modulation of the mouse prefrontal cortex activation by neuronal nicotinic receptors during novelty exploration but not by exploration of a familiar environment. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:1007-15 pubmed publisher..We also highlight the role of nicotinic receptors during activation of the PFC, specifically during free exploration of a novel environment. ..
- Bansal A, Singer J, Hwang B, Xu W, Beaudet A, Feller M. Mice lacking specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits exhibit dramatically altered spontaneous activity patterns and reveal a limited role for retinal waves in forming ON and OFF circuits in the inner retina. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7672-81 pubmed..These results indicate that retinal waves mediated by nAChRs are involved in, but not required for, the development of neural circuits that define the ON and OFF sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. ..
- Skok M, Grailhe R, Agenes F, Changeux J. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in lymphocyte development. J Neuroimmunol. 2006;171:86-98 pubmed..More annexin V-positive B cells were found in the bone marrow of knockout than wild-type animals. We conclude that nicotinic receptors are involved in regulating lymphocyte development and control the B lymphocyte survival. ..
- Klink R, de Kerchove d Exaerde A, Zoli M, Changeux J. Molecular and physiological diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the midbrain dopaminergic nuclei. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1452-63 pubmed..Neurons in the DA nuclei thus exhibit a diversity of nAChRs that might differentially modulate reinforcement and motor behavior. ..
- Caldarone B, King S, Picciotto M. Sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity following chronic nicotine exposure in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2008;439:187-91 pubmed publisher..This shows that female mice have an anxiogenic-like response to chronic nicotine, but are less sensitive to nicotine's psychostimulant properties, which may be related to the increased relapse to smoking following abstinence in women. ..
- Koval L, Zverkova A, Grailhe R, Utkin Y, Tsetlin V, Komisarenko S, et al. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors alpha4beta2 and alpha7 regulate myelo- and erythropoiesis within the bone marrow. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:980-90 pubmed
- Marubio L, Paylor R. Impaired passive avoidance learning in mice lacking central neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuroscience. 2004;129:575-82 pubmed..Mice lacking both the alpha7 and the beta2 nAChR subunits displayed impaired learning and memory performance in a passive avoidance test and showed enhanced motor performance on the rotarod. ..
- Huberman A, Manu M, Koch S, Susman M, Lutz A, Ullian E, et al. Architecture and activity-mediated refinement of axonal projections from a mosaic of genetically identified retinal ganglion cells. Neuron. 2008;59:425-38 pubmed publisher..Our findings reveal that in a genetically identified sensory map, spontaneous activity promotes synaptic specificity by segregating axons arising from RGCs of the same subtype. ..
- Zoli M, Picciotto M, Ferrari R, Cocchi D, Changeux J. Increased neurodegeneration during ageing in mice lacking high-affinity nicotine receptors. EMBO J. 1999;18:1235-44 pubmed
- Scholze P, Koth G, Orr Urtreger A, Huck S. Subunit composition of ?5-containing nicotinic receptors in the rodent habenula. J Neurochem. 2012;121:551-60 pubmed publisher..Observations in ?2 and ?4 null mice indicate that although ?5 requires the presence of the ?4 subunit for assembling (but not of ?2), ?5 in wild-type mice assembles into receptors that also contain the subunits ?3, ?2, and ?4. ..
- Cang J, RENTERIA R, Kaneko M, Liu X, Copenhagen D, Stryker M. Development of precise maps in visual cortex requires patterned spontaneous activity in the retina. Neuron. 2005;48:797-809 pubmed..Our findings demonstrate that disrupting early spontaneous activity in the eye alters thalamic connections to the cortex. ..
- Chandrasekaran A, Plas D, Gonzalez E, Crair M. Evidence for an instructive role of retinal activity in retinotopic map refinement in the superior colliculus of the mouse. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6929-38 pubmed..These experiments demonstrate how axon guidance cues and activity-dependent factors combine to instruct retinotopic map development. ..
- Cohen G, Han Z, Grailhe R, Gallego J, Gaultier C, Changeux J, et al. beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit modulates protective responses to stress: A receptor basis for sleep-disordered breathing after nicotine exposure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13272-7 pubmed..We propose that nicotine impairs breathing (and possibly arousal) responses to stress by disrupting functions normally regulated by beta2-containing, high-affinity nAChRs. ..
