Ces1c

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ces1c
Description: carboxylesterase 1C
Alias: Ces-N, Ee-1, Ee1, Es-4, Es-N, Es1, Es4, EsN, PESN, carboxylesterase 1C, PES-N, esterase 1, liver carboxylesterase N, lung surfactant convertase
Species: mouse
Products:     Ces1c

Top Publications

  1. Petras M, Biddle F. Serum esterases in the house mouse, Mus musculus. Can J Genet Cytol. 1967;9:704-10 pubmed
  2. Ruddle F, Roderick T. Allelically-determined isozyme polymorphisms in laboratory populations of mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1968;151:531-9 pubmed
  3. Nesterova T, Borodin P, Zakiian S. [Localization of the gene coding for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase on the genetic map of chromosome 8 in the mouse]. Genetika. 1988;24:829-35 pubmed
    ..The Aprt gene was mapped using two markers: plasma esterase 1 coded by the gene Es-1 situated at the distance of 26 morgans from the centromere, and a Robertsonian ..
  4. Cushman I, Cushman S, Potter P, Casey P. Control of RhoA methylation by carboxylesterase I. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide compelling evidence that C-terminal modification of prenyl proteins, rather than being purely a constitutive process, can serve as a point of regulation of function for this important class of protein. ..
  5. Jenkins N, Copeland N, Taylor B, Bedigian H, Lee B. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus DNA content of normal and lymphomatous tissues of BXH-2 recombinant inbred mice. J Virol. 1982;42:379-88 pubmed
  6. Nesterova T, Borodin P, Zakian S, Serov O. Assignment of the gene for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase on the genetic map of mouse chromosome 8. Biochem Genet. 1987;25:563-8 pubmed
    ..The recombination distance between the centromere and Aprt is 44 +/- 7 cM, and that between Es-1 and Aprt is 25 +/- 2 cM, i.e., the probable order of the markers examined is cen-Es-1-Aprt on chromosome 8. ..
  7. von Deimling O. Esterase-23 (ES-23): characterization of a new carboxylesterase isozyme (EC 3.1.1.1) of the house mouse, genetically linked to ES-2 on chromosome 8. Biochem Genet. 1984;22:769-82 pubmed
    ..Of the five phenotypes, only ES-23B was expressed in lung. This variation is apparently controlled by a cis-acting regulatory element, presumably a temporal locus, Es-23t, closely linked to the presumed structural locus Es-23e. ..
  8. Berning W, de Looze S, von Deimling O. Identification and development of a genetically closely-linked carboxylesterase family of the mouse liver. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1985;80:859-65 pubmed
    ..Allelic variation of the temporal genes was more limited than that of the corresponding structural genes. ..
  9. Wassmer B, de Looze S, von Deimling O. Biochemistry and genetics of esterase-20 (ES-20), a second trimeric carboxylesterase of the house mouse (Mus musculus). II. A unique recombination reveals ES-20 as a hybrid enzyme. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:759-70 pubmed
    ..This result satisfactorily accounted for the genetic finding, as well as a range of biochemical properties of ES-20. ..
  10. Ovnic M, Tepperman K, Medda S, Elliott R, Stephenson D, Grant S, et al. Characterization of a murine cDNA encoding a member of the carboxylesterase multigene family. Genomics. 1991;9:344-54 pubmed
    ..5 kDa. Upon the addition of microsomes, this product was processed into a protein of 60.4 kDa, which is within the size range of monomeric units of mouse carboxylesterases. ..

Detail Information

Publications66

  1. Petras M, Biddle F. Serum esterases in the house mouse, Mus musculus. Can J Genet Cytol. 1967;9:704-10 pubmed
  2. Ruddle F, Roderick T. Allelically-determined isozyme polymorphisms in laboratory populations of mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1968;151:531-9 pubmed
  3. Nesterova T, Borodin P, Zakiian S. [Localization of the gene coding for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase on the genetic map of chromosome 8 in the mouse]. Genetika. 1988;24:829-35 pubmed
    ..The Aprt gene was mapped using two markers: plasma esterase 1 coded by the gene Es-1 situated at the distance of 26 morgans from the centromere, and a Robertsonian ..
