Gene Symbol: Chga
Description: chromogranin A
Alias: ChrA, cgA, chromogranin-A
Species: mouse
Products:     Chga

Top Publications

  1. Madison B, Braunstein K, Kuizon E, Portman K, Qiao X, Gumucio D. Epithelial hedgehog signals pattern the intestinal crypt-villus axis. Development. 2005;132:279-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, through a combined Hh signal to underlying ISEMFs, the epithelium patterns the crypt-villus axis, ensuring the proper size and location of the emerging precrypt compartment. ..
  2. Jenny M, Uhl C, Roche C, Duluc I, Guillermin V, Guillemot F, et al. Neurogenin3 is differentially required for endocrine cell fate specification in the intestinal and gastric epithelium. EMBO J. 2002;21:6338-47 pubmed
    ..Thus, ngn3 is strictly required for endocrine cell fate specification in multipotent intestinal progenitor cells, whereas gastric endocrine development is both ngn3 dependent and independent. ..
  3. Bondow B, Faber M, Wojta K, Walker E, Battle M. E-cadherin is required for intestinal morphogenesis in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2012;371:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data demonstrate that E-cadherin is essential for intestinal epithelial morphogenesis and homeostasis during embryonic development. ..
  4. Mahapatra N, O Connor D, Vaingankar S, Hikim A, Mahata M, Ray S, et al. Hypertension from targeted ablation of chromogranin A can be rescued by the human ortholog. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1942-52 pubmed
    The secretory prohormone chromogranin A (CHGA) is overexpressed in essential hypertension, a complex trait with genetic predisposition, while its catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin is diminished, and low catestatin ..
  5. Gayen J, Saberi M, Schenk S, Biswas N, Vaingankar S, Cheung W, et al. A novel pathway of insulin sensitivity in chromogranin A null mice: a crucial role for pancreastatin in glucose homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28498-509 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromogranin A (CHGA/Chga), a proprotein, widely distributed in endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues (not expressed in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues), generates at least four bioactive peptides...
  6. Prado C, Pugh Bernard A, Elghazi L, Sosa Pineda B, Sussel L. Ghrelin cells replace insulin-producing beta cells in two mouse models of pancreas development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2924-9 pubmed
    ..2 and Pax4 are required to specify or maintain differentiation of the beta cell fate. This finding also suggests that there is a genetic component underlying the balance between insulin and ghrelin in regulating glucose metabolism. ..
  7. Domínguez N, van Weering J, Borges R, Toonen R, Verhage M. Dense-core vesicle biogenesis and exocytosis in neurons lacking chromogranins A and B. J Neurochem. 2018;144:241-254 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromogranin A and B (Cgs) are considered to be master regulators of cargo sorting for the regulated secretory pathway (RSP) and dense-core vesicle (DCV) biogenesis...
  8. Bjerknes M, Khandanpour C, Moroy T, Fujiyama T, Hoshino M, Klisch T, et al. Origin of the brush cell lineage in the mouse intestinal epithelium. Dev Biol. 2012;362:194-218 pubmed publisher
  9. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N. FRS2 alpha 2F/2F mice lack carotid body and exhibit abnormalities of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and carotid sinus nerve. Dev Biol. 2008;314:236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the sympathetic ganglion provides glomus cell precursors into the third arch artery derivative in the presence of sensory fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve...

More Information


  1. Moriguchi T, Takako N, Hamada M, Maeda A, Fujioka Y, Kuroha T, et al. Gata3 participates in a complex transcriptional feedback network to regulate sympathoadrenal differentiation. Development. 2006;133:3871-81 pubmed
  2. Ejarque M, Cervantes S, Pujadas G, Tutusaus A, Sanchez L, Gasa R. Neurogenin3 cooperates with Foxa2 to autoactivate its own expression. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11705-17 pubmed publisher
  3. Huh Y, Jeon S, Yoo S. Chromogranin B-induced secretory granule biogenesis: comparison with the similar role of chromogranin A. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40581-9 pubmed
    The two major proteins of secretory granules of secretory cells, chromogranins A (CGA) and B (CGB), have previously been proposed to play key roles in secretory granule biogenesis...
