Gene Symbol: Chek1
Description: checkpoint kinase 1
Alias: C85740, Chk1, rad27, serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1, CHK1 checkpoint homolog, checkpoint kinase 1 homolog, rad27 homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Chek1

Top Publications

  1. Weiss R, Matsuoka S, Elledge S, Leder P. Hus1 acts upstream of chk1 in a mammalian DNA damage response pathway. Curr Biol. 2002;12:73-7 pubmed
    ..Likewise, Hus1 was dispensable for genotoxin-induced Chk2 phosphorylation. In contrast, Chk1 phosphorylation after genotoxic stress was greatly reduced in the absence of Hus1, but was restored in Hus1 null ..
  2. Puc J, Keniry M, Li H, Pandita T, Choudhury A, Memeo L, et al. Lack of PTEN sequesters CHK1 and initiates genetic instability. Cancer Cell. 2005;7:193-204 pubmed
    ..The checkpoint defect was traced to the ability of AKT to phosphorylate CHK1 at serine 280, since a nonphosphorylated mutant of CHK1 (S280A) complemented the checkpoint defect and restored ..
  3. Puc J, Parsons R. PTEN loss inhibits CHK1 to cause double stranded-DNA breaks in cells. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:927-9 pubmed
    b>CHK1 is an essential kinase involved in the regulation of the cell cycle progression and preservation of genomic integrity. Inhibition of CHK1 leads to the accumulation of double-stranded DNA breaks...
  4. Smith K, Fu M, Brown E. Tim-Tipin dysfunction creates an indispensible reliance on the ATR-Chk1 pathway for continued DNA synthesis. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:15-23 pubmed publisher
    The Tim (Timeless)-Tipin complex has been proposed to maintain genome stability by facilitating ATR-mediated Chk1 activation...
  5. Enders G. Expanded roles for Chk1 in genome maintenance. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17749-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Chk1 is a conserved kinase that imposes cell cycle delays in response to impediments to DNA replication...
  6. Peddibhotla S, Lam M, Gonzalez Rimbau M, Rosen J. The DNA-damage effector checkpoint kinase 1 is essential for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The DNA damage effector Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a critical component of DNA replication, intra-S phase, and G(2)/M phase checkpoints and a recently reported ..
  7. Shimada M, Niida H, Zineldeen D, Tagami H, Tanaka M, Saito H, et al. Chk1 is a histone H3 threonine 11 kinase that regulates DNA damage-induced transcriptional repression. Cell. 2008;132:221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..H3-T11 phosphorylation occurs throughout the cell cycle and is Chk1 dependent in vivo...
  8. Zaugg K, Su Y, Reilly P, Moolani Y, Cheung C, Hakem R, et al. Cross-talk between Chk1 and Chk2 in double-mutant thymocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3805-10 pubmed
    b>Chk1 is a checkpoint kinase and an important regulator of mammalian cell division...
  9. Lam M, Liu Q, Elledge S, Rosen J. Chk1 is haploinsufficient for multiple functions critical to tumor suppression. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:45-59 pubmed
    The haploinsufficient tumor suppressor Chk1 is essential for embryonic cells, but the consequences of Chk1 loss in adult tissues are unknown...

More Information


  1. Takai H, Tominaga K, Motoyama N, Minamishima Y, Nagahama H, Tsukiyama T, et al. Aberrant cell cycle checkpoint function and early embryonic death in Chk1(-/-) mice. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1439-47 pubmed
    ..In yeast, the protein kinase Chk1 is thought to mediate signaling associated with the DNA damage checkpoint of the cell cycle...
  2. Liu Q, Guntuku S, Cui X, Matsuoka S, Cortez D, Tamai K, et al. Chk1 is an essential kinase that is regulated by Atr and required for the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1448-59 pubmed
    b>Chk1, an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase, has been implicated in cell cycle checkpoint control in lower eukaryotes...
