Gene Symbol: Cfd
Description: complement factor D (adipsin)
Alias: Adn, complement factor D, 28 kDa adipocyte protein, C3 convertase activator, D component (adipsin) of complement, properdin factor D
Species: mouse
Products:     Cfd

Top Publications

  1. Cook K, Min H, Johnson D, Chaplinsky R, Flier J, Hunt C, et al. Adipsin: a circulating serine protease homolog secreted by adipose tissue and sciatic nerve. Science. 1987;237:402-5 pubmed
  2. Ren B, McCrory M, Pass C, Bullard D, Ballantyne C, Xu Y, et al. The virulence function of Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein A involves inhibition of complement activation and impairment of complement receptor-mediated protection. J Immunol. 2004;173:7506-12 pubmed
    ..Our new results suggest that complement receptors CR1/2, CR3, and CR4 all play important roles in host defense against pneumococcal infection. ..
  3. White R, Damm D, Hancock N, Rosen B, Lowell B, Usher P, et al. Human adipsin is identical to complement factor D and is expressed at high levels in adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:9210-3 pubmed
    ..amino acid sequence similarity with the protein sequence previously determined for purified natural human complement factor D. Like mouse adipsin, recombinant human adipsin displays the enzymatic activity of human complement factor D,..
  4. Min H, Spiegelman B. Adipsin, the adipocyte serine protease: gene structure and control of expression by tumor necrosis factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:8879-92 pubmed
    ..These results show that adipsin is a novel serine protease gene whose expression is regulated by a macrophage-derived factor which modulates expression of other adipocyte-specific RNAs. ..
  5. Cook K, Groves D, Min H, Spiegelman B. A developmentally regulated mRNA from 3T3 adipocytes encodes a novel serine protease homologue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:6480-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that adipocyte differentiation is accompanied by the expression of mRNA encoding a serine protease homologue that can be synthesized with two different signal peptides. ..
  6. Paglialunga S, Fisette A, Yan Y, Deshaies Y, Brouillette J, Pekna M, et al. Acylation-stimulating protein deficiency and altered adipose tissue in alternative complement pathway knockout mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E521-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, a reduction/deficiency in ASP is associated with an antiadipogenic state and ASP may provide a target for controlling fat storage. ..
  7. Xu Y, Ma M, Ippolito G, Schroeder H, Carroll M, Volanakis J. Complement activation in factor D-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14577-82 pubmed
    ..Kinetics of opsonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae by C3 fragments was much slower in factor D-deficient serum, suggesting a significant contribution of the alternative pathway to antibacterial host defense early after infection. ..
  8. Scherer P, Williams S, Fogliano M, Baldini G, Lodish H. A novel serum protein similar to C1q, produced exclusively in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:26746-9 pubmed
    ..Our experiments also further corroborate the existence of an insulin-regulated secretory pathway in adipocytes. ..
  9. Banda N, Takahashi M, Takahashi K, Stahl G, Hyatt S, Glogowska M, et al. Mechanisms of mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases-1/3 activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Mol Immunol. 2011;49:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that MASP-1 does not require binding to MBL-A, MBL-C, or FCN-A to activate the AP. MASP-1 may cleave pro-Df into mature Df through binding to FCN-B or to an unknown protein, or may function as an unbound soluble protein. ..

More Information


  1. Wei Z, Peterson J, Wong G. Metabolic regulation by C1q/TNF-related protein-13 (CTRP13): activation OF AMP-activated protein kinase and suppression of fatty acid-induced JNK signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15652-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide the first functional characterization of CTRP13 and establish its importance in glucose homeostasis. ..
  2. Tu Z, Bu H, Dennis J, Lin F. Efficient osteoclast differentiation requires local complement activation. Blood. 2010;116:4456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to C3 receptors, C3aR/C5aR also regulate OC differentiation, at least in part, by modulating local IL-6 production. ..
  3. Takeshita A, Kondo T, Okada T, Kusakabe K. Elevation of adipsin, a complement activating factor, in the mouse placenta during spontaneous abortion. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56:508-14 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that local expression of adipsin has a reproductive effect at the feto-maternal interface and possibly plays a role in spontaneous abortion...
  4. Heeger P, Lalli P, Lin F, Valujskikh A, Liu J, Muqim N, et al. Decay-accelerating factor modulates induction of T cell immunity. J Exp Med. 2005;201:1523-30 pubmed
    ..The results could have broad therapeutic implications for disorders in which T cell immunity is important. ..
  5. Lo J, Ljubicic S, Leibiger B, Kern M, Leibiger I, Moede T, et al. Adipsin is an adipokine that improves ? cell function in diabetes. Cell. 2014;158:41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the adipsin/C3a pathway connects adipocyte function to ? cell physiology, and manipulation of this molecular switch may serve as a therapy in T2DM. ..