  4. Speidel D, Bruederle C, Enk C, Voets T, Varoqueaux F, Reim K, et al. CAPS1 regulates catecholamine loading of large dense-core vesicles. Neuron. 2005;46:75-88 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CAPS1 is required for an essential step in the uptake or storage of catecholamines in LDCVs. ..
  5. Tang K, Pasqua T, Biswas A, Mahata S, Tang J, Tang A, et al. Muscle injury, impaired muscle function and insulin resistance in Chromogranin A-knockout mice. J Endocrinol. 2017;232:137-153 pubmed
    b>Chromogranin A (CgA) is widely expressed in endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues as well as in the central nervous system...
  6. Gu Y, Zhang K, Biswas N, Friese R, Lin D, Mahata S, et al. Urocortin 2 lowers blood pressure and reduces plasma catecholamine levels in mice with hyperadrenergic activity. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4820-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The chromogranin A-null mouse (Chga-/-) manifests systemic hypertension because of excessive catecholamine secretion from the ..
  7. Chen Y, Mahata M, Rao F, Khandrika S, Courel M, Fung M, et al. Chromogranin A regulates renal function by triggering Weibel-Palade body exocytosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1623-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromogranin A (CHGA), a protein released from secretory granules of chromaffin cells and sympathetic nerves, triggers endothelin-1 release from endothelial cells...
  8. Montesinos M, Machado J, Camacho M, Diaz J, Morales Y, Alvarez de la Rosa D, et al. The crucial role of chromogranins in storage and exocytosis revealed using chromaffin cells from chromogranin A null mouse. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromaffin cells from Chga null mice [chromogranin A knock-out (CgA-KO)] exhibited approximately 30% reduction in the content and in the release of catecholamines ..
  9. Hendy G, Li T, Girard M, Feldstein R, Mulay S, Desjardins R, et al. Targeted ablation of the chromogranin a (Chga) gene: normal neuroendocrine dense-core secretory granules and increased expression of other granins. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1935-47 pubmed
    b>Chromogranin A (CgA), originally identified in adrenal chromaffin cells, is a member of the granin family of acidic secretory glycoproteins that are expressed in endocrine cells and neurons...
  10. Bonnavion R, Teinturier R, Jaafar R, Ripoche D, Leteurtre E, Chen Y, et al. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provides insight into the histogenesis of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors. ..
  11. Wu H, Rozansky D, Parmer R, Gill B, O Connor D. Structure and function of the chromogranin A gene. Clues to evolution and tissue-specific expression. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:13130-4 pubmed
    b>Chromogranin A is the index member of a family of acidic proteins stored and released throughout the neuroendocrine system with peptide hormones and neurotransmitters...
  12. Mahata S, Kozak C, Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Modi W, Gerdes H, et al. Dispersion of chromogranin/secretogranin secretory protein family loci in mammalian genomes. Genomics. 1996;33:135-9 pubmed
    b>Chromogranin A, chromogranin B, and secretogranin II, members of the chromogranin/secretogranin secretory protein family, are overexpressed in some human hereditary maladies and may have arisen, in part, from common ancestor genes...
  13. Chamberlain C, Scheel D, McGlynn K, Kim H, Miyatsuka T, Wang J, et al. Menin determines K-RAS proliferative outputs in endocrine cells. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4093-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights suggest potential strategies both for regenerating pancreatic ? cells for people with diabetes and for targeting menin-sensitive endocrine tumors. ..
  14. Prandi S, Bromke M, Hübner S, Voigt A, Boehm U, Meyerhof W, et al. A subset of mouse colonic goblet cells expresses the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82820 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression in colonic goblet cells is consistent with a role of Tas2rs in defense mechanisms against potentially harmful xenobiotics. ..