  3. Zeng F, Baldwin D, Schultz R. Transcript profiling during preimplantation mouse development. Dev Biol. 2004;272:483-96 pubmed
    ..These results validate this hypothesis-generating approach by identifying genes involved in critical biological processes that can be the subject of a more traditional hypothesis-driven approach. ..
  4. Min W, Bruhn C, Grigaravicius P, Zhou Z, Li F, Krüger A, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose) binding to Chk1 at stalled replication forks is required for S-phase checkpoint activation. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2993 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that PAR, supplied by PARP1, interacts with Chk1 via a novel PAR-binding regulatory (PbR) motif in Chk1, independent of ATR and its activity...
  5. Cao L, Kim S, Xiao C, Wang R, Coumoul X, Wang X, et al. ATM-Chk2-p53 activation prevents tumorigenesis at an expense of organ homeostasis upon Brca1 deficiency. EMBO J. 2006;25:2167-77 pubmed
    ..Our data highlight how accurate maintenance of genomic integrity is critical for the suppression of both aging and malignancy, and provide a further link between aging and cancer. ..
  6. Boles N, Peddibhotla S, Chen A, Goodell M, Rosen J. Chk1 haploinsufficiency results in anemia and defective erythropoiesis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8581 pubmed publisher
    ..However, few of the mechanisms involved in this process have been elucidated. Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) is best known for its role in the cell cycle and DNA damage pathways, and it has been shown to play a part in ..
  7. Lu H, Wang X, Wang Y. A stronger DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint due to over-activated CHK1 in the absence of PARP-1. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:2364-70 pubmed
    ..Treatment with Chk1 siRNA abolishes the stronger G2 checkpoint response and sensitizes PARP-1-/- cells to IR...
  8. Smith J, Larue L, Gillespie D. Chk1 is essential for the development of murine epidermal melanocytes. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013;26:580-5 pubmed publisher
    Embryonic deletion of mouse Chk1 is lethal; however, whether Chk1 is essential in all individual tissues is unknown...
  9. Niida H, Tsuge S, Katsuno Y, Konishi A, Takeda N, Nakanishi M. Depletion of Chk1 leads to premature activation of Cdc2-cyclin B and mitotic catastrophe. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39246-52 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate here the essential role of the ATM/ATR-p53 pathway in mitotic catastrophe from premature mitosis. Chk1 deficiency resulted in a premature onset of mitosis because of abnormal activation of cyclin B-Cdc2 and led to the ..
  10. Kang J, Ferguson D, Song H, Bassing C, Eckersdorff M, Alt F, et al. Functional interaction of H2AX, NBS1, and p53 in ATM-dependent DNA damage responses and tumor suppression. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:661-70 pubmed
    ..Therefore, NBS1, H2AX, and p53 play synergistic roles in ATM-dependent DNA damage responses and tumor suppression. ..
  11. Jin Z, Kurosu T, Yamaguchi M, Arai A, Miura O. Hematopoietic cytokines enhance Chk1-dependent G2/M checkpoint activation by etoposide through the Akt/GSK3 pathway to inhibit apoptosis. Oncogene. 2005;24:1973-81 pubmed
    ..Erythropoietin or IL-3 significantly enhanced etoposide-induced activation-specific phosphorylation of Chk1, a checkpoint kinase that inhibits Cdc2 activation by Cdc25 phosphatases, and led to the inhibition of Cdc2 kinase ..
  12. Zineldeen D, Shafik N, Li S. Alternative Chk1-independent S/M checkpoint in somatic cells that prevents premature mitotic entry. Med Oncol. 2017;34:70 pubmed publisher
    Genomic instability is the hallmark of cancer. Checkpoint kinase-1 (Chk1) is required for cell cycle delay after DNA damage or blocked DNA replication. Chk1-depleted tumor cells undergo premature mitosis and apoptosis...