  6. Takahashi M, Ishida Y, Iwaki D, Kanno K, Suzuki T, Endo Y, et al. Essential role of mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 in activation of the complement factor D. J Exp Med. 2010;207:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that circulating complement factor D (Df) in Masp1/3-/- mice is a zymogen (pro-Df) with the activation peptide QPRGR at its N terminus...
  7. Cresci G, Allende D, McMullen M, Nagy L. Alternative complement pathway component Factor D contributes to efficient clearance of tissue debris following acute CClâ‚„-induced injury. Mol Immunol. 2015;64:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that following an acute CCl4-induced injury, the involvement of the alternative complement pathway is essential for efficient liver recovery. ..
  8. Johnson R, Sheng M, Greenberg M, Kolodner R, Papaioannou V, Spiegelman B. Targeting of nonexpressed genes in embryonic stem cells via homologous recombination. Science. 1989;245:1234-6 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate the feasibility of altering genes in ES cells that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner in the mouse, in order to study their function at later developmental stages. ..
  9. Sun C, Berry W, Olson L. PDGFR? controls the balance of stromal and adipogenic cells during adipose tissue organogenesis. Development. 2017;144:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlight the importance of balancing stromal versus adipogenic cell expansion during white adipose tissue development, with PDGFR? activity coordinating this crucial process in the embryo. ..
  10. Vieyra M, Leisman S, Raedler H, Kwan W, Yang M, Strainic M, et al. Complement regulates CD4 T-cell help to CD8 T cells required for murine allograft rejection. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:766-74 pubmed publisher
  11. Spiegelman B, Frank M, Green H. Molecular cloning of mRNA from 3T3 adipocytes. Regulation of mRNA content for glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and other differentiation-dependent proteins during adipocyte development. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:10083-9 pubmed
    ..The time course of mRNA accumulation was different for each of these mRNAs, indicating they do not respond synchronously during differentiation. ..
  12. Felmer R, Horvat S, Clinton M, Clark A. Overexpression of Raidd cDNA inhibits differentiation of mouse preadipocytes. Cell Prolif. 2003;36:45-54 pubmed
  13. Flier J, Cook K, Usher P, Spiegelman B. Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity. Science. 1987;237:405-8 pubmed
  14. Turnberg D, Lewis M, Moss J, Xu Y, Botto M, Cook H. Complement activation contributes to both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in adriamycin nephropathy in mice. J Immunol. 2006;177:4094-102 pubmed
    ..Lack of CD59, which regulates the membrane attack complex, led to greater glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. ..
  15. Avraham S, Jiang S, Ota S, Fu Y, Deng B, Dowler L, et al. Structural and functional studies of the intracellular tyrosine kinase MATK gene and its translated product. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:1833-42 pubmed
    ..These results support the notion that MATK acts as a regulator of p60c-src in megakaryocytic cells and participates in the pathways regulating growth of cells of this lineage. ..
  16. Cho S, Yang J, Her S, Choi H, Jung J, Sun H, et al. Osteoblast-targeted overexpression of PPAR? inhibited bone mass gain in male mice and accelerated ovariectomy-induced bone loss in female mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:1939-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, in vivo osteoblast-specific overexpression of PPAR? negatively regulates bone mass in male mice and accelerates estrogen-deficiency-related bone loss in female mice. ..
  17. Dahlke K, Wrann C, Sommerfeld O, Sossdorf M, Recknagel P, Sachse S, et al. Distinct different contributions of the alternative and classical complement activation pathway for the innate host response during sepsis. J Immunol. 2011;186:3066-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence for the new concept that the alternative complement activation pathway exerts a distinctly different contribution to the innate host response during sepsis when compared with the classical pathway. ..
  18. Chen S, Chen J, Johnson P, Muppala V, Lee Y. C/EBPbeta, when expressed from the C/ebpalpha gene locus, can functionally replace C/EBPalpha in liver but not in adipose tissue. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7292-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our studies with the C/ebpalpha(beta/beta) mice provide new insights into the nonredundant functions of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta on gene regulation in WAT. ..
  19. Schriml L, Peterson R, Gerrard B, Dean M. Use of denaturing HPLC to map human and murine genes and to validate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Biotechniques. 2000;28:740-5 pubmed
    ..The same approach has been applied to the mapping of murine genes in interspecies backcross animals. This strategy is rapid, accurate and superior in several respects to other technologies. ..
  20. Yadav N, Cheng D, Richard S, Morel M, Iyer V, Aldaz C, et al. CARM1 promotes adipocyte differentiation by coactivating PPARgamma. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results show that CARM1 promotes adipocyte differentiation by coactivating PPARgamma-mediated transcription and thus might be important in energy balance. ..
  21. Stahl G, Xu Y, Hao L, Miller M, Buras J, Fung M, et al. Role for the alternative complement pathway in ischemia/reperfusion injury. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:449-55 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the alternative complement pathway plays an important role in local and remote tissue injury after GI/R. Inhibition of factor D may represent an effective therapeutic approach for GI/R injury. ..