- Grubb M, Rossi F, Changeux J, Thompson I. Abnormal functional organization in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice lacking the beta 2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuron. 2003;40:1161-72 pubmed..The presence of the beta2 subunit of the nAChR in the CNS is therefore important for normal functional organization in the retinogeniculate projection. ..
- Xu H, Furman M, Mineur Y, Chen H, King S, Zenisek D, et al. An instructive role for patterned spontaneous retinal activity in mouse visual map development. Neuron. 2011;70:1115-27 pubmed publisher..This suggests that specific patterns of spontaneous activity throughout the developing brain are essential in the emergence of specific and distinct patterns of neuronal connectivity. ..
- Dhande O, Hua E, Guh E, Yeh J, Bhatt S, Zhang Y, et al. Development of single retinofugal axon arbors in normal and ?2 knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3384-99 pubmed publisher..In ?2(-/-) mice, we found that retinofugal single axon arbors are well ramified but enlarged, particularly in the SC, indicating that activity-dependent visual map development occurs through the refinement of individual RGC arbors. ..
- McLaughlin T, Torborg C, Feller M, O Leary D. Retinotopic map refinement requires spontaneous retinal waves during a brief critical period of development. Neuron. 2003;40:1147-60 pubmed..Thus, spontaneous retinal waves that correlate RGC activity are required for retinotopic map remodeling during a brief early critical period. ..
- Léna C, Popa D, Grailhe R, Escourrou P, Changeux J, Adrien J. Beta2-containing nicotinic receptors contribute to the organization of sleep and regulate putative micro-arousals in mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5711-8 pubmed..Our results show that the beta2-containing nAChRs contribute to the organization of sleep by regulating the transient phasic activity in NREMS, the REMS onset and duration, and the REMS-promoting effect of stress. ..
- Guillem K, Bloem B, Poorthuis R, Loos M, Smit A, Maskos U, et al. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?2 subunits in the medial prefrontal cortex control attention. Science. 2011;333:888-91 pubmed publisher..Our findings show that ?2-subunit expression in the PrL PFC is sufficient for endogenous nAChR-mediated cholinergic regulation of attentional performance. ..
- Torborg C, Hansen K, Feller M. High frequency, synchronized bursting drives eye-specific segregation of retinogeniculate projections. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:72-8 pubmed..These findings provide a possible resolution to previously described discrepancies regarding the role of retinal waves in retinogeniculate segregation. ..
- Manfredi I, Zani A, Rampoldi L, Pegorini S, Bernascone I, Moretti M, et al. Expression of mutant beta2 nicotinic receptors during development is crucial for epileptogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1075-88 pubmed publisher..Our data indicate that mutant nicotinic receptors are responsible for abnormal formation of neuronal circuits and/or long-lasting alteration of network assembly in the developing brain, thus leading to epilepsy. ..
- Shoaib M, Gommans J, Morley A, Stolerman I, Grailhe R, Changeux J. The role of nicotinic receptor beta-2 subunits in nicotine discrimination and conditioned taste aversion. Neuropharmacology. 2002;42:530-9 pubmed..Such receptors appear to have a less crucial role in the response-rate, reducing effects of nicotine and in nicotine tolerance. ..
- Keller J, Keller A, Bowers B, Wehner J. Performance of alpha7 nicotinic receptor null mutants is impaired in appetitive learning measured in a signaled nose poke task. Behav Brain Res. 2005;162:143-52 pubmed..These results support a role of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor in mediating appetitive learning and suggest a potential role for the alpha7 nAChRs in the regulation of behavioral disinhibition. ..