  13. Weiss R, Leder P, Vaziri C. Critical role for mouse Hus1 in an S-phase DNA damage cell cycle checkpoint. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:791-803 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that Hus1 is required specifically for one of two separable mammalian checkpoint pathways that respond to distinct forms of genome damage during S phase. ..
  14. Naruyama H, Shimada M, Niida H, Zineldeen D, Hashimoto Y, Kohri K, et al. Essential role of Chk1 in S phase progression through regulation of RNR2 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;374:79-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Chk1 is an essential kinase for maintaining genome integrity and cell cycle checkpoints through phosphorylating several downstream targets...
  15. Hu B, Han S, Wang X, Ottey M, Potoczek M, Dicker A, et al. Involvement of the Fhit gene in the ionizing radiation-activated ATR/CHK1 pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2005;202:518-23 pubmed
    ..The strong checkpoint responses are regulated by the ATR/CHK1 pathway, which contributes to the radioresistance of Fhit-/- cells...
  16. Wang B, Li Z, Wang C, Chen M, Xiao J, Wu X, et al. Zygotic G2/M cell cycle arrest induced by ATM/Chk1 activation and DNA repair in mouse embryos fertilized with hydrogen peroxide-treated epididymal mouse sperm. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73987 pubmed publisher
    ..We found G2/M cell cycle arrest in zygotes fertilized with H?O?-treated sperm. ATM (pSer-1981) and Chk1 (pSer-345) activations, rather than ATR (pSer-428) and Chk2 (pThr-68), were detected in zygotes of the treated ..
  17. Horton J, Stefanick D, Wilson S. Involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in regulating Chk1-dependent apoptotic cell death. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1111-20 pubmed
    ..Co-exposure to the Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01 also produces a decrease in apoptotic cell death, but now there is an increase in viable cells and ..
  18. Pirouz M, Pilarski S, Kessel M. A critical function of Mad2l2 in primordial germ cell development of mice. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003712 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate the potential of Mad2l2 in the regulation of both cell cycle and the epigenetic status. The function of Mad2l2 is essential in PGCs, and thus of high relevance for fertility. ..
  19. Zhang C, Yan Z, Painter C, Zhang Q, Chen E, Arango M, et al. PF-00477736 mediates checkpoint kinase 1 signaling pathway and potentiates docetaxel-induced efficacy in xenografts. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4630-40 pubmed publisher
    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) plays a critical role in the activation of mitotic spindle checkpoint and DNA damage checkpoint. We examined the preclinical use of the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736 as a docetaxel-sensitizing agent...
  20. Xu Q, Wang F, Xiang Y, Zhang X, Zhao Z, Gao Z, et al. Maternal BCAS2 protects genomic integrity in mouse early embryonic development. Development. 2015;142:3943-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results reveal that maternal BCAS2 maintains the genome integrity of early embryos and is essential for female mouse fertility. ..
  21. Zhao T, Tang X, Umeshappa C, Ma H, Gao H, Deng Y, et al. Simulated Microgravity Promotes Cell Apoptosis Through Suppressing Uev1A/TICAM/TRAF/NF-κB-Regulated Anti-Apoptosis and p53/PCNA- and ATM/ATR-Chk1/2-Controlled DNA-Damage Response Pathways. J Cell Biochem. 2016;117:2138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..a significant inhibition of molecules involved in the DNA-damage response, such as p53, PCNA, ATM/ATR, and Chk1/2...
  22. Chen L, Chao S, Wang Z, Qi S, Zhu X, Yang S, et al. Checkpoint kinase 1 is essential for meiotic cell cycle regulation in mouse oocytes. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:1948-55 pubmed publisher
    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) plays key roles in all currently defined cell cycle checkpoints, but its functions in mouse oocyte meiosis remain unclear...
  23. Origanti S, Cai S, Munir A, White L, Piwnica Worms H. Synthetic lethality of Chk1 inhibition combined with p53 and/or p21 loss during a DNA damage response in normal and tumor cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:577-88 pubmed publisher
    ..of checkpoint defects in p53-deficient tumors in order to sensitize them to DNA-damaging agents by eliminating Chk1-mediated checkpoint responses...