  15. Stettler H, Beuret N, Prescianotto Baschong C, Fayard B, Taupenot L, Spiess M. Determinants for chromogranin A sorting into the regulated secretory pathway are also sufficient to generate granule-like structures in non-endocrine cells. Biochem J. 2009;418:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify which segment of CgA (chromogranin A) is important to induce the formation of such granule-like structures, a series of deletion constructs fused ..
  16. Petri A, Ahnfelt Rønne J, Frederiksen K, Edwards D, Madsen D, Serup P, et al. The effect of neurogenin3 deficiency on pancreatic gene expression in embryonic mice. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;37:301-16 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Irx1 and Irx2 serve an evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of alpha-cell-specific gene expression. ..
  17. Díaz Vera J, Camacho M, Machado J, Domínguez N, Montesinos M, Hernández Fernaud J, et al. Chromogranins A and B are key proteins in amine accumulation, but the catecholamine secretory pathway is conserved without them. FASEB J. 2012;26:430-8 pubmed publisher
  18. Kokubu H, Ohtsuka T, Kageyama R. Mash1 is required for neuroendocrine cell development in the glandular stomach. Genes Cells. 2008;13:41-51 pubmed publisher
  19. Desgraz R, Herrera P. Pancreatic neurogenin 3-expressing cells are unipotent islet precursors. Development. 2009;136:3567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby Ngn3(+) cells are monotypic (i.e. unipotent) precursors, and use this paradigm to refocus ideas on how cell number and type must be regulated in building complete islets of Langerhans. ..
  20. Gayen J, Gu Y, O Connor D, Mahata S. Global disturbances in autonomic function yield cardiovascular instability and hypertension in the chromogranin a null mouse. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5027-35 pubmed publisher
    We reported previously that chromogranin A (Chga) knockout (KO) mice are hypertensive and hyperadrenergic...
  21. Guenet J, Simon Chazottes D, De Robertis E, Blum M. The mouse goosecoïd gene (Gsc) maps to the telomeric part of mouse chromosome 12. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:816-7 pubmed
  22. Das P, MAY C. Expression analysis of the Islet-1 gene in the developing and adult gastrointestinal tract. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:244-54 pubmed publisher
  23. Kameda Y. Expression of glial progenitor markers p75NTR and S100 protein in the developing mouse parathyroid gland. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;327:15-23 pubmed
    ..The rudiment exhibits immunoreactivity for p75(NTR) and S100 protein, in addition to secretory protein 1/chromogranin A. While the thymus rudiment, which arises from the caudal part of the third pharyngeal pouch, is moving ..
  24. Kechele D, Blue R, Zwarycz B, Espenschied S, Mah A, Siegel M, et al. Orphan Gpr182 suppresses ERK-mediated intestinal proliferation during regeneration and adenoma formation. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:593-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results implicate Gpr182 as a negative regulator of intestinal MAPK signaling-induced proliferation, particularly during regeneration and adenoma formation. ..
  25. Yan X, Managlia E, Liu S, Tan X, Wang X, Marek C, et al. Lack of VEGFR2 signaling causes maldevelopment of the intestinal microvasculature and facilitates necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G716-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, VEGFR2 signaling is necessary to maintain the integrity of the intestinal mucosal microvasculature during the postnatal period and lack of VEGFR2 signaling predisposes to NEC in neonatal mice. ..
  26. Du A, McCracken K, Walp E, Terry N, Klein T, Han A, et al. Arx is required for normal enteroendocrine cell development in mice and humans. Dev Biol. 2012;365:175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings uncover a novel and conserved role of Arx in mammalian endocrine cell development and provide a potential cause for the chronic diarrhea seen in both humans and mice carrying Arx mutations. ..
  27. Dominguez Rieg J, Chirasani V, Koepsell H, Senapati S, Mahata S, Rieg T. Regulation of intestinal SGLT1 by catestatin in hyperleptinemic type 2 diabetic mice. Lab Invest. 2016;96:98-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Catestatin (CST), a 21-amino acid peptide derived from proprotein chromogranin A, has been shown to modulate leptin signaling...