  22. Searfoss G, Jordan W, Calligaro D, Galbreath E, Schirtzinger L, Berridge B, et al. Adipsin, a biomarker of gastrointestinal toxicity mediated by a functional gamma-secretase inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46107-16 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the aberrant expression of adipsin, and its presence in feces may serve as a noninvasive biomarker of gastrointestinal toxicity associated with perturbed Notch signaling. ..
  23. Lützelschwab C, Pejler G, Aveskogh M, Hellman L. Secretory granule proteases in rat mast cells. Cloning of 10 different serine proteases and a carboxypeptidase A from various rat mast cell populations. J Exp Med. 1997;185:13-29 pubmed
    ..These results showed that peritoneal MCs are highly specialized effector cells with mRNA frequencies for the major proteases in the range of several percent of the total mRNA pool. ..
  24. Cohen D, Buurma A, Goemaere N, Girardi G, le Cessie S, Scherjon S, et al. Classical complement activation as a footprint for murine and human antiphospholipid antibody-induced fetal loss. J Pathol. 2011;225:502-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The excessive deposition of C4d supports the concept of severe autoantibody-mediated injury at the fetal-maternal interface. We suggest C4d as a potential biomarker of autoantibody-mediated fetal loss in SLE and APS. ..
  25. Mbikay M, Seidah N, Chretien M, Simpson E. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human. Genomics. 1995;26:123-9 pubmed
    ..The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-müllerian hormone) locus; in human, the gene was ..
  26. Banda N, Takahashi M, Levitt B, Glogowska M, Nicholas J, Takahashi K, et al. Essential role of complement mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases-1/3 in the murine collagen antibody-induced model of inflammatory arthritis. J Immunol. 2010;185:5598-606 pubmed publisher
  27. Beazley K, Reckard S, Nurminsky D, Lima F, Nurminskaya M. Two sides of MGP null arterial disease: chondrogenic lesions dependent on transglutaminase 2 and elastin fragmentation associated with induction of adipsin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:31400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify two potential therapeutic targets in vascular calcification associated with MGP dysfunction and emphasize the need for a comprehensive approach to this multifaceted disorder. ..
  28. Abrera Abeleda M, Xu Y, Pickering M, Smith R, Sethi S. Mesangial immune complex glomerulonephritis due to complement factor D deficiency. Kidney Int. 2007;71:1142-7 pubmed
    b>Complement factor D is a serine protease essential for the activation of the alternative pathway and is expressed in the kidney, adipocytes, and macrophages...
  29. Arend W, Mehta G, Antonioli A, Takahashi M, Takahashi K, Stahl G, et al. Roles of adipocytes and fibroblasts in activation of the alternative pathway of complement in inflammatory arthritis in mice. J Immunol. 2013;190:6423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that pathogenic activation of the AP can occur in the joint through immune complexes adherent to cartilage and the local production of necessary AP proteins by adipocytes and FLS. ..
  30. Phillips M, Djian P, Green H. The nucleotide sequence of three genes participating in the adipose differentiation of 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:10821-7 pubmed
    ..It remains to be demonstrated whether the information for common participation of the genes in the program of differentiation resides in controlling elements within the regions sequenced. ..
  31. Walsh M, Bourcier T, Takahashi K, Shi L, Busche M, Rother R, et al. Mannose-binding lectin is a regulator of inflammation that accompanies myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. J Immunol. 2005;175:541-6 pubmed
    ..MBL is an example of a pattern recognition molecule that plays a dual role in modifying inflammatory responses to sterile and infectious injury. ..
  32. Mehlhop E, Diamond M. Protective immune responses against West Nile virus are primed by distinct complement activation pathways. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1371-81 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that individual pathways of complement activation control WNV infection by priming adaptive immune responses through distinct mechanisms. ..
  33. Kusakabe K, Naka M, Ito Y, Eid N, Otsuki Y. Regulation of natural-killer cell cytotoxicity and enhancement of complement factors in the spontaneously aborted mouse placenta. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1451-9 pubmed
    ..In the process of spontaneous abortion, the cytotoxicity of uterine NK cells is inhibited, and the innate immune system through adipsin and complement C3 appears to be influential. ..
  34. Moulton E, Atkinson J, Buller R. Surviving mousepox infection requires the complement system. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000249 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the complement system acts in the first few minutes, hours, and days to control this poxviral infection until the adaptive immune response can react, and loss of this system results in lethal infection...
  35. Rohrer B, Guo Y, Kunchithapautham K, Gilkeson G. Eliminating complement factor D reduces photoreceptor susceptibility to light-induced damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5282-9 pubmed
    ..Susceptibility to CL exposure was tested in CFD(-/-) mice on a BALB/c background. Eyes were analyzed using electrophysiologic and histologic techniques...
  36. Watkins S, Reifsnyder P, Pan H, German J, Leiter E. Lipid metabolome-wide effects of the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1809-17 pubmed
    ..Because many of the effects of rosiglitazone on tissue metabolism were reflected in the plasma lipid metabolome, metabolomics has excellent potential for developing clinical assessments of metabolic response to drug therapy. ..