- King S, Caldarone B, Picciotto M. Beta2-subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are critical for dopamine-dependent locomotor activation following repeated nicotine administration. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47 Suppl 1:132-9 pubmed
- Dauger S, Durand E, Cohen G, Lagercrantz H, Changeux J, Gaultier C, et al. Control of breathing in newborn mice lacking the beta-2 nAChR subunit. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004;182:205-12 pubmed
- Wang N, Orr Urtreger A, Chapman J, Ergun Y, Rabinowitz R, Korczyn A. Hidden function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunits in ganglionic transmission: comparison to alpha5 and beta4 subunits. J Neurol Sci. 2005;228:167-77 pubmed..On the other hand, beta2-containing receptors have only a minor function on postsynaptic responses to ACh, but may modulate ACh release presynaptically, although there is no evidence for this. ..
- Rabenstein R, Caldarone B, Picciotto M. The nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine has antidepressant-like effects in wild-type but not beta2- or alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit knockout mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006;189:395-401 pubmed..Therefore, compounds that decrease nAChR activity may be attractive new candidates for development as antidepressants in humans. ..
- Wang L, Rangarajan K, Lawhn Heath C, Sarnaik R, Wang B, Liu X, et al. Direction-specific disruption of subcortical visual behavior and receptive fields in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12909-18 pubmed publisher..The subcortical-specific deficits indicate that retinotopic map disruption has different impacts on the development of functional properties in V1 and the SC. ..
- Cohen G, Roux J, Grailhe R, Malcolm G, Changeux J, Lagercrantz H. Perinatal exposure to nicotine causes deficits associated with a loss of nicotinic receptor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3817-21 pubmed..We propose that the underlying mechanisms of nicotine's detrimental side effects on a range of crucial defensive reflexes involve loss of function of nAChR subtypes, possibly via activity-dependent desensitization. ..
- Marubio L, Del Mar Arroyo Jimenez M, Cordero Erausquin M, Lena C, Le Novère N, de Kerchove d Exaerde A, et al. Reduced antinociception in mice lacking neuronal nicotinic receptor subunits. Nature. 1999;398:805-10 pubmed..The alpha4 nAChR subunit, possibly associated with the beta2 nAChR subunit, is therefore crucial for nicotine-elicited antinociception. ..
- RICHARDS C, Srinivasan R, Xiao C, Mackey E, Miwa J, Lester H. Trafficking of alpha4* nicotinic receptors revealed by superecliptic phluorin: effects of a beta4 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated mutation and chronic exposure to nicotine. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:31241-9 pubmed publisher..Superecliptic phluorin provides a tool to monitor trafficking dynamics of nAChRs in disease and addiction. ..
- Laudenbach V, Medja F, Zoli M, Rossi F, Evrard P, Changeux J, et al. Selective activation of central subtypes of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has opposite effects on neonatal excitotoxic brain injuries. FASEB J. 2002;16:423-5 pubmed..Neuroprotective strategies must consider these opposite properties of distinct nAChR isoforms in neonates. ..
- Vandesquille M, Baudonnat M, Decorte L, Louis C, Lestage P, Beracochea D. Working memory deficits and related disinhibition of the cAMP/PKA/CREB are alleviated by prefrontal ?4?2*-nAChRs stimulation in aged mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:1599-609 pubmed publisher..Thus, by targeting the ?4?2*-nicotinic receptor of the PL, S 38232 alleviates PL CREB overphosphorylation and restores WM in aged mice, which opens new pharmacologic perspectives of therapeutic strategy. ..
- Karadsheh M, Shah M, Tang X, Macdonald R, Stitzel J. Functional characterization of mouse alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors stably expressed in HEK293T cells. J Neurochem. 2004;91:1138-50 pubmed..Consequently, at low nanomolar concentrations, MLA may not be as selective for alpha7-containing nAchRs as previously thought. ..
- Chakrabarty K, von Oerthel L, Hellemons A, Clotman F, Espana A, Groot Koerkamp M, et al. Genome wide expression profiling of the mesodiencephalic region identifies novel factors involved in early and late dopaminergic development. Biol Open. 2012;1:693-704 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, we provide evidence of two divergent regulatory pathways resulting in the expression of Chrna6 and Chrnb3 respectively. ..