  28. Biswas N, Curello E, O Connor D, Mahata S. Chromogranin/secretogranin proteins in murine heart: myocardial production of chromogranin A fragment catestatin (Chga(364-384)). Cell Tissue Res. 2010;342:353-61 pubmed publisher
    ..whether atrial and myocardial secretory granules contain chromogranin/secretogranin proteins including chromogranin A (CHGA/Chga), chromogranin B (CHGB/Chgb) and secretogranin II (SCG2/Scg2)...
  29. Boyer D, Fujitani Y, Gannon M, Powers A, Stein R, Wright C. Complementation rescue of Pdx1 null phenotype demonstrates distinct roles of proximal and distal cis-regulatory sequences in pancreatic and duodenal expression. Dev Biol. 2006;298:616-31 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a role for distal cis-regulatory elements in achieving the correct level of extra-pancreatic Pdx1 expression, which is necessary for the production of duodenal GIP cells and stomach gastrin cells. ..
  30. Smith S, Qu H, Taleb N, Kishimoto N, Scheel D, Lu Y, et al. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010;463:775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate a unique position for Rfx6 in the hierarchy of factors that coordinate pancreatic islet development in both mice and humans. Rfx6 could prove useful in efforts to generate beta-cells for patients with diabetes. ..
  31. Simon Chazottes D, Wu H, Parmer R, Rozansky D, Szpirer J, Levan G, et al. Assignment of the chromogranin A (Chga) locus to homologous regions on mouse chromosome 12 and rat chromosome 6. Genomics. 1993;17:252-5 pubmed
    b>Chromogranin A is an acidic protein, stored and released with catecholamines, and is overexpressed in genetic hypertension. In the human genome, its locus has previously been positioned on the long arm of Chromosome 14 in the 14q32 region...
  32. Billingsley G, Cox D, Duncan A, Goodfellow P, Grzeschik K. Regional localization of loci on chromosome 14 using somatic cell hybrids. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1994;66:33-8 pubmed
    ..Four additional genes, chromogranin A (CHGA), myosin (MYH7), tRNA proline 2 (TRP2) and c-FOS (FOS) and four random segments, D14S26, D14S12, D14S14 ..
  33. Pereda D, Pardo M, Morales Y, Domínguez N, Arnau M, Borges R. Mice lacking chromogranins exhibit increased aggressive and depression-like behaviour. Behav Brain Res. 2015;278:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used three different genetic mutant models of mice lacking chromogranin A, chromogranin B and both all on the same C57BL/6J background, to characterize the physiological roles of these ..
  34. Zhao C, Martinez V, Piqueras L, Wang L, TACHE Y, Chen D. Control of gastric acid secretion in somatostatin receptor 2 deficient mice: shift from endocrine/paracrine to neurocrine pathways. Endocrinology. 2008;149:498-505 pubmed
    ..We suggest that there is a remodeling of the neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate acid secretion in these mutant mice...
  35. Ben Arie N, Hassan B, Bermingham N, Malicki D, Armstrong D, Matzuk M, et al. Functional conservation of atonal and Math1 in the CNS and PNS. Development. 2000;127:1039-48 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that both the mouse and fly homologs encode lineage identity information and, more interestingly, that some of the cells dependent on this information serve similar mechanoreceptor functions. ..
  36. Huber K, Narasimhan P, Shtukmaster S, Pfeifer D, Evans S, Sun Y. The LIM-Homeodomain transcription factor Islet-1 is required for the development of sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. Dev Biol. 2013;380:286-98 pubmed publisher
    ..but the initiation of the adrenaline synthesizing enzyme PNMT was abrogated and the expression level of chromogranin A was diminished...
  37. Stanger B, Datar R, Murtaugh L, Melton D. Direct regulation of intestinal fate by Notch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12443-8 pubmed
    ..In the embryo, Notch activation perturbs morphogenesis, possibly through effects on stem or progenitor cells. ..
  38. Bandyopadhyay G, Vu C, Gentile S, Lee H, Biswas N, Chi N, et al. Catestatin (chromogranin A(352-372)) and novel effects on mobilization of fat from adipose tissue through regulation of adrenergic and leptin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23141-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromogranin A knock-out (Chga-KO) mice display increased adiposity despite high levels of circulating catecholamines and leptin...
