Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Chat
Description: choline acetyltransferase
Alias: B230380D24Rik, CHOACTase, choline O-acetyltransferase, choline acetylase
- Arroyo S, Bennett C, Aziz D, Brown S, Hestrin S. Prolonged disynaptic inhibition in the cortex mediated by slow, non-?7 nicotinic excitation of a specific subset of cortical interneurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:3859-64 pubmed publisher..In turn, these inhibitory cells generate a delayed and prolonged wave of disynaptic inhibition in neighboring cortical neurons, altering the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition in cortical circuits. ..
- Martins Silva C, De Jaeger X, Guzman M, Lima R, Santos M, Kushmerick C, et al. Novel strains of mice deficient for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter: insights on transcriptional regulation and control of locomotor behavior. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17611 pubmed publisher..VAChT gene is embedded within the first intron of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene, which provides a unique arrangement and regulation for these two genes...
- Zagoraiou L, Akay T, Martin J, Brownstone R, Jessell T, Miles G. A cluster of cholinergic premotor interneurons modulates mouse locomotor activity. Neuron. 2009;64:645-62 pubmed publisher..Thus, V0(C) interneurons represent a defined class of spinal cholinergic interneurons with an intrinsic neuromodulatory role in the control of locomotor behavior. ..
- Pfaff S, Mendelsohn M, Stewart C, Edlund T, Jessell T. Requirement for LIM homeobox gene Isl1 in motor neuron generation reveals a motor neuron-dependent step in interneuron differentiation. Cell. 1996;84:309-20 pubmed..These results show that ISL1 is required for the generation of motor neurons and suggest that motor neuron generation is required for the subsequent differentiation of certain interneurons. ..
- Zhao Y, Marin O, Hermesz E, Powell A, Flames N, Palkovits M, et al. The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx8 is required for the development of many cholinergic neurons in the mouse forebrain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9005-10 pubmed..These results provide genetic evidence supporting an important role for Lhx8 in development of cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ..
- Kay J, Chu M, Sanes J. MEGF10 and MEGF11 mediate homotypic interactions required for mosaic spacing of retinal neurons. Nature. 2012;483:465-9 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that members of this gene family can also serve as subtype-specific ligands that pattern neuronal arrays. ..
- Badea T, Hua Z, Smallwood P, Williams J, Rotolo T, Ye X, et al. New mouse lines for the analysis of neuronal morphology using CreER(T)/loxP-directed sparse labeling. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7859 pubmed publisher..The two new mouse lines described here expand the repertoire of genetically engineered mice available for controlled in vivo recombination and cell labeling using the Cre-lox system. ..
- Mu X, Fu X, Beremand P, Thomas T, Klein W. Gene regulation logic in retinal ganglion cell development: Isl1 defines a critical branch distinct from but overlapping with Pou4f2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6942-7 pubmed publisher..They also reveal that identical RGC expression patterns are achieved by different combinations of divergent inputs from upstream transcription factors. ..
- Young P, Qiu L, Wang D, Zhao S, Gross J, Feng G. Single-neuron labeling with inducible Cre-mediated knockout in transgenic mice. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:721-8 pubmed publisher..Our results provide evidence for the long-term stability of inactive neuromuscular synapses in adult animals and demonstrate a Cre-loxP compatible system for dissecting gene functions in single identifiable neurons. ..
- García Moreno F, Pedraza M, Di Giovannantonio L, Di Salvio M, López Mascaraque L, Simeone A, et al. A neuronal migratory pathway crossing from diencephalon to telencephalon populates amygdala nuclei. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:680-9 pubmed publisher..The diencephalic transcription factor OTP was necessary for this migratory behavior. ..
- Mori T, Yuxing Z, Takaki H, Takeuchi M, Iseki K, Hagino S, et al. The LIM homeobox gene, L3/Lhx8, is necessary for proper development of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:3129-41 pubmed..Neurotransmitter phenotypes other than cholinergic in the basal forebrain appeared intact. From these results, we suggested that L3/Lhx8 has a pivotal and specific role in the development and/or maintenance of BFCNs. ..
- Dessaud E, Salaün D, Gayet O, Chabbert M, Delapeyrière O. Identification of lynx2, a novel member of the ly-6/neurotoxin superfamily, expressed in neuronal subpopulations during mouse development. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;31:232-42 pubmed..Comparison of its spatio-temporal expression pattern with that of two other members of this family, lynx1 and ly-6h, shows that these genes are detected both in distinct and overlapping neuron populations. ..
