Chrm3

Summary

Gene Symbol: Chrm3
Description: cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3, cardiac
Alias: Chrm-3, M3R, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, AChR M3, mm3 mAChR, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Chrm3

Top Publications

  1. Zimring J, Kapp L, Yamada M, Wess J, Kapp J. Regulation of CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocyte differentiation by a cholinergic pathway. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;164:66-75 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that the M1 muscarinic receptor is involved in CTL development, thus providing novel insights into CD8+ T cell biology and the potential role of cholinergic signaling in immune regulation. ..
  2. Kliemann K, Kneffel M, Bergen I, Kampschulte M, Langheinrich A, Dürselen L, et al. Quantitative analyses of bone composition in acetylcholine receptor M3R and alpha7 knockout mice. Life Sci. 2012;91:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we analysed 16 week old male knockout mice for nAChR?7 (?7-KO) and mAChR M3R (M3R-KO) in correlation to their corresponding wild types (WT)...
  3. Matsui M, Motomura D, Fujikawa T, Jiang J, Takahashi S, Manabe T, et al. Mice lacking M2 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are devoid of cholinergic smooth muscle contractions but still viable. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10627-32 pubmed
    ..These results collectively suggest that an additional mechanism operates in the control of pupillary constriction-dilatation...
  4. Xu Z, Yang K, Xu G, Zhu L, Hou L, Zhang W, et al. Role of M3 mAChR in in vivo and in vitro models of LPS-induced inflammatory response. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;14:320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings bring the evidence that the blockage of mAChR exerts anti-inflammatory properties, in which the M3 mAChR plays an important role in the LPS-induced lung inflammation. ..
  5. Raufman J, Samimi R, Shah N, Khurana S, Shant J, Drachenberg C, et al. Genetic ablation of M3 muscarinic receptors attenuates murine colon epithelial cell proliferation and neoplasia. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Compared with WT, azoxymethane-treated M(3)R-deficient mice have attenuated epithelial cell proliferation, tumor number, and size. M(3)R and post-M(3)R signaling are novel therapeutic targets for colon cancer. ..
  6. Kistemaker L, Bos S, Mudde W, Hylkema M, Hiemstra P, Wess J, et al. Muscarinic M? receptors contribute to allergen-induced airway remodeling in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;50:690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of the muscarinic M3 receptor to allergen-induced remodeling using muscarinic M3 receptor subtype-deficient (M3R(-/-)) mice. Wild-type (WT), M1R(-/-), and M2R(-/-) mice were used as controls...
  7. Xie G, Drachenberg C, Yamada M, Wess J, Raufman J. Cholinergic agonist-induced pepsinogen secretion from murine gastric chief cells is mediated by M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G521-9 pubmed
    ..Studies using antagonists suggested that the M3 receptor subtype (M3R) plays a prominent role in mediating pepsinogen secretion, but in situ hybridization indicated expression of M1 ..
  8. Raufman J, Shant J, Xie G, Cheng K, Gao X, Shiu B, et al. Muscarinic receptor subtype-3 gene ablation and scopolamine butylbromide treatment attenuate small intestinal neoplasia in Apcmin/+ mice. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:1396-402 pubmed publisher
    M3 subtype muscarinic receptors (CHRM3) are over-expressed in colon cancer...
  9. Shi Y, Oury F, Yadav V, Wess J, Liu X, Guo X, et al. Signaling through the M(3) muscarinic receptor favors bone mass accrual by decreasing sympathetic activity. Cell Metab. 2010;11:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By showing that both arms of the autonomic nervous system affect bone remodeling, this study further underscores the importance of neuronal regulation of bone. ..

More Information

Publications85

  1. Gautam D, Han S, Hamdan F, Jeon J, Li B, Li J, et al. A critical role for beta cell M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in regulating insulin release and blood glucose homeostasis in vivo. Cell Metab. 2006;3:449-61 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that beta cell M3 muscarinic receptors play a key role in maintaining proper insulin release and glucose homeostasis. ..