  39. Li Y, Zhou L, Li Y, Zhang J, Guo B, Meng G, et al. Identification of autoreactive CD8+ T cell responses targeting chromogranin A in humanized NOD mice and type 1 diabetes patients. Clin Immunol. 2015;159:63-71 pubmed publisher
    b>ChgA has recently been identified as the autoantigen for diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells in NOD mice and T1D patients. However, autoreactive CD8(+) T-cell responses targeting ChgA haven't been studied yet...
  40. Gleeson C, Curry W, Johnston C, Buchanan K. Occurrence of WE-14 and chromogranin A-derived peptides in tissues of the human and bovine gastro-entero-pancreatic system and in human neuroendocrine neoplasia. J Endocrinol. 1996;151:409-20 pubmed the synthetic peptides SREWEDS and KELTAE which correspond to residues 315-321 and 332-337 of human chromogranin A (CgA) respectively...
  41. VanDussen K, Samuelson L. Mouse atonal homolog 1 directs intestinal progenitors to secretory cell rather than absorptive cell fate. Dev Biol. 2010;346:215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Math1 is a key effector directing multipotential precursors to adopt secretory and not absorptive cell fate. ..
  42. Xu E, Krentz N, Tan S, Chow S, Tang M, Nian C, et al. SOX4 cooperates with neurogenin 3 to regulate endocrine pancreas formation in mouse models. Diabetologia. 2015;58:1013-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these studies position Sox4 temporally in the endocrine differentiation programme and provide a new target for improving in vitro differentiation of glucose-responsive pancreatic beta cells. ..
  43. Sadakata T, Mizoguchi A, Sato Y, Katoh Semba R, Fukuda M, Mikoshiba K, et al. The secretory granule-associated protein CAPS2 regulates neurotrophin release and cell survival. J Neurosci. 2004;24:43-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, we suggest that CAPS2 mediates the depolarization-dependent release of NT-3 and BDNF from granule cells, leading to regulation in cell differentiation and survival during cerebellar development. ..
  44. Modi W, Levine M, Seuanez H, Dean M, O Brien S. The human chromogranin A gene: chromosome assignment and RFLP analysis. Am J Hum Genet. 1989;45:814-8 pubmed
    b>Chromogranin A/secretory protein I (CgA) is a glycoprotein that is stored and released along with peptide hormones and neurotransmitters from several tissues, although its exact function is not known...
  45. Yang Q, Bermingham N, Finegold M, Zoghbi H. Requirement of Math1 for secretory cell lineage commitment in the mouse intestine. Science. 2001;294:2155-8 pubmed
    ..The continuous rapid renewal of these cells makes the intestinal epithelium a model system for the study of stem cell regeneration and lineage commitment...
  46. Alanentalo T, Chatonnet F, Karlen M, Sulniute R, Ericson J, Andersson E, et al. Cloning and analysis of Nkx6.3 during CNS and gastrointestinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:162-70 pubmed
    ..2 both in the CNS and in the gut. Transient Nkx6.2 expression was also detected in the developing pancreas. However, analysis of Nkx6.2(-/-) mice did not display any obvious aberrations of pancreatic or stomach development. ..
  47. Wang Y, Gallego Arteche E, Iezza G, Yuan X, Matli M, Choo S, et al. Homeodomain transcription factor NKX2.2 functions in immature cells to control enteroendocrine differentiation and is expressed in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:267-79 pubmed publisher
    ..2 functions in immature endocrine cells to control NE differentiation in normal intestine and is expressed in most NE tumors of the gut, and is therefore a novel target of diagnosis for patients with gastrointestinal NE tumors. ..
  48. Domínguez N, Estévez Herrera J, Pardo M, Pereda D, Machado J, Borges R. The functional role of chromogranins in exocytosis. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:317-22 pubmed
    Chromogranins A (CgA) and B (CgB) are the main soluble proteins of large dense-core secretory vesicles (LDCVs)...