  4. Cushman I, Cushman S, Potter P, Casey P. Control of RhoA methylation by carboxylesterase I. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide compelling evidence that C-terminal modification of prenyl proteins, rather than being purely a constitutive process, can serve as a point of regulation of function for this important class of protein. ..
  5. Jenkins N, Copeland N, Taylor B, Bedigian H, Lee B. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus DNA content of normal and lymphomatous tissues of BXH-2 recombinant inbred mice. J Virol. 1982;42:379-88 pubmed
  6. Nesterova T, Borodin P, Zakian S, Serov O. Assignment of the gene for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase on the genetic map of mouse chromosome 8. Biochem Genet. 1987;25:563-8 pubmed
    ..The recombination distance between the centromere and Aprt is 44 +/- 7 cM, and that between Es-1 and Aprt is 25 +/- 2 cM, i.e., the probable order of the markers examined is cen-Es-1-Aprt on chromosome 8. ..
  7. von Deimling O. Esterase-23 (ES-23): characterization of a new carboxylesterase isozyme (EC 3.1.1.1) of the house mouse, genetically linked to ES-2 on chromosome 8. Biochem Genet. 1984;22:769-82 pubmed
    ..Of the five phenotypes, only ES-23B was expressed in lung. This variation is apparently controlled by a cis-acting regulatory element, presumably a temporal locus, Es-23t, closely linked to the presumed structural locus Es-23e. ..
  8. Berning W, de Looze S, von Deimling O. Identification and development of a genetically closely-linked carboxylesterase family of the mouse liver. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1985;80:859-65 pubmed
    ..Allelic variation of the temporal genes was more limited than that of the corresponding structural genes. ..
  9. Wassmer B, de Looze S, von Deimling O. Biochemistry and genetics of esterase-20 (ES-20), a second trimeric carboxylesterase of the house mouse (Mus musculus). II. A unique recombination reveals ES-20 as a hybrid enzyme. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:759-70 pubmed
    ..This result satisfactorily accounted for the genetic finding, as well as a range of biochemical properties of ES-20. ..
  10. Ovnic M, Tepperman K, Medda S, Elliott R, Stephenson D, Grant S, et al. Characterization of a murine cDNA encoding a member of the carboxylesterase multigene family. Genomics. 1991;9:344-54 pubmed
    ..5 kDa. Upon the addition of microsomes, this product was processed into a protein of 60.4 kDa, which is within the size range of monomeric units of mouse carboxylesterases. ..
  11. Krishnasamy S, Teng A, Dhand R, Schultz R, Gross N. Molecular cloning, characterization, and differential expression pattern of mouse lung surfactant convertase. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:L969-75 pubmed
    ..It thus may be the first member of the carboxylesterase family (EC 3.1.1.1) to be expressed in lung parenchyma and the first with a known physiological function. ..
  12. von Deimling O, Wassmer B. Genetic characterization of esterase 28 (ES-28) of the house mouse. Biochem Genet. 1991;29:55-63 pubmed
    ..Four phenotypes are distinguished. Segregation of Es-28 in two backcross series indicated linkage to Es-1, Es-9, and Es-22. The Es-28 locus was placed into esterase cluster 1 on chromosome 8. ..
  13. Ceci J, Justice M, Lock L, Jenkins N, Copeland N. An interspecific backcross linkage map of mouse chromosome 8. Genomics. 1990;6:72-9 pubmed
    ..A conserved linkage group was identified between mouse chromosome 8 and human chromosome 16. The map will be useful for establishing linkage of other markers to mouse chromosome 8. ..
  14. Groen A. Identification and genetic monitoring of mouse inbred strains using biochemical polymorphisms. Lab Anim. 1977;11:209-14 pubmed
    ..These findings emphasize the possibility and the necessity of monitoring the genetic purity of inbred strains of mice. A routine monitoring scheme using body protein-polymorphisms is proposed. ..