  2. Shinoe T, Matsui M, Taketo M, Manabe T. Modulation of synaptic plasticity by physiological activation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the mouse hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:11194-200 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that physiologically released ACh from cholinergic fibers modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity through the postsynaptic M1 mAChR activation. ..
  3. Gautam D, Heard T, Cui Y, Miller G, Bloodworth L, Wess J. Cholinergic stimulation of salivary secretion studied with M1 and M3 muscarinic receptor single- and double-knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;66:260-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together these studies support the concept that a mixture of M(1) and M(3) receptors mediates cholinergic stimulation of salivary flow. ..
  4. Lamping K, Wess J, Cui Y, Nuno D, Faraci F. Muscarinic (M) receptors in coronary circulation: gene-targeted mice define the role of M2 and M3 receptors in response to acetylcholine. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1253-8 pubmed
    ..Similar results were obtained in aorta rings. These findings provide the first direct evidence that relaxation to ACh in coronary circulation is mediated predominantly by activation of M3 receptors. ..
  5. Duttaroy A, Zimliki C, Gautam D, Cui Y, Mears D, Wess J. Muscarinic stimulation of pancreatic insulin and glucagon release is abolished in m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-deficient mice. Diabetes. 2004;53:1714-20 pubmed
    ..These findings provide important new insights into the metabolic roles of the M(3) muscarinic receptor subtype. ..
  6. Liu Y, Sun L, Pan Z, Bai Y, Wang N, Zhao J, et al. Overexpression of M? muscarinic receptor is a novel strategy for preventing sudden cardiac death in transgenic mice. Mol Med. 2011;17:1179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect may be mediated by increasing the inward rectifying K? current by downregulation of arrhythmogenic miR-1 expression, which might partially be a novel strategy for antiarrhythmias, leading to sudden cardiac death. ..
  7. Yamada M, Miyakawa T, Duttaroy A, Yamanaka A, Moriguchi T, Makita R, et al. Mice lacking the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor are hypophagic and lean. Nature. 2001;410:207-12 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice deficient in the M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R-/- mice) display a significant decrease in food intake, reduced body weight and peripheral fat deposits, and very ..
  8. Swayne L, Mezghrani A, Varrault A, Chemin J, Bertrand G, Dalle S, et al. The NALCN ion channel is activated by M3 muscarinic receptors in a pancreatic beta-cell line. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:873-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that NALCN encodes a current that is activated by M3 muscarinic receptors (M3R) in a pancreatic beta-cell line...
  9. Ohno K, Hondo M, Sakurai T. Cholinergic regulation of orexin/hypocretin neurons through M(3) muscarinic receptor in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008;106:485-91 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that CCh activates 20% of orexin neurons through the M(3) muscarinic receptor and subsequent activation of nonselective cation channels. ..
  10. McGraw D, Almoosa K, Paul R, Kobilka B, Liggett S. Antithetic regulation by beta-adrenergic receptors of Gq receptor signaling via phospholipase C underlies the airway beta-agonist paradox. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:619-26 pubmed
    ..These results establish a mechanism of the beta-agonist paradox and identify a potential asthma modifier gene (phospholipase C-beta1), which may also be a therapeutic target in asthma when chronic beta-agonists are required. ..
  11. Hellman B, Dansk H, Grapengiesser E. Activation of alpha adrenergic and muscarinic receptors modifies early glucose suppression of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in pancreatic ?-cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;445:629-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the period of initial decrease of [Ca(2+)]i regulates the subsequent ?-cell response to glucose. ..
  12. Aihara T, Nakamura Y, Taketo M, Matsui M, Okabe S. Cholinergically stimulated gastric acid secretion is mediated by M(3) and M(5) but not M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;288:G1199-207 pubmed
    ..Consequently, cholinergic stimulation of gastric acid secretion is clearly mediated by M(3) (on parietal cells) and M(5) receptors (conceivably in the submucosal plexus), but not M(1) receptors. ..