- Elshatory Y, Gan L. The LIM-homeobox gene Islet-1 is required for the development of restricted forebrain cholinergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3291-7 pubmed publisher..Together, these results demonstrate the requirement for Isl1 in the development of restricted telencephalic cholinergic neurons and link the development of cholinergic neurons in anatomically disparate sites to Isl1 function. ..
- Misgeld T, Burgess R, Lewis R, Cunningham J, Lichtman J, Sanes J. Roles of neurotransmitter in synapse formation: development of neuromuscular junctions lacking choline acetyltransferase. Neuron. 2002;36:635-48 pubmed..At subsequent stages, neurotransmission delays some steps in synaptic maturation but accelerates others. Thus, neurotransmission affects synaptogenesis from early stages and coordinates rather than drives synaptic maturation. ..
- Eiden L. The cholinergic gene locus. J Neurochem. 1998;70:2227-40 pubmedMessenger RNAs and the cognate gene(s) encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) have been cloned from mammals and several other animal classes in the last decade...
- Kolisnyk B, Al Onaizi M, Hirata P, Guzman M, Nikolova S, Barbash S, et al. Forebrain deletion of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter results in deficits in executive function, metabolic, and RNA splicing abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14908-20 pubmed publisher..We propose that VAChT-targeted mice can be used to model and to dissect the neurochemical basis of executive abnormalities. ..
- Higley M, Gittis A, Oldenburg I, Balthasar N, Seal R, Edwards R, et al. Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19155 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that CINs are capable of mediating fast glutamatergic transmission, suggesting a new role for these cells in regulating striatal activity. ..
- Brandon E, Lin W, D Amour K, Pizzo D, Dominguez B, Sugiura Y, et al. Aberrant patterning of neuromuscular synapses in choline acetyltransferase-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2003;23:539-49 pubmed..developmental roles of acetylcholine (ACh) by establishing and analyzing mice lacking choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the biosynthetic enzyme for ACh...
- Fragkouli A, van Wijk N, Lopes R, Kessaris N, Pachnis V. LIM homeodomain transcription factor-dependent specification of bipotential MGE progenitors into cholinergic and GABAergic striatal interneurons. Development. 2009;136:3841-51 pubmed publisher..These studies suggest that a LIM homeodomain transcriptional code confers cell-fate specification and neurotransmitter identity in neuronal subpopulations of the ventral forebrain. ..
- Lin W, Dominguez B, Yang J, Aryal P, Brandon E, Gage F, et al. Neurotransmitter acetylcholine negatively regulates neuromuscular synapse formation by a Cdk5-dependent mechanism. Neuron. 2005;46:569-79 pubmed..Genetic elimination of Cdk5 or blocking ACh production prevents the dispersion of AChR clusters in agrin mutants. Therefore, we propose that ACh negatively regulates neuromuscular synapse formation through a Cdk5-dependent mechanism. ..
- Sharma K, Sheng H, Lettieri K, Li H, Karavanov A, Potter S, et al. LIM homeodomain factors Lhx3 and Lhx4 assign subtype identities for motor neurons. Cell. 1998;95:817-28 pubmed..Thus, Lhx3 and Lhx4 act in a binary fashion during a brief period in development to specify the trajectory of motor axons from the neural tube. ..
- Misgeld T, Kummer T, Lichtman J, Sanes J. Agrin promotes synaptic differentiation by counteracting an inhibitory effect of neurotransmitter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11088-93 pubmed..Similar interactions between neurotransmitters and synaptic organizing molecules may operate at synapses in the central nervous system. ..
- de Castro B, De Jaeger X, Martins Silva C, Lima R, Amaral E, Menezes C, et al. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter is required for neuromuscular development and function. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5238-50 pubmed publisher..The abnormalities are similar to those of mice that cannot synthesize ACh due to a lack of choline acetyltransferase. Our results indicate that VAChT is essential to the normal development of motor neurons and the release of ACh. ..
- Beigneux A, Kosinski C, Gavino B, Horton J, Skarnes W, Young S. ATP-citrate lyase deficiency in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9557-64 pubmed..The Acly knockout allele is useful for identifying cell types with a high demand for acetyl-CoA synthesis. ..
- Takatoh J, Nelson A, Zhou X, Bolton M, Ehlers M, Arenkiel B, et al. New modules are added to vibrissal premotor circuitry with the emergence of exploratory whisking. Neuron. 2013;77:346-60 pubmed publisher..Thus, neural modules that are well suited to facilitate the bilateral coordination and cortical control of whisking are added to the premotor circuitry in parallel with the emergence of this exploratory behavior. ..