  24. Grote D, Moison C, Duhamel S, Chagraoui J, Girard S, Yang J, et al. E4F1 is a master regulator of CHK1-mediated functions. Cell Rep. 2015;11:210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, defects observed in E4f1-deficient cells were fully reversed by ectopic expression of Chek1. Altogether, our results classify E4F1 as a master regulator of CHK1 activity that ensures high fidelity of DNA ..
  25. López Contreras A, Gutierrez Martinez P, Specks J, Rodrigo Perez S, Fernandez Capetillo O. An extra allele of Chk1 limits oncogene-induced replicative stress and promotes transformation. J Exp Med. 2012;209:455-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, the RS response (RSR) is coordinated by ATR and Chk1 kinases. We sought to develop a mammalian organism that is selectively protected from RS...
  26. Martinez P, Flores J, Blasco M. 53BP1 deficiency combined with telomere dysfunction activates ATR-dependent DNA damage response. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:283-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In intact mice, combined 53BP1/TRF1 deficiency in stratified epithelia resulted in earlier onset of DNA damage and increased CHK1 phosphorylation during embryonic development, leading to aggravation of skin phenotypes.
  27. Lee J, Jin Y, He G, Zeng S, Wang Y, Wahl G, et al. Hypoxia activates tumor suppressor p53 by inducing ATR-Chk1 kinase cascade-mediated phosphorylation and consequent 14-3-3? inactivation of MDMX protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20898-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the ATR-Chk1 kinase cascade was associated with hypoxia-induced p53 activation, molecules that directly link this hypoxia-ATR-..
  28. Albino D, Brizzolara A, Moretti S, Falugi C, Mirisola V, Scaruffi P, et al. Gene expression profiling identifies eleven DNA repair genes down-regulated during mouse neural crest cell migration. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model of enriched murine NCCs and neural crest-derived cells can be used to elucidate the key roles of genes during normal embryonic development and in cancer pathogenesis. ..
  29. Zhang Y, Qu D, Morris E, O Hare M, Callaghan S, Slack R, et al. The Chk1/Cdc25A pathway as activators of the cell cycle in neuronal death induced by camptothecin. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8819-28 pubmed
    ..Cultured embryonic cortical neurons have a significant basal activity of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a kinase that regulates cell cycle arrest...
  30. Flaggs G, Plug A, Dunks K, Mundt K, Ford J, Quiggle M, et al. Atm-dependent interactions of a mammalian chk1 homolog with meiotic chromosomes. Curr Biol. 1997;7:977-86 pubmed
    ..In mitotic yeast cells, the Chk1 protein couples DNA repair to the cell-cycle machinery...
  31. Jiang K, Pereira E, Maxfield M, Russell B, Goudelock D, Sanchez Y. Regulation of Chk1 includes chromatin association and 14-3-3 binding following phosphorylation on Ser-345. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25207-17 pubmed
    ..The conserved checkpoint kinase Chk1 regulates mitotic progression in response to DNA damage and replication interference by blocking the activation of ..
  32. Jirmanova L, Bulavin D, Fornace A. Inhibition of the ATR/Chk1 pathway induces a p38-dependent S-phase delay in mouse embryonic stem cells. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1428-34 pubmed
    ..We have found that inhibition of ATR and ATM kinases with caffeine or Chk1 with UCN-01, results in activation of a p38-dependent intra-S-phase checkpoint and activation of apoptosis in ES ..
  33. Sengupta S, Robles A, Linke S, Sinogeeva N, Zhang R, Pedeux R, et al. Functional interaction between BLM helicase and 53BP1 in a Chk1-mediated pathway during S-phase arrest. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:801-13 pubmed
    ..The active Chk1 kinase was essential for both the accurate focal colocalization of 53BP1 with BLM and the consequent stabilization ..