  13. Schlenz H, Kummer W, Jositsch G, Wess J, Krasteva G. Muscarinic receptor-mediated bronchoconstriction is coupled to caveolae in murine airways. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L626-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Caveolae disruption decreased muscarine-induced bronchoconstriction in wild-type and abolished it in M2R(-/-) and M3R(-/-) mice. Thus M2R and M3R signaling pathways require intact caveolae...
  14. Chernyavsky A, Arredondo J, Wess J, Karlsson E, Grando S. Novel signaling pathways mediating reciprocal control of keratinocyte migration and wound epithelialization through M3 and M4 muscarinic receptors. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:261-72 pubmed
    ..These findings offer novel insights into the mechanisms of ACh-mediated modulation of KC migration and wound reepithelialization, and may aid the development of novel methods to promote wound healing. ..
  15. Kistemaker L, Bos I, Hylkema M, Nawijn M, Hiemstra P, Wess J, et al. Muscarinic receptor subtype-specific effects on cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in mice. Eur Respir J. 2013;42:1677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data indicate a pro-inflammatory role for the M3 receptor in cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia and cytokine release, yet an anti-inflammatory role for M1 and M2 receptors. ..
  16. Chen S, Chen H, Yuan W, Wess J, Pan H. Dynamic control of glutamatergic synaptic input in the spinal cord by muscarinic receptor subtypes defined using knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40427-37 pubmed publisher
    ..M(5) is the predominant receptor subtype that potentiates glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the spinal cord. ..
  17. McLean L, Smith A, Cheung L, Urban J, Sun R, Grinchuk V, et al. Type 3 muscarinic receptors contribute to intestinal mucosal homeostasis and clearance of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis through induction of TH2 cytokines. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;311:G130-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Uninfected and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected wild-type and type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)-deficient (Chrm3(-/-)) mice were studied to determine the contribution of M3R to mucosal homeostasis as well as host defense ..
  18. Hayakawa Y, Sakitani K, Konishi M, Asfaha S, Niikura R, Tomita H, et al. Nerve Growth Factor Promotes Gastric Tumorigenesis through Aberrant Cholinergic Signaling. Cancer Cell. 2017;31:21-34 pubmed publisher
    ..blockade of NGF/Trk signaling inhibited epithelial proliferation and tumorigenesis in an ACh muscarinic receptor-3 (M3R)-dependent manner, in part through suppression of yes-associated protein (YAP) function...
  19. Ruiz de Azua I, Nakajima K, Rossi M, Cui Y, Jou W, Gavrilova O, et al. Spinophilin as a novel regulator of M3 muscarinic receptor-mediated insulin release in vitro and in vivo. FASEB J. 2012;26:4275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..and in vivo approaches (mouse insulinoma cells and SPL-deficient mice), that SPL is a potent negative regulator of M3R-mediated signaling and insulin release...
  20. Tsukumo Y, Harada D, Manabe H. Pharmacological characterization of itch-associated response induced by repeated application of oxazolone in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;113:255-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that leukotriene B(4) receptor and M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor are involved in the itch-associated response induced by repeated application of oxazolone in mice. ..
  21. Wang Q, Pronin A, Levay K, Almaca J, Fornoni A, Caicedo A, et al. Regulator of G-protein signaling Gβ5-R7 is a crucial activator of muscarinic M3 receptor-stimulated insulin secretion. FASEB J. 2017;31:4734-4744 pubmed publisher
    In pancreatic β cells, muscarinic cholinergic receptor M3 (M3R) stimulates glucose-induced secretion of insulin...
  22. Hubsch M, Neuhuber W, Raab M. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the mouse esophagus: focus on intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs). Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25:e560-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetylcholine probably released from varicosities of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin may influence a subpopulation of esophageal IGLEs via M2 and M1-receptors. ..