- Medina C, Mazerolle C, Wang Y, Berube N, Coupland S, Gibbons R, et al. Altered visual function and interneuron survival in Atrx knockout mice: inference for the human syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:966-77 pubmed publisher..These results implicate a role for Atrx in interneuron survival and differentiation...
- Ashrafi S, Lalancette Hébert M, Friese A, Sigrist M, Arber S, Shneider N, et al. Wnt7A identifies embryonic ?-motor neurons and reveals early postnatal dependence of ?-motor neurons on a muscle spindle-derived signal. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8725-31 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, using Wnt7a expression as an early marker of ?-MN identity, we demonstrate a previously unknown dependence of ?-MNs on a muscle spindle-derived, GDNF-independent signal during the first postnatal week. ..
- Kariya S, Park G, Maeno Hikichi Y, Leykekhman O, Lutz C, Arkovitz M, et al. Reduced SMN protein impairs maturation of the neuromuscular junctions in mouse models of spinal muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2552-69 pubmed publisher..We suggest that SMA might best be described as a NMJ synaptopathy and that one promising means of treating it could involve maintaining function at the NMJ. ..
- Fragkouli A, Hearn C, Errington M, Cooke S, Grigoriou M, Bliss T, et al. Loss of forebrain cholinergic neurons and impairment in spatial learning and memory in LHX7-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:2923-38 pubmed..Overall our experiments demonstrate that Lhx7 expression is required for the specification or differentiation of cholinergic forebrain neurons involved in the processing of spatial information. ..
- Arber S, Han B, Mendelsohn M, Smith M, Jessell T, Sockanathan S. Requirement for the homeobox gene Hb9 in the consolidation of motor neuron identity. Neuron. 1999;23:659-74 pubmed..These findings show that HB9 has an essential function in consolidating the identity of postmitotic MNs. ..
- Kolisnyk B, Guzman M, Raulic S, Fan J, Magalhaes A, Feng G, et al. ChAT-ChR2-EYFP mice have enhanced motor endurance but show deficits in attention and several additional cognitive domains. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10427-38 pubmed publisher..transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2-EYFP) to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
- Lara A, Damasceno D, Pires R, Gros R, Gomes E, Gavioli M, et al. Dysautonomia due to reduced cholinergic neurotransmission causes cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1746-56 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide direct evidence that decreased cholinergic neurotransmission and underlying autonomic imbalance cause plastic alterations that contribute to heart dysfunction. ..
- Feng L, Xie X, Joshi P, Yang Z, Shibasaki K, Chow R, et al. Requirement for Bhlhb5 in the specification of amacrine and cone bipolar subtypes in mouse retina. Development. 2006;133:4815-25 pubmed..Our results reveal that a bHLH transcription factor cascade is involved in regulating retinal cell differentiation and imply that Bhlhb5 functions downstream of retinogenic factors to specify bipolar and amacrine subtypes. ..
- Guzman M, De Jaeger X, Raulic S, Souza I, Li A, Schmid S, et al. Elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the striatum reveals regulation of behaviour by cholinergic-glutamatergic co-transmission. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001194 pubmed publisher..The data also raise the possibility of using VAChT as a target to boost dopaminergic function and decrease high striatal cholinergic activity, common neurochemical alterations in individuals affected with Parkinson's disease. ..
- Matsuoka R, Chivatakarn O, Badea T, SAMUELS I, Cahill H, Katayama K, et al. Class 5 transmembrane semaphorins control selective Mammalian retinal lamination and function. Neuron. 2011;71:460-73 pubmed publisher..These findings define a set of ligands and receptors required for the establishment of inner retinal lamination and function. ..
- Patel J, Rossignol E, Rice M, Machold R. Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1172 pubmed publisher..These results support a model in which forebrain and brainstem cholinergic systems act in tandem to regulate striatal dopamine signalling for proper control of motor activity. ..
- Rotolo T, Smallwood P, Williams J, Nathans J. Genetically-directed, cell type-specific sparse labeling for the analysis of neuronal morphology. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4099 pubmed publisher..constructed to permit labeling selectively in cholinergic or catecholaminergic neurons [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-CreER or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IRES-CreER], predominantly in projection neurons [neurofilament light ..
- Fuerst P, Bruce F, Tian M, Wei W, Elstrott J, Feller M, et al. DSCAM and DSCAML1 function in self-avoidance in multiple cell types in the developing mouse retina. Neuron. 2009;64:484-97 pubmed publisher..Therefore, DSCAM and DSCAML1 function similarly in self-avoidance, and are not essential for synaptic specificity in the mouse retina. ..