  34. Peng X, Liu S, Bao C, Liu Y, Xie H, Cai Y, et al. Regulation of ATRIP protein abundance by RAD9 in the DNA damage repair pathway. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2015;61:31-6 pubmed
    ..A number of proteins act in concert with ATR to phosphorylate Chk1, including RAD17, the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex, ATR/ATRIP and TopBp1...
  35. Chen P, Luo C, Deng Y, Ryan K, Register J, Margosiak S, et al. The 1.7 A crystal structure of human cell cycle checkpoint kinase Chk1: implications for Chk1 regulation. Cell. 2000;100:681-92 pubmed
    The checkpoint kinase Chk1 is an important mediator of cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. The 1...
  36. Niida H, Murata K, Shimada M, Ogawa K, Ohta K, Suzuki K, et al. Cooperative functions of Chk1 and Chk2 reduce tumour susceptibility in vivo. EMBO J. 2010;29:3558-70 pubmed publisher
    Although the linkage of Chk1 and Chk2 to important cancer signalling suggests that these kinases have functions as tumour suppressors, neither Chk1+/- nor Chk2-/- mice show a predisposition to cancer under unperturbed conditions...
  37. Smits V, Reaper P, Jackson S. Rapid PIKK-dependent release of Chk1 from chromatin promotes the DNA-damage checkpoint response. Curr Biol. 2006;16:150-9 pubmed
    ..Within these pathways, the effector kinase Chk1 plays a central role in mediating cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage, and it does so by phosphorylating ..
  38. Galvan V, Kurakin A, Bredesen D. Interaction of checkpoint kinase 1 and the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis during mitosis. FEBS Lett. 2004;558:57-62 pubmed
    We report here that the checkpoint kinase Chk1 and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member XIAP can be found in a complex in association with condensed chromosomes aligned at the metaphase plate during mitosis...
  39. Niida H, Katsuno Y, Banerjee B, Hande M, Nakanishi M. Specific role of Chk1 phosphorylations in cell survival and checkpoint activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2572-81 pubmed
    b>Chk1 is a multifunctional protein kinase that plays essential roles in cell survival and cell cycle checkpoints...
  40. Schüler F, Weiss J, Lindner S, Lohmüller M, Herzog S, Spiegl S, et al. Checkpoint kinase 1 is essential for normal B cell development and lymphomagenesis. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1697 pubmed publisher
    Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is critical for intrinsic cell cycle control and coordination of cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage...
  41. Hao L, Vassena R, Wu G, Han Z, Cheng Y, Latham K, et al. The unfolded protein response contributes to preimplantation mouse embryo death in the DDK syndrome. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:944-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the unfolded protein response is induced in embryos destined to die of DDK syndrome and that the embryonic death observed is associated with inability to resolve the associated ER stress. ..
  42. Fishler T, Li Y, Wang R, Kim H, Sengupta K, Vassilopoulos A, et al. Genetic instability and mammary tumor formation in mice carrying mammary-specific disruption of Chk1 and p53. Oncogene. 2010;29:4007-17 pubmed publisher
    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a key element in the DNA-damage response pathway that is required for maintaining genomic stability. To study the potential role of Chk1 in mammary tumorigenesis, we disrupted it using a Cre/loxP system...
  43. Bernard J, Lou Y, Peng Q, Li T, Conney A, Lu Y. Inverse relationship between p53 and phospho-Chk1 (Ser317) protein expression in UVB-induced skin tumors in SKH-1 mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 2014;96:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..tumors from UVB-exposed mice showed an inverse relationship (>95%) between p53 protein expression and phospho-Chk1 (Ser317), but not phospho-Chk1 (Ser345) protein expression...
  44. Jia Y, Song W, Zhang F, Yan J, Yang Q. Akt1 inhibits homologous recombination in Brca1-deficient cells by blocking the Chk1-Rad51 pathway. Oncogene. 2013;32:1943-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, activated Akt1 in Brca1-deficient cells impairs Chk1 nuclear localization and subsequently disrupts interaction of Chk1 and Rad51 leading to HR defects...
