Cdx2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cdx2
Description: caudal type homeobox 2
Alias: Cdx-2, homeobox protein CDX-2, caudal type homeo box 2, caudal-type homeobox protein 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Cdx2

Top Publications

  1. Jedrusik A, Parfitt D, Guo G, Skamagki M, Grabarek J, Johnson M, et al. Role of Cdx2 and cell polarity in cell allocation and specification of trophectoderm and inner cell mass in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2692-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Outside cells become committed to the trophectoderm at the blastocyst stage through Cdx2 activity, but here we show that Cdx2 can also act earlier to influence cell allocation...
  2. McDole K, Zheng Y. Generation and live imaging of an endogenous Cdx2 reporter mouse line. Genesis. 2012;50:775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We have generated a reporter line in which eGFP is fused to the endogenous locus of Cdx2, a transcription factor essential for trophectoderm specification, allowing us to visualize cell fate decisions in ..
  3. van de Ven C, Bialecka M, Neijts R, Young T, Rowland J, Stringer E, et al. Concerted involvement of Cdx/Hox genes and Wnt signaling in morphogenesis of the caudal neural tube and cloacal derivatives from the posterior growth zone. Development. 2011;138:3451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cdx2 inactivation after placentation leads to posterior defects, including incomplete uro-rectal septation...
  4. Gao N, White P, Kaestner K. Establishment of intestinal identity and epithelial-mesenchymal signaling by Cdx2. Dev Cell. 2009;16:588-99 pubmed publisher
    We demonstrate that conditional ablation of the homeobox transcription factor Cdx2 from early endoderm results in the replacement of the posterior intestinal epithelium with keratinocytes, a dramatic cell fate conversion caused by ectopic ..
  5. Blij S, Frum T, Akyol A, Fearon E, Ralston A. Maternal Cdx2 is dispensable for mouse development. Development. 2012;139:3969-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The caudal domain transcription factor CDX2 has been reported to act as a maternal determinant regulating cell fate decisions in mouse development...
  6. Ezaki T, Guo R, Li H, Reynolds A, Lynch J. The homeodomain transcription factors Cdx1 and Cdx2 induce E-cadherin adhesion activity by reducing beta- and p120-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G54-65 pubmed
    The homeodomain transcription factors Cdx1 and Cdx2 are regulators of intestine-specific gene expression. They also regulate intestinal cell differentiation and proliferation; however, these effects are poorly understood...
  7. Ikeya M, Takada S. Wnt-3a is required for somite specification along the anteroposterior axis of the mouse embryo and for regulation of cdx-1 expression. Mech Dev. 2001;103:27-33 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Wnt-3a is necessary for correct anteroposterior patterning of vertebra, and that cdx-1 may be one of the mediator genes of Wnt-3a signaling in this process. ..
  8. Zhao T, Gan Q, Stokes A, Lassiter R, Wang Y, Chan J, et al. ?-catenin regulates Pax3 and Cdx2 for caudal neural tube closure and elongation. Development. 2014;141:148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..in the dorsal neural folds of mouse embryos represses the expression of the homeobox-containing genes Pax3 and Cdx2 at the dorsal posterior neuropore (PNP), and subsequently diminishes the expression of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling ..
  9. Beck F, Chawengsaksophak K, Waring P, Playford R, Furness J. Reprogramming