  15. Otto J, Ronai A, von Deimling O. Purification and characterization of esterase 1F, the albumin esterase of the house mouse (Mus musculus). Eur J Biochem. 1981;116:285-91 pubmed
    ..1.1.1) coded for by chromosome 8. Esterase 1F was compared with three other genetically related isozymes, esterase 2, esterase 7 and esterase 9, with respect to some physical and catalytic properties. ..
  16. Kirby G. The genetics of an electrophoretic variant of an erythrocytic protein in the house mouse (Mus musculus). Anim Blood Groups Biochem Genet. 1974;5:153-7 pubmed
  17. Yoon C. Disturbances in developmental pathways leading to a neurological disorder of genetic origin, "leaner", in mice. Dev Biol. 1969;20:158-81 pubmed
  18. Baumann H, Berger F. Genetics and evolution of the acute phase proteins in mice. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;201:505-12 pubmed
  19. Nichols E, Ruddle F. Polymorphism and linkage of glutathione reductase in Mus musculus. Biochem Genet. 1975;13:323-9 pubmed
    ..Using an electrophoretic variant for glutathione reductase, we have been able to map the structural gene for this enzyme to chromosome 8 in Mus musculus. ..
  20. Fox R, van Zutphen L. Chromosomal homology of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) linkage group VI with rodent species. Genetics. 1979;93:183-8 pubmed
    ..LG VI now contains five loci with the following order and intervening map distances: Es-1, Es-2 complex--6.3 +/- 2.1 cM--Est-1, Est-2 complex--18.5 +/- 3.7 cM--e. ..
  21. Mattano S, Erickson R, Nesbitt M, Weber W. Linkage of Nat and Es-1 in the mouse and development of strains congenic for N-acetyltransferase. J Hered. 1988;79:430-3 pubmed
    ..B and B x A recombinant inbred (RI) strains indicated linkage between the N-acetyltransferase gene (Nat) and the esterase 1 (Es-1) gene, located on mouse chromosome 8...
  22. Taylor B, Rowe L, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Chromosomal assignment of two endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus proviruses of the AKR/J mouse strain. J Virol. 1985;56:172-5 pubmed
    ..Akv-3 is the second ecotropic murine leukemia virus provirus to be mapped near the agouti locus. The results are discussed in relation to possible nonrandomness of viral integration...
  23. Kozak C, Rowe W. Genetic mapping of ecotropic murine leukemia virus-inducing loci in six inbred strains. J Exp Med. 1982;155:524-34 pubmed
    ..These studies provide further evidence that endogenous ecotropic V loci are present at different chromosomal sites in unrelated mouse strains and emphasize the role of germ line reinfections in the generation of this diversity. ..
  24. Soares E. Identification of a new allele of Es-I segregating in an inbred strain of mice. Biochem Genet. 1979;17:577-83 pubmed
    ..To date, no discernible deleterious effects have been identified as associated with this mutation. ..
  25. Popp R. LOCI LINKAGE OF SERUM ESTERASE PATTERNS AND OLIGOSYNDACTYLY. J Hered. 1965;56:107-8 pubmed
  26. Nash H, von Deimling O. Kidney esterases of Mus musculus: further polymorphism of esterase-6, esterase-9, and a new esterase, esterase-20. Biochem Genet. 1982;20:537-54 pubmed
    ..Esterase-20 may be an aggregated product of Es-9. The close linkage of Es-6 and Es-9 is confirmed. Homology of esterase-6 with esterases from other mammalian species is also suggested. ..
  27. Ruddle F, Shows T, Roderick T. Esterase genetics in Mus musculus: expression, linkage, and polymorphism of locus Es-2. Genetics. 1969;62:393-9 pubmed
  28. Fletcher C, Norman D, Germond E, Heintz N. A multilocus linkage map of mouse chromosome 8. Genomics. 1991;9:737-41 pubmed
    ..This analysis positions a new extremely proximal marker on chromosome 8, which is discussed as a potential candidate gene for the nervous locus. These linkage data will be useful for the mapping of additional loci on chromosome 8. ..