  45. Ullah Z, de Renty C, DePamphilis M. Checkpoint kinase 1 prevents cell cycle exit linked to terminal cell differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4129-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that, in the absence of induced DNA damage, checkpoint kinase-1 (CHK1), an enzyme essential for preventing mitosis in response to DNA damage, functions as a mitogen-dependent protein ..
  46. Malzer E, Daly M, Moloney A, Sendall T, Thomas S, Ryder E, et al. Impaired tissue growth is mediated by checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) in the integrated stress response. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2892-900 pubmed publisher
    ..transposon insertions identified grapes, the gene that encodes the Drosophila orthologue of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1). Knockdown of grapes by RNAi rescued eye development despite ongoing PERK activation...
  47. Tebbi A, Guittet O, Cottet M, Vesin M, Lepoivre M. TAp73 induction by nitric oxide: regulation by checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) and protection against apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:7873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..NO also up-regulated TAp73 mRNA expression, suggesting a transcriptional regulation. The checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 can regulate TAp73 induction after DNA damage...
  48. Lindsey Boltz L, Sancar A. Tethering DNA damage checkpoint mediator proteins topoisomerase IIbeta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) and Claspin to DNA activates ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and RAD3-related (ATR) phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..upon exposure to ultraviolet light by phosphorylating many effector proteins including the checkpoint kinase Chk1. The conventional view of ATR activation involves a universal signal consisting of genomic regions of replication ..
  49. Frauenstein K, Sydlik U, Tigges J, Majora M, Wiek C, Hanenberg H, et al. Evidence for a novel anti-apoptotic pathway in human keratinocytes involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, E2F1, and checkpoint kinase 1. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:1425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..KC to UVB-induced apoptosis by decreasing the expression of E2F1 and its target gene checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1)...
  50. Engelen E, Janssens R, Yagita K, Smits V, van der Horst G, Tamanini F. Mammalian TIMELESS is involved in period determination and DNA damage-dependent phase advancing of the circadian clock. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56623 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we reveal that the N-terminus of TIM is sufficient for interaction with CRY1 and CHK1 as well for homodimerization, and the C-terminus is necessary for nuclear localization...
  51. Zheng L, Asprodites N, Keene A, Rodriguez P, Brown K, Davila E. TLR9 engagement on CD4 T lymphocytes represses gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis through activation of checkpoint kinase response elements. Blood. 2008;111:2704-13 pubmed
    ..Irradiated, TLR9-engaged cells showed higher levels of phosphorylated Chk1 and Chk2...
  52. Miles D, Van Den Bergen J, Wakeling S, Anderson R, Sinclair A, Western P. The proto-oncogene Ret is required for male foetal germ cell survival. Dev Biol. 2012;365:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Either way, this study identifies the proto-oncogene RET as a novel component of the foetal male germ cell development pathway. ..
  53. Sanchez Y, Wong C, Thoma R, Richman R, Wu Z, Piwnica Worms H, et al. Conservation of the Chk1 checkpoint pathway in mammals: linkage of DNA damage to Cdk regulation through Cdc25. Science. 1997;277:1497-501 pubmed
    ..A human gene was identified that encodes the protein Chk1, a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chk1 protein kinase, which is required for the DNA damage checkpoint...
  54. Matsuyama M, Goto H, Kasahara K, Kawakami Y, Nakanishi M, Kiyono T, et al. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2113-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition...
  55. Nemajerova A, Mena P, Fingerle Rowson G, Moll U, Petrenko O. Impaired DNA damage checkpoint response in MIF-deficient mice. EMBO J. 2007;26:987-97 pubmed
    ..The loss of MIF expression uncouples Chk1/Chk2-responsive DNA damage checkpoints from SCF-dependent degradation of key cell-cycle regulators such as Cdc25A, ..