  49. Furuyama K, Kawaguchi Y, Akiyama H, Horiguchi M, Kodama S, Kuhara T, et al. Continuous cell supply from a Sox9-expressing progenitor zone in adult liver, exocrine pancreas and intestine. Nat Genet. 2011;43:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest interdependence between the structure and homeostasis of endodermal organs, with Sox9 expression being linked to progenitor status. ..
  50. Lozovatsky L, Abayasekara N, Piawah S, Walther Z. CASK deletion in intestinal epithelia causes mislocalization of LIN7C and the DLG1/Scrib polarity complex without affecting cell polarity. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CASK expression and the appropriate localization of DLG1 are not essential for either epithelial polarity or intestinal homeostasis in vivo. ..
  51. Frezzetti D, Reale C, Cali G, Nitsch L, Fagman H, Nilsson O, et al. The microRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is essential for thyroid function. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27648 pubmed publisher
  52. Borges M, Linnoila R, van de Velde H, Chen H, Nelkin B, Mabry M, et al. An achaete-scute homologue essential for neuroendocrine differentiation in the lung. Nature. 1997;386:852-5 pubmed
  53. Babeu J, Darsigny M, Lussier C, Boudreau F. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha contributes to an intestinal epithelial phenotype in vitro and plays a partial role in mouse intestinal epithelium differentiation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G124-34 pubmed publisher
  54. Nelson S, Schaffer A, Sander M. The transcription factors Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess equivalent activities in promoting beta-cell fate specification in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. Development. 2007;134:2491-500 pubmed
    ..2 in endocrine differentiation are a consequence of their divergent spatiotemporal expression domains rather than their biochemical activities and implies that both Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess alpha- and beta-cell-specifying activities. ..
  55. Viret C, Mahiddine K, Baker R, Haskins K, Guerder S. The T Cell Repertoire-Diversifying Enzyme TSSP Contributes to Thymic Selection of Diabetogenic CD4 T Cell Specificities Reactive to ChgA and IAPP Autoantigens. J Immunol. 2015;195:1964-73 pubmed publisher
    ..TSSP deficiency confined to different thymic stromal cells on the differentiation of thymocytes expressing the chromogranin A-reactive BDC-2.5 and BDC-10.1 TCRs or the islet amyloid polypeptide-reactive TCR BDC-6.9 and BDC-5.2.9...
  56. Wu H, Rozansky D, Webster N, O Connor D. Cell type-specific gene expression in the neuroendocrine system. A neuroendocrine-specific regulatory element in the promoter of chromogranin A, a ubiquitous secretory granule core protein. J Clin Invest. 1994;94:118-29 pubmed
    The acidic secretory protein chromogranin A universally occurs in amine and peptide hormone and neurotransmitter storage granules throughout the neuroendocrine system...
  57. Kameda Y, Saitoh T, Nemoto N, Katoh T, Iseki S. Hes1 is required for the development of the superior cervical ganglion of sympathetic trunk and the carotid body. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of the value in wild-types at E17.5-E18.5. These results suggest that Hes1 plays a critical role in regulating the development of neural crest derivatives in the mouse cervical region. ..
  58. Baker R, Bradley B, Wiles T, Lindsay R, Barbour G, Delong T, et al. Cutting Edge: Nonobese Diabetic Mice Deficient in Chromogranin A Are Protected from Autoimmune Diabetes. J Immunol. 2016;196:39-43 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4 T cell clones derived from the NOD mouse, we recently identified the β cell secretory granule protein, chromogranin A (ChgA), as a new autoantigen in type 1 diabetes...
  59. Lee F, Faivre E, Suzawa M, Lontok E, Ebert D, Cai F, et al. Eliminating SF-1 (NR5A1) sumoylation in vivo results in ectopic hedgehog signaling and disruption of endocrine development. Dev Cell. 2011;21:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the sumoylation cycle greatly expands the functional capacity of transcription factors such as SF-1 and is leveraged during development to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression in multicellular organisms. ..