  23. Liu Q, Zheng Y, Korde A, Yadav V, Rathore R, Wess J, et al. Membrane depolarization causes a direct activation of G protein-coupled receptors leading to local Ca2+ release in smooth muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11418-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate an important mechanism for Ca(2+) signaling and attendant physiological function in SMCs. ..
  24. Gautam D, Gavrilova O, Jeon J, Pack S, Jou W, Cui Y, et al. Beneficial metabolic effects of M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor deficiency. Cell Metab. 2006;4:363-75 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the M3 receptor may represent a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. ..
  25. Hamada S, Houtani T, Trifonov S, Kase M, Maruyama M, Shimizu J, et al. Histological determination of the areas enriched in cholinergic terminals and M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in the mouse central auditory system. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1393-9 pubmed publisher
  26. Porter A, Bymaster F, DeLapp N, Yamada M, Wess J, Hamilton S, et al. M1 muscarinic receptor signaling in mouse hippocampus and cortex. Brain Res. 2002;944:82-9 pubmed
    ..These findings support a role for the M1 receptor subtype as the primary G(alpha)(q)/11-coupled muscarinic receptor in mouse hippocampus and cortex...
  27. Zawalich W, Zawalich K, Tesz G, Taketo M, Sterpka J, Philbrick W, et al. Effects of muscarinic receptor type 3 knockout on mouse islet secretory responses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;315:872-6 pubmed
    ..These studies support the conclusion that the M3 receptor in islets is coupled to PLC activation and insulin secretion and that cholinergic stimulation of the islets may play an important role in the regulation of plasma insulin levels. ..
  28. Otero Cruz J, Báez Pagán C, Caraballo González I, Lasalde Dominicci J. Tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis in the alphaM3 transmembrane domain of the muscle-type acetylcholine receptor. A spring model revealed. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:9162-71 pubmed
    ..In addition, the present study also provides evidence about functional and structural differences between the alphaM3 domains of the Torpedo and muscle-type receptors AChR. ..
  29. Nakamura T, Matsui M, Uchida K, Futatsugi A, Kusakawa S, Matsumoto N, et al. M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor plays a critical role in parasympathetic control of salivation in mice. J Physiol. 2004;558:561-75 pubmed
    ..These results show that the M(3) subtype is essential for parasympathetic control of salivation and a reasonable target for the drug treatment and gene therapy of xerostomia, including Sjögren's syndrome. ..
  30. Guettier J, Gautam D, Scarselli M, Ruiz de Azua I, Li J, Rosemond E, et al. A chemical-genetic approach to study G protein regulation of beta cell function in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this developed chemical-genetic strategy represents a powerful approach to study G protein regulation of beta cell function in vivo. ..
  31. Chen S, Chen H, Yuan W, Wess J, Pan H. Differential regulation of primary afferent input to spinal cord by muscarinic receptor subtypes delineated using knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:14321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of the M5 subtype either directly increases primary afferent input or inhibits it through indirectly stimulating group II/III mGluRs. ..
  32. Wang T, Guan D, Fan Y, Wu J, Liu W, Zhao Z, et al. [Expression of M3 subtype of muscarinic receptor during the skin incised wound healing in mice]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;26:165-8, 172 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of M3 subtype of muscarinic receptors (M3R) during the incised wound healing of the skin in mice and the characteristics of its time-dependent...
  33. Shapiro R, Scherer N, Habecker B, Subers E, Nathanson N. Isolation, sequence, and functional expression of the mouse M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:18397-403 pubmed
    ..In addition, these results indicate that different subtypes of the muscarinic receptor are coupled to different physiological responses. ..
  34. Cea del Rio C, Lawrence J, Tricoire L, Erdelyi F, Szabo G, McBain C. M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression confers differential cholinergic modulation to neurochemically distinct hippocampal basket cell subtypes. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6011-24 pubmed publisher
  35. Zhao C, Hayakawa Y, Kodama Y, Muthupalani S, Westphalen C, Andersen G, et al. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis. Sci Transl Med. 2014;6:250ra115 pubmed publisher
  36. Allen I, Hartney J, Coffman T, Penn R, Wess J, Koller B. Thromboxane A2 induces airway constriction through an M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;290:L526-33 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these findings demonstrate a unique pathway for TP regulation of homeostatic mechanisms in the airway and suggest a paradigm for the role of TXA2 in other organ systems. ..