- Martinez T, Kong L, Wang X, Osborne M, Crowder M, Van Meerbeke J, et al. Survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons determines synaptic integrity in spinal muscular atrophy. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8703-15 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that SMN plays distinct roles in muscle, NMJs, and motor neuron somal synapses and that restored function of SMN at all three sites will be necessary for full recovery of muscle power. ..
- Nagy P, Aubert I. Overexpression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter increased acetylcholine release in the hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2012;218:1-11 pubmed publisher..It remains to be established whether, in cases of cholinergic deficits, increasing VAChT expression would re-establish adequate levels of cholinergic neurotransmission, thereby providing a valid therapeutic target...
- Tiveron M, Hirsch M, Brunet J. The expression pattern of the transcription factor Phox2 delineates synaptic pathways of the autonomic nervous system. J Neurosci. 1996;16:7649-60 pubmed..e., that of the medullary control reflexes of autonomic functions. This suggests that Phox2 could be involved in the establishment of these circuits. ..
- Reardon T, Murray A, Turi G, Wirblich C, Croce K, Schnell M, et al. Rabies Virus CVS-N2c(Î”G) Strain Enhances Retrograde Synaptic Transfer and Neuronal Viability. Neuron. 2016;89:711-24 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the CVS-N2c(Î”G) strain provides a more effective means of mapping neuronal circuitry and of monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity in vivo in the mammalian CNS. ..
- Crittenden J, Lacey C, Lee T, Bowden H, Graybiel A. Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice. Front Neural Circuits. 2014;8:57 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity. ..
- Yu W, Appler J, Kim Y, Nishitani A, Holt J, Goodrich L. A Gata3-Mafb transcriptional network directs post-synaptic differentiation in synapses specialized for hearing. elife. 2013;2:e01341 pubmed publisher..Hence, Mafb is a powerful regulator of cell-type specific features of auditory synaptogenesis that offers a new entry point for treating hearing loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01341.001...
- Furusho M, Ono K, Takebayashi H, Masahira N, Kagawa T, Ikeda K, et al. Involvement of the Olig2 transcription factor in cholinergic neuron development of the basal forebrain. Dev Biol. 2006;293:348-57 pubmedCholinergic neurons, which express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), are a major neuron subset generated in the basal forebrain...
- Kobayashi M, Nakano M, Atobe Y, Kadota T, Funakoshi K. Islet-1 expression in thoracic spinal motor neurons in prenatal mouse. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011;29:749-56 pubmed publisher..The findings of the present study indicated that Islet-1 expression at embryonic stages differs among the motoneuron groups in the thoracic and rostral lumbar spinal cord. ..
- Tu H, Chen Y, McQuiston A, Chiao C, Chen C. A Novel Retinal Oscillation Mechanism in an Autosomal Dominant Photoreceptor Degeneration Mouse Model. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:513 pubmed publisher..identify cholinergic starburst amacrine cells (SACs), the rhoÎ”CTA mouse was introduced into a combined ChAT-IRES-Cre and Ai9 background...
- Tamura S, Morikawa Y, Iwanishi H, Hisaoka T, Senba E. Foxp1 gene expression in projection neurons of the mouse striatum. Neuroscience. 2004;124:261-7 pubmed..The expression pattern of Foxp1 mRNA suggests that Foxp1 may play a role in the development and formation of a circuit in the basal ganglia, which is involving the matrix neurons. ..
- Zhao X, Zhang H, Guo J, Zhang Y. The effects of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion on expression of peripherin and choline acetyltransferase activity in C57BL/6 mice. Brain Res. 2013;1491:167-75 pubmed publisher..and the resultant effect of peripherin expression on the cholinergic neurons and Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in this mouse model of ischemia...
- Pecho Vrieseling E, Sigrist M, Yoshida Y, Jessell T, Arber S. Specificity of sensory-motor connections encoded by Sema3e-Plxnd1 recognition. Nature. 2009;459:842-6 pubmed publisher..Our findings indicate that patterns of monosynaptic connectivity in this prototypic central nervous system circuit are constructed through a recognition program based on repellent signalling. ..
- Janickova H, Rosborough K, Al Onaizi M, Kljakic O, Guzman M, Gros R, et al. Deletion of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter from pedunculopontine/laterodorsal tegmental neurons modifies gait. J Neurochem. 2017;140:787-798 pubmed publisher..Prevention of mesopontine cholinergic failure may help to prevent/improve postural instability and falls in PD patients. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 688. ..