- Besson M, Granon S, Mameli Engvall M, Cloëz Tayarani I, Maubourguet N, Cormier A, et al. Long-term effects of chronic nicotine exposure on brain nicotinic receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8155-60 pubmed..alpha7*nAChRs. These data offer previously undescribed insights into the understanding of nicotine addiction and the treatment of several human pathologies by nicotine-like agents chronically acting on beta2*- or alpha7*nAChRs. ..
- Kutlu M, Holliday E, Gould T. High-affinity Î±4Î²2 nicotinic receptors mediate the impairing effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2016;128:17-22 pubmed publisher..These results clearly demonstrate that high-affinity Î±4Î²2 nAChRs are necessary for the effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction. ..
- McClure Begley T, Esterlis I, Stone K, Lam T, Grady S, Colangelo C, et al. Evaluation of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Associated Proteome at Baseline and Following Nicotine Exposure in Human and Mouse Cortex. Eneuro. 2016;3: pubmed publisher..The identification of differences in the nAChR-associated proteome and downstream signaling in subjects with various mood disorders may also identify novel etiological mechanisms and reveal new treatment targets. ..
- Bessis A, Salmon A, Zoli M, Le Novère N, Picciotto M, Changeux J. Promoter elements conferring neuron-specific expression of the beta 2-subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor studied in vitro and in transgenic mice. Neuroscience. 1995;69:807-19 pubmed..In this paper, we describe the neuron-specific promoter of the gene encoding the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta 2-subunit. ..
- Scholze P, Orr Urtreger A, Changeux J, McIntosh J, Huck S. Catecholamine outflow from mouse and rat brain slice preparations evoked by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation and electrical field stimulation. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;151:414-22 pubmed..The impact of nAChRs in catecholaminergic projection areas differs between species and has thus to be considered when extrapolating results from animal models to human conditions. ..
- Brown K, Comalli D, De Biasi M, Woodruff Pak D. Trace eyeblink conditioning is impaired in ?7 but not in ?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice. Front Behav Neurosci. 2010;4:166 pubmed publisher..The prominent distribution of ?7 nAChRs in the hippocampus and other forebrain regions may account for these genotype-specific acquisition effects in this hippocampus-dependent trace paradigm. ..
- Nakauchi S, Sumikawa K. Endogenously released ACh and exogenous nicotine differentially facilitate long-term potentiation induction in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:1381-95 pubmed publisher..Thus, our study demonstrates that the activation of ?7- and ?2-containing nAChRs differentially facilitates LTP induction via endogenously released ACh and exogenous nicotine, respectively, in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice. ..
- Gingras J, Rassadi S, Cooper E, Ferns M. Synaptic transmission is impaired at neuronal autonomic synapses in agrin-null mice. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:521-34 pubmed..Moreover, they suggest a novel role for agrin, in stabilizing the postsynaptic density of nAChR at nascent neuronal synapses. ..
- Gochberg Sarver A, Kedmi M, Gana Weisz M, Bar Shira A, Orr Urtreger A. Tnf?, Cox2 and AdipoQ adipokine gene expression levels are modulated in murine adipose tissues by both nicotine and nACh receptors containing the ?2 subunit. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;107:561-70 pubmed publisher..Together, our data suggest a molecular link between the ?2 nACh receptor subunit and the expression levels of specific adipokines, which is also affected by nicotine. ..
- Triplett J, Owens M, Yamada J, Lemke G, Cang J, Stryker M, et al. Retinal input instructs alignment of visual topographic maps. Cell. 2009;139:175-85 pubmed publisher..These data suggest a general model in which convergent maps use coincident activity patterns to achieve alignment. ..
- Zambrano C, Marks M, Cassels B, Maccioni R. In vivo effects of 3-iodocytisine: pharmacological and genetic analysis of hypothermia and evaluation of chronic treatment on nicotinic binding sites. Neuropharmacology. 2009;57:332-42 pubmed publisher..125)I]alpha-Bungarotoxin binding sites also exhibited up-regulation. These results give a first evaluation of in vivo consequences of 3-IC as a potent agonist with marked effects on mice. ..
- Skok M, Grailhe R, Changeux J. Nicotinic receptors regulate B lymphocyte activation and immune response. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;517:246-51 pubmed..This could contribute to immune depression found in tobacco smokers. ..