  37. Weber S, Thiele H, Mir S, Toliat M, Sozeri B, Reutter H, et al. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M3 Mutation Causes Urinary Bladder Disease and a Prune-Belly-like Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;89:668-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We here describe a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) (1q41-q44) homozygous frameshift mutation in familial congenital bladder malformation ..
  38. Kuczewski N, Aztiria E, Gautam D, Wess J, Domenici L. Acetylcholine modulates cortical synaptic transmission via different muscarinic receptors, as studied with receptor knockout mice. J Physiol. 2005;566:907-19 pubmed
    ..The present data suggest that local ACh, acting through mAChRs, regulates the cortical dynamics making cortical circuits respond to specific stimuli. ..
  39. Khan M, Anisuzzaman A, Semba S, Ma Y, Uwada J, Hayashi H, et al. M1 is a major subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on mouse colonic epithelial cells. J Gastroenterol. 2013;48:885-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The major M1 subtype was likely to regulate epithelial chloride secretion negatively and was susceptible to inflammation and may be relevant to inflammatory gut dysfunction. ..
  40. Gericke A, Sniatecki J, Mayer V, Goloborodko E, Patzak A, Wess J, et al. Role of M1, M3, and M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in cholinergic dilation of small arteries studied with gene-targeted mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H1602-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of small arteries using gene-targeted mice deficient in either of the three receptor subtypes (M1R(-/-), M3R(-/-), or M5R(-/-) mice, respectively)...
  41. Beckmann J, Dittmann N, Schütz I, Klein J, Lips K. Effect of M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor deficiency on collagen antibody-induced arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016;18:17 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) in this regard has, however, not been investigated to date...
  42. Weston Green K, Huang X, Deng C. Second generation antipsychotic-induced type 2 diabetes: a role for the muscarinic M3 receptor. CNS Drugs. 2013;27:1069-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This review explores the potential candidature of the acetylcholine (ACh) muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) as a prime mechanistic and possible therapeutic target of interest in SGA-induced insulin dysregulation...
  43. Bymaster F, McKinzie D, Felder C, Wess J. Use of M1-M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice as novel tools to delineate the physiological roles of the muscarinic cholinergic system. Neurochem Res. 2003;28:437-42 pubmed
    ..M4 mAChRs modulate dopamine activity in motor tracts and act as inhibitory autoreceptors in striatum. Thus, as elucidated by gene targeting technology, mAChRs have widespread and manifold functions in the periphery and brain. ..
  44. Cyphert J, Kovarova M, Allen I, Hartney J, Murphy D, Wess J, et al. Cooperation between mast cells and neurons is essential for antigen-mediated bronchoconstriction. J Immunol. 2009;182:7430-9 pubmed publisher
  45. Maison S, Liu X, Vetter D, Eatock R, Nathanson N, Wess J, et al. Muscarinic signaling in the cochlea: presynaptic and postsynaptic effects on efferent feedback and afferent excitability. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6751-62 pubmed publisher
  46. Cheng K, Xie G, Khurana S, Heath J, Drachenberg C, Timmons J, et al. Divergent effects of muscarinic receptor subtype gene ablation on murine colon tumorigenesis reveals association of M3R and zinc finger protein 277 expression in colon neoplasia. Mol Cancer. 2014;13:77 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, ablating Chrm3, the gene encoding M3R, robustly attenuates intestinal tumor formation...
  47. de la Torre E, Genaro A, Ribeiro M, Pagotto R, Pignataro O, Sales M. Proliferative actions of muscarinic receptors expressed in macrophages derived from normal and tumor bearing mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1782:82-9 pubmed
    ..In NMps, carbachol stimulates M(2) receptors function, triggering protein kinase C activity and induces moderate prostaglandin E(2) liberation via M(1) receptor. ..