- Vasistha N, GarcÃa Moreno F, Arora S, Cheung A, Arnold S, Robertson E, et al. Cortical and Clonal Contribution of Tbr2 Expressing Progenitors in the Developing Mouse Brain. Cereb Cortex. 2015;25:3290-302 pubmed publisher..Our study also describes extracortical contributions from Tbr2+ progenitors to the lateral olfactory tract and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. ..
- Moore K, Chen R, Cilluffo M, Golden J, Phelps P. Lis1 reduction causes tangential migratory errors in mouse spinal cord. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:1198-211 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that Lis1 is required for the dorsally directed tangential migration of many sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons and a subset of somatic motor neurons. ..
- Wang Z, Wang B, Yang L, Guo Q, Aithmitti N, Songyang Z, et al. Presynaptic and postsynaptic interaction of the amyloid precursor protein promotes peripheral and central synaptogenesis. J Neurosci. 2009;29:10788-801 pubmed publisher..We postulate that transsynaptic APP interaction modulates its synaptic function and that perturbed APP synaptic adhesion activity may contribute to synaptic dysfunction and AD pathogenesis. ..
- Jia Z, Guo Y, Tang Y, Xu Q, Li B, Wu Q. Regulation of the protocadherin Celsr3 gene and its role in globus pallidus development and connectivity. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3895-910 pubmed publisher..These data reveal the essential role of Celsr3 in GP development in the basal forebrain and shed light on the mechanisms of the axonal defects caused by the Celsr3 deletion. ..
- Ozkaynak E, Abello G, Jaegle M, van Berge L, Hamer D, Kegel L, et al. Adam22 is a major neuronal receptor for Lgi4-mediated Schwann cell signaling. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3857-64 pubmed publisher..Our results thus reveal a novel paracrine signaling axis in peripheral nerve myelination in which Schwann cell secreted Lgi4 functions through binding of axonal Adam22 to drive the differentiation of Schwann cells. ..
- Shi Y, Han Y, Su Y, Yang J, Yu Y. Silencing of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Using Archaerhodopsin Prolongs Slow-Wave Sleep in Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130130 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that the main effect of these neurons is to terminate SWS, whereas wakefulness or REM sleep may be determined by co-operation of the cholinergic BF neurons with other arousal-sleep control systems. ..
- Elshatory Y, Deng M, Xie X, Gan L. Expression of the LIM-homeodomain protein Isl1 in the developing and mature mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:182-97 pubmed..Taken together, Isl1 is expressed during the maturation of and is later maintained in retinal ganglion cells and subtypes of amacrine and bipolar cells where it may function in the maintenance of these cells into adulthood. ..
- Mellott T, Lopez Coviella I, Blusztajn J, Berse B. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase negatively modulates ciliary neurotrophic factor-activated choline acetyltransferase gene expression. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:850-8 pubmedThe expression of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) enzyme that synthesizes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is upregulated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)...
- Baydyuk M, Russell T, Liao G, Zang K, An J, Reichardt L, et al. TrkB receptor controls striatal formation by regulating the number of newborn striatal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1669-74 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that neurotrophins can control the size of neuronal populations in the brain by promoting the survival of newborn neurons before they migrate to their final destinations. ..
- Stacy R, Demas J, Burgess R, Sanes J, Wong R. Disruption and recovery of patterned retinal activity in the absence of acetylcholine. J Neurosci. 2005;25:9347-57 pubmed..of cholinergic transmission by using a conditional mutant in which the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the sole synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine (ACh), was deleted from large retinal regions...
- Garfield A, Cowley M, Smith F, Moorwood K, Stewart Cox J, Gilroy K, et al. Distinct physiological and behavioural functions for parental alleles of imprinted Grb10. Nature. 2011;469:534-8 pubmed publisher..Thus Grb10 is, so far, a unique imprinted gene, able to influence distinct physiological processes, fetal growth and adult behaviour, owing to actions of the two parental alleles in different tissues. ..
- Shibasaki K, Takebayashi H, Ikenaka K, Feng L, Gan L. Expression of the basic helix-loop-factor Olig2 in the developing retina: Olig2 as a new marker for retinal progenitors and late-born cells. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:57-65 pubmed..Thus, Olig2 is an marker both for retinal progenitor cells during embryonic stages, and also for differentiated retinal subpopulations within the GCL and INL during postnatal stages. ..