  56. Dong D, Yu J, Wu Y, Fu N, Villela N, Yang P. Maternal diabetes triggers DNA damage and DNA damage response in neurulation stage embryos through oxidative stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;467:407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..X (p-H2A.X) and DDR signaling intermediates, including phosphorylated checkpoint 1 (p-Chk1), phosphorylated checkpoint 2 (p-Chk2), and p53...
  57. Oshikawa M, Okada K, Tabata H, Nagata K, Ajioka I. Dnmt1-dependent Chk1 pathway suppression is protective against neuron division. Development. 2017;144:3303-3314 pubmed publisher
    ..Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) pathway activation during the S phase prevented the cell death, and allowed the division of cortical neurons that ..
  58. Tho L, Libertini S, Rampling R, Sansom O, Gillespie D. Chk1 is essential for chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2012;31:1366-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Chk1 is a key regulator of DNA damage checkpoint responses and genome stability in eukaryotes...
  59. Tan Y, Chen Y, Yu L, Zhu H, Meng X, Huang X, et al. Two-fold elevation of expression of FoxM1 transcription factor in mouse embryonic fibroblasts enhances cell cycle checkpoint activity by stimulating p21 and Chk1 transcription. Cell Prolif. 2010;43:494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..correlated with increased phosphorylation of p53 on Ser15, elevated expression of cell cycle inhibitor p21 and Chk1 at passage 3. FoxM1 was stabilized in response to DNA damage in MEFs and FoxM1 overexpression induced p21...
  60. Greenow K, Clarke A, Williams G, Jones R. Wnt-driven intestinal tumourigenesis is suppressed by Chk1 deficiency but enhanced by conditional haploinsufficiency. Oncogene. 2014;33:4089-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Chk1 is essential in maintaining genomic stability due to its role in cell cycle regulation...
  61. Lee Y, Katyal S, Downing S, Zhao J, Russell H, McKinnon P. Neurogenesis requires TopBP1 to prevent catastrophic replicative DNA damage in early progenitors. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:819-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TopBP1 is crucial for maintaining genome integrity in the early progenitors that drive neurogenesis. ..
  62. Gruber R, Zhou Z, Sukchev M, Joerss T, Frappart P, Wang Z. MCPH1 regulates the neuroprogenitor division mode by coupling the centrosomal cycle with mitotic entry through the Chk1-Cdc25 pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..MCPH1-deficiency abrogates the localization of Chk1 to centrosomes, causing premature Cdk1 activation and early mitotic entry, which uncouples mitosis and the ..
  63. Rodier G, Kirsh O, Baraibar M, Houlès T, Lacroix M, Delpech H, et al. The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions. Cell Rep. 2015;11:220-33 pubmed publisher
    ..protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response...
  64. Kokavec J, Zikmund T, Savvulidi F, Kulvait V, Edelmann W, Skoultchi A, et al. The ISWI ATPase Smarca5 (Snf2h) Is Required for Proliferation and Differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells. Stem Cells. 2017;35:1614-1623 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Smarca5 plays indispensable roles during early hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis. Stem Cells 2017;35:1614-1623. ..
  65. Llopis A, Salvador N, Ercilla A, Guaita Esteruelas S, Barrantes I, Gupta J, et al. The stress-activated protein kinases p38?/? and JNK1/2 cooperate with Chk1 to inhibit mitotic entry upon DNA replication arrest. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..ATR and Chk1 are key elements in the signal transduction pathways of DNA replication checkpoint; however, other kinases also ..
  66. Hasthorpe S, Tainton K, Peart M, Roeszler K, Bell K, Lusby P, et al. G2/M checkpoint gene expression in developing germ cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:531-8 pubmed
    ..from a neonatal mouse testis cDNA library which was identified as mouse claspin, a proposed adaptor protein for Chk1. As part of a study on germ cell differentiation we examined the expression of the checkpoint gene, Chk1, and ..