  48. Muñoz W, Tremblay R, Levenstein D, Rudy B. Layer-specific modulation of neocortical dendritic inhibition during active wakefulness. Science. 2017;355:954-959 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a state-dependent laminar influence of Sst interneuron-mediated inhibition, with implications for the compartmentalized regulation of dendritic signaling in the mammalian neocortex. ..
  49. Gericke A, Steege A, Manicam C, Böhmer T, Wess J, Pfeiffer N. Role of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype in murine ophthalmic arteries after endothelial removal. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:625-31 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of the M3 receptor in mediating vascular responses, ophthalmic arteries from M3 receptor-deficient mice (M3R(-/-)) and respective wild-type controls were studied in vitro...
  50. Takeuchi T, Fujinami K, Goto H, Fujita A, Taketo M, Manabe T, et al. Roles of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors in regulating acetylcholine release from myenteric neurons of mouse ileum. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:2841-8 pubmed
    ..M1, M3, and M5 receptors do not seem to be involved in this mechanism. ..
  51. Gautam D, Jeon J, Li J, Han S, Hamdan F, Cui Y, et al. Metabolic roles of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor studied with M3 receptor mutant mice: a review. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2008;28:93-108 pubmed
    ..These findings are of potential interest for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. ..
  52. Jiang Y, Li Y, Tian H, Ma M, Matsunami H. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 modulates odorant receptor activity via inhibition of β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6448 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a role for acetylcholine in modulating olfactory processing at the initial stages of signal transduction in the olfactory system. ..
  53. Takeuchi T, Tanaka K, Nakajima H, Matsui M, Azuma Y. M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors are involved in enteric nerve-mediated contraction of the mouse ileum: Findings obtained with muscarinic-receptor knockout mouse. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G154-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that atropine-sensitive phasic contraction is mainly mediated via the M3 receptor, and SP-mediated sustained contraction is negatively regulated by the M2 receptor at a presynaptic level. ..
  54. Bellocchio L, Ruiz Calvo A, Chiarlone A, Cabanas M, Resel E, Cazalets J, et al. Sustained Gq-Protein Signaling Disrupts Striatal Circuits via JNK. J Neurosci. 2016;36:10611-10624 pubmed
    ..Overall, this study sheds new light onto the molecular mechanism and functional relevance of Gq-protein-driven signals in striatal circuits under normal and overactivated states. ..
  55. Noreikat K, Wolff M, Kummer W, Kölle S. Ciliary activity in the oviduct of cycling, pregnant, and muscarinic receptor knockout mice. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:120 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR of laser-assisted microdissected epithelium revealed expression of Chrm subtypes Chrm1 and Chrm3. In opened isthmic segments, particle transport was barely seen, correlating with a significantly lower number of ..
  56. Arteaga Solis E, Zee T, Emala C, Vinson C, Wess J, Karsenty G. Inhibition of leptin regulation of parasympathetic signaling as a cause of extreme body weight-associated asthma. Cell Metab. 2013;17:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be of use in the management of obesity-associated asthma. ..
  57. Liu Y, Wang S, Wang C, Song H, Han H, Hang P, et al. Upregulation of M? muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II. J Transl Med. 2013;11:209 pubmed publisher
    ..The upregulation of M?-mAChR during myocardial hypertrophy could relieve the hypertrophic response provoked by Ang II, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK signaling through the downregulation of AT1 receptor. ..
  58. Stengel P, Cohen M. Muscarinic receptor knockout mice: role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M(2), M(3), and M(4) in carbamylcholine-induced gallbladder contractility. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301:643-50 pubmed
  59. Ogura T, Szebenyi S, Krosnowski K, Sathyanesan A, Jackson J, Lin W. Cholinergic microvillous cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium and effect of acetylcholine on olfactory sensory neurons and supporting cells. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:1274-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal an intrinsic and potentially potent mechanism linking external stimulation to cholinergic modulation of activities in the olfactory epithelium. ..