  60. Vaingankar S, Li Y, Corti A, Biswas N, Gayen J, O Connor D, et al. Long human CHGA flanking chromosome 14 sequence required for optimal BAC transgenic "rescue" of disease phenotypes in the mouse Chga knockout. Physiol Genomics. 2010;41:91-101 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromogranin A (CHGA) plays a catalytic role in formation of catecholamine storage vesicles and also serves as precursor to the peptide fragment catestatin, a catecholamine secretory inhibitor whose expression is diminished in the ..
  61. Jin N, Wang Y, Crawford F, White J, Marrack P, Dai S, et al. N-terminal additions to the WE14 peptide of chromogranin A create strong autoantigen agonists in type 1 diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:13318-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromogranin A (ChgA) is an autoantigen for CD4(+) T cells in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The natural ChgA-processed peptide, WE14, is a weak agonist for the prototypical T cell, BDC-2...
  62. Mellitzer G, Beucher A, Lobstein V, Michel P, Robine S, Kedinger M, et al. Loss of enteroendocrine cells in mice alters lipid absorption and glucose homeostasis and impairs postnatal survival. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1708-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data help unravel the role of enteroendocrine cells and hormones in lipid absorption and maintenance of the intestinal epithelium. ..
  63. Kodama S, Nakano Y, Hirata K, Furuyama K, Horiguchi M, Kuhara T, et al. Diabetes Caused by Elastase-Cre-Mediated Pdx1 Inactivation in Mice. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21211 pubmed publisher
  64. Arnés L, Akerman I, Balderes D, Ferrer J, Sussel L. βlinc1 encodes a long noncoding RNA that regulates islet β-cell formation and function. Genes Dev. 2016;30:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, deletion of βlinc1 results in defective islet development and disruption of glucose homeostasis in adult mice. ..
  65. Wang V, Hassan B, Bellen H, Zoghbi H. Drosophila atonal fully rescues the phenotype of Math1 null mice: new functions evolve in new cellular contexts. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1611-6 pubmed
    ..We wondered whether ato and Math1 might be more functionally homologous than they appear, so we expressed Math1 in ato mutant flies and ato in Math1 null mice. To our surprise, the two proteins are functionally interchangeable. ..
  66. Wu Z, Sun L, Hashioka S, Yu S, Schwab C, Okada R, et al. Differential pathways for interleukin-1? production activated by chromogranin A and amyloid ? in microglia. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:2715-25 pubmed publisher
    Although chromogranin A (CGA) is frequently present in Alzheimer's disease (AD), senile plaques associated with microglial activation, little is known about basic difference between CGA and fibrillar amyloid-? (fA?) as neuroinflammatory ..
  67. Churchill A, Gutiérrez G, Singer R, Lorberbaum D, Fischer K, Sussel L. Genetic evidence that Nkx2.2 acts primarily downstream of Neurog3 in pancreatic endocrine lineage development. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, we demonstrate Nkx2.2 functions as an integral component of a modular regulatory program to correctly specify pancreatic islet cell fates. ..
  68. Vaingankar S, Li Y, Biswas N, Gayen J, Choksi S, Rao F, et al. Effects of chromogranin A deficiency and excess in vivo: biphasic blood pressure and catecholamine responses. J Hypertens. 2010;28:817-25 pubmed publisher
    The phenotype of the chromogranin A (Chga) null (knockout) mouse is hypertensive. However, hypertensive humans and spontaneously hypertensive rats display elevated CHGA expression...
  69. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N. FRS2alpha is required for the separation, migration, and survival of pharyngeal-endoderm derived organs including thyroid, ultimobranchial body, parathyroid, and thymus. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Nkx2-1/TTF1 for the thyroid lobe and ultimobranchial body; Pax8 for the thyroid lobe; parathormone (PTH), chromogranin A, P75(NTR), and S100 protein for the parathyroid gland; and p63 for the thymus) were normally expressed in the ..
  70. Connor F, Smith A, Wooster R, Stratton M, Dixon A, Campbell E, et al. Cloning, chromosomal mapping and expression pattern of the mouse Brca2 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:291-300 pubmed
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    b>Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles...
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