  29. Genetta T, D EUSTACHIO P, Kadner S, Finlay T. cDNA cloning of esterase 1, the major esterase activity in mouse plasma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;151:1364-70 pubmed
    We report here the cloning of a partial cDNA for Esterase 1, the major esterase activity in mouse plasma...
  30. Otsen M, den Bieman M, van Zutphen L. Linkage of the gene for uncoupling protein to esterase-1,2 and haptoglobin in the rat. J Hered. 1993;84:149-51 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis of a (BN x LEW)LEW backcross showed that Hp is linked to Ucp, thus indicating that the Hp locus is also located on chromosome 19. These results substantiate the linkage homology of RNO 19, MMU 8, and HSA 16. ..
  31. Potter M, Pumphrey J, Bailey D. Genetics of susceptibility to plasmacytoma induction. I. BALB/cAnN (C), C57BL/6N (B6), C57BL/Ka (BK), (C times B6)F1, (C times BK)F1, and C times B recombinant-inbred strains. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1975;54:1413-7 pubmed
    ..The distribution pattern of susceptibility and resistance in the C times B Rl strains suggested the presence of a resistance gene on chromosome 9, linkage group II. ..
  32. Peters J, Nash H. Polymorphism of esterase 11 in Mus musculus, a further esterase locus on chromosome 8. Biochem Genet. 1977;15:217-26 pubmed
    ..In F1 hybrids (IS/Cam X C57BL/Gr), the phenotype shown corresponds to a mixture of the two parental phenotypes. In backcrosses, ES-11 segregates as an autosomal gene, designated Es-11, closely linked to Es-2 and Es-5 on chromosome 8. ..
  33. Wong C, Cheng K, Papayannis I, Mattheolabakis G, Huang L, Xie G, et al. Phospho-NSAIDs have enhanced efficacy in mice lacking plasma carboxylesterase: implications for their clinical pharmacology. Pharm Res. 2015;32:1663-75 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the metabolism, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of phospho-NSAIDs in Ces1c-knockout mice. Hydrolysis of phospho-NSAIDs by Ces1c was investigated using Ces1c-overexpressing cells...
  34. Acton R, Blankenhorn E, Douglas T, Owen R, Hilgers J, Hoffman H, et al. Variations among sublines of inbred AKR mice. Nat New Biol. 1973;245:8-10 pubmed
  35. Otto J, von Deimling O. Esterase-17 (ES-17): characterization and genetic location on chromosome 9 of a bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate-resistant esterase of the house mouse (Mus musculus). Biochem Genet. 1983;21:37-48 pubmed
    ..1.1.6). ES-17 was shown to be controlled by the structural locus Es-17, located on chromosome 9. From test-cross data, a gene order of Es-17-8.7 +/- 2.5 map units-Mpi-1-10.2 +/- 2.7 map units-Mod-1 was established. ..
  36. Karl T, Chapman V. Linkage and expression of the Eg locus controlling inclusion of beta-glucuronidase into microsomes. Biochem Genet. 1974;11:367-72 pubmed
  37. Peters J, Nash H. Esterases of Mus musculus: substrate and inhibition characteristics, new isozymes, and homologies with man. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:553-69 pubmed
    ..From substrate, inhibition, and molecular weight studies, three homologies between human and mouse esterases are suggested. A new allele at Es-6 is also described. ..
  38. McBride O, Kozak C, Wilson S. Mapping of the gene for DNA polymerase beta to mouse chromosome 8. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1990;53:108-11 pubmed
    ..These results provide additional support for the regional localization of polymerase beta on the short arm of human chromosome 8 or the very proximal end of the long arm. ..
  39. Scherer G, Bausch E, Gaa A, von Deimling O. Gene mapping on mouse chromosome 8 by interspecific crosses: new data on a linkage group conserved on human chromosome 16q. Genomics. 1989;5:275-82 pubmed
    ..While map distances between HP-TAT,HP-CTRB, and TAT-CTRB of respectively 7, 11, and 9 cM have previously been measured in man, no crossovers between Hp, Tat, and Ctrb were observed in over 100 meioses in the mouse. ..
  40. Petersen D, Gonzalez F, Rapic V, Kozak C, Lee J, Jones J, et al. Marked increases in hepatic NAD(P)H:oxidoreductase gene transcription and mRNA levels correlated with a mouse chromosome 7 deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:6699-703 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inducibility of the Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, and Nmo-1 genes is, therefore, independent of the mechanism of Nmo-1 gene activation in untreated c14CoS/c14CoS mice. ..
  41. Womack J. Esterase-6 (Es-6) in laboratory mice: hormone-influenced expression and linkage relationship to oligosyndactylism (Os), esterase-1 (Es-1), and esterase-2 (Es-2) in chromosome 8. Biochem Genet. 1975;13:311-22 pubmed
    ..A four-point test cross established the gene order Os-Es-1-Es-6-Es-2 within a 10-cM segment on chromosome 8. ..
  42. Xu J, Yin L, Xu Y, Li Y, Zalzala M, Cheng G, et al. Hepatic carboxylesterase 1 is induced by glucose and regulates postprandial glucose levels. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109663 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study uncovers a novel glucose-CES1-glucose pathway which may play an important role in regulating postprandial blood glucose levels. ..
  43. Watanabe T, Ogasawara N, Goto H. Genetic study of pancreatic proteinase in mice (Mus musculus): genetic variants of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Biochem Genet. 1976;14:697-707 pubmed
    ..Prt-3 is present only in the strain Mol-A. Linkage experimentation has shown that Prt-1 is closely linked to Prt-3. ..
  44. Alonso S, Montagutelli X, Simon Chazottes D, Guenet J, Buckingham M. Re-localization of Actsk-1 to mouse chromosome 8, a new region of homology with human chromosome 1. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:15-20 pubmed
    ..Intermingling on this scale between human and mouse chromosomal homologies that occurred during evolution creates disorders in comparative linkage studies. ..
  45. Hoffman I, Balling R. Chromosomal localization of the murine cadherin-11. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:304 pubmed
  46. Tsuji S, Meier H. Linkage of serum esterase and tottering in the mouse. J Hered. 1969;60:221-2 pubmed
  47. Krog H, Wysocka M, Kisielow P, Radzikowski C. Genetic characterization of important mouse strains used in cancer research. Hereditas. 1977;87:201-4 pubmed
  48. Roderick T, Ruddle F, Chapman V, Shows T. Biochemical polymorphisms in feral and inbred mice (mus musculus). Biochem Genet. 1971;5:457-66 pubmed
  49. DeLorenzo R, Ruddle F. Glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT) genetics in Mus musculus: linkage, polymorphism, and phenotypes of the Got-2 and Got-1 loci. Biochem Genet. 1970;4:259-73 pubmed
  50. Parker A, Pinot F, Grant D, Spearow J, Hammock B. Regulation of mouse liver microsomal esterases by clofibrate and sexual hormones. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996;51:677-85 pubmed
    ..Enzyme staining of native polyacrylamide gels reveals that the latter is true, with the majority of esterases present in mouse liver microsomes being induced to a small degree by clofibrate. ..
  51. Tsuji S, Meier H. Evidence for allelism of leaner and tottering in the mouse. Genet Res. 1971;17:83-8 pubmed
  52. Duysen E, Lockridge O. Induction of plasma acetylcholinesterase activity in mice challenged with organophosphorus poisons. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;255:214-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that acetylcholinesterase activity is induced when cells undergo apoptosis and that consequently there is a rise in the level of plasma acetylcholinesterase. ..
  53. Ko K, Erickson B, Lehner R. Es-x/Ces1 prevents triacylglycerol accumulation in McArdle-RH7777 hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:1133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggest that Es-x limits hepatic TG accumulation by promoting beta-oxidation. ..
  54. Ashworth A, Williams B, Buchberg A, Goodfellow P, Solomon E, Potter J, et al. Chromosomal localization of zinc finger protein genes in man and mouse. Genomics. 1989;4:323-7 pubmed
    ..In humans ZFP3 has been localized to chromosome 17p12-17pter and thus is part of the conserved linkage group between this chromosome and the distal half of mouse chromosome 11. ..
  55. Eisenhardt E, von Deimling O. Interstrain variation of esterase-22, a new isozyme of the house mouse. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1982;73:719-24 pubmed
    ..4. A gene locus Es-22 with five alleles is suggested. 5. It is proposed that the genes coding for the carboxylesterase isozyme system on chromosome 8 constitute a multigene family as defined by Hood et al. (1975). ..
  56. Ruddle F, Roderick T. The genetic control of two types of esterases in inbred strains of the mouse. Genetics. 1966;54:191-202 pubmed
  57. Mattei M, Simon Chazottes D, Hirai S, Ryseck R, Galcheva Gargova Z, Guenet J, et al. Chromosomal localization of the three members of the jun proto-oncogene family in mouse and man. Oncogene. 1990;5:151-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, the present data identify a new segmental homology between mouse and human chromosomes. ..
  58. Ovnic M, Swank R, Fletcher C, Zhen L, Novak E, Baumann H, et al. Characterization and functional expression of a cDNA encoding egasyn (esterase-22): the endoplasmic reticulum-targeting protein of beta-glucuronidase. Genomics. 1991;11:956-67 pubmed
    ..The features of the deduced amino acid sequence of the egasyn cDNA are compared with previously characterized carboxylesterases and with other lumenal ER proteins. ..
  59. Beamer W, Sweet H, Bronson R, Shire J, Orth D, Davisson M. Adrenocortical dysplasia: a mouse model system for adrenocortical insufficiency. J Endocrinol. 1994;141:33-43 pubmed
    ..The role of acd action in adrenal cortical development remains to be established. ..
  60. Kadner S, Katz J, Finlay T. Esterase-1: developmental expression in the mouse and distribution of related proteins in other species. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992;296:435-41 pubmed
    b>Esterase 1 (Es-1) is a sexually dimorphic 65-kDa glycoprotein present in plasma and other murine tissues able to hydrolyze a variety of esters including fatty acid esters of estradiol...
  61. Watanabe T, Ogasawara N, Goto H. Genetic study of pancreatic proteinase in mice (Mus musculus): linkage of the Prt-2 locus on chromosome 8. Biochem Genet. 1976;14:999-1002 pubmed
    ..5% between Es-2 and Prt-2. From these data, the map position of Prt-2 has been estimated on chromosome 8. The Prt-1 and Prt-3 loci, which are linked very closely on the same chromosome, were not determined. ..
  62. Eistetter H, Adolph S, Ringwald M, Simon Chazottes D, Schuh R, Guenet J, et al. Chromosomal mapping of the structural gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:3489-93 pubmed
    ..Recombination frequency between Um and the co-segregating loci serum esterase 1 (Es-1) and tyrosine aminotransferase (Tat) places Um about 14 centimorgan (cM) distal to Es-1, and 5 cM proximal ..
  63. Sun J, Kumar P, Thimmarayappa J, Saini N, Goel P, Maures T, et al. Esterase 1 is a novel transcriptional repressor of growth hormone receptor gene expression: a unique noncatalytic role for a carboxyesterase protein. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1351-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A cDNA phage expression library was screened to identify a phage clone expressing esterase 1 (ES1) binding to the FFA-response element (FARE), L2-D1, in the murine GHR promoter...
  64. von Deimling O, Gröning J, Gaa A. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a new chymotrypsin isozyme of the house mouse, CTRA-1. Biochem Genet. 1991;29:545-57 pubmed
    ..From two backcross series, including a total of 274 animals, the gene order (Es-1, Es-9)-3.9 +/- 1.7%-Got-2-3.9 +/- 1.7%-(Es-2, Es-7, Es-23)-0.7 +/- 0.5%- Ctra-1-6.3 +/- 2.2%-Prt-2 was established. ..
  65. McCubrey J, Risser R. Allelism and linkage studies of murine leukemia virus activation genes in low leukemic strains of mice. J Exp Med. 1982;155:1233-8 pubmed
    ..Our data are consistent with two possibilities: Inc-1 and Inb-1 are part of the virus-inducing genes Cv-1 and Bv-1, respectively , or Inc-1 and Inb2-1 are tightly linked regulatory genes. ..