  60. Guerra M, Wauson E, McGlynn K, Cobb M. Muscarinic control of MIN6 pancreatic ? cells is enhanced by impaired amino acid signaling. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:14370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that M3 acetylcholine receptors are increased in ? cells as a mechanism to compensate for amino acid deficiency. ..
  61. Wright M, Potluri S, Wang X, Dentcheva E, Gautam D, Tessler A, et al. Distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes contribute to stability and growth, but not compensatory plasticity, of neuromuscular synapses. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14942-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Subtype-specific muscarinic signaling provides a novel means for coordinating activity-dependent development and maintenance of the tripartite synapse. ..
  62. Oki T, Takagi Y, Inagaki S, Taketo M, Manabe T, Matsui M, et al. Quantitative analysis of binding parameters of [3H]N-methylscopolamine in central nervous system of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;133:6-11 pubmed
  63. Lawrence J, Statland J, Grinspan Z, McBain C. Cell type-specific dependence of muscarinic signalling in mouse hippocampal stratum oriens interneurones. J Physiol. 2006;570:595-610 pubmed
  64. Paula F, Barbosa H, Carneiro E, Persaud S, Gagliardino J, Boschero A, et al. Requirement of NF-kappaB signalling pathway for modulation of the cholinergic muscarinic M3 receptor expression by INGAP-PP in insulin-producing cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;642:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-kappaB signalling plays an essential role in controlling the expression of the muscarinic M(3) receptor. ..
  65. Poulin B, Butcher A, McWilliams P, Bourgognon J, Pawlak R, Kong K, et al. The M3-muscarinic receptor regulates learning and memory in a receptor phosphorylation/arrestin-dependent manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study opens the potential for biased M(3)-muscarinic receptor ligands that direct phosphorylation/arrestin-dependent (non-G protein) signaling as being beneficial in cognitive disorders. ..
  66. Araya R, Noguchi T, Yuhki M, Kitamura N, Higuchi M, Saido T, et al. Loss of M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors leads to cerebrovascular and neuronal abnormalities and cognitive deficits in mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;24:334-44 pubmed
    ..The M5 receptor may represent an attractive novel therapeutic target to ameliorate memory deficits caused by impaired cerebrovascular function. ..
  67. Kistemaker L, van Os R, Dethmers Ausema A, Bos I, Hylkema M, van den Berge M, et al. Muscarinic M3 receptors on structural cells regulate cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;308:L96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, no increase in the number of neutrophils was observed in M3R(-/-) animals receiving wild-type bone marrow...
  68. Patel K, Bai Y, Trieu K, Barrios J, Ai X. Targeting acetylcholine receptor M3 prevents the progression of airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model of childhood asthma. FASEB J. 2017;31:4335-4346 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting ChRM3 may have disease-modifying benefits in childhood asthma.-Patel, K. R., Bai, Y., Trieu, K. G., Barrios, J., Ai, X...
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    ..Moreover, we found that M3 cholinergic receptor (CHRM3) was upregulated in a large subset of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues compared with normal tissues...
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    ..Given the important role of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms in pulmonary disease, these findings should be of considerable therapeutic relevance. ..
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    ..These findings should contribute to a better understanding of the important functional roles that the muscarinic cholinergic system plays in striatal function. ..
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    ..The delineation of this pathway is consistent with the formation of a functional unit by the M2-Go protein and the M3-PLC systems predicted to control cationic channels. ..
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    ..muscarinic receptor antagonist, and specific genetic ablation of a key cholinergic receptor, muscarinic subtype-3 (Chrm3), on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced liver injury in mice...
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    ..The M1 receptor increases cilia-driven particle transport if the M3 and M2 receptors are missing. None of the receptors is necessary for epithelial development. ..
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    ..Only mRNA for the M(3) receptor was detected in retinal arterioles. Thus, M(3) receptor-deficient mice (M3R(-/-)) and respective wild-type controls were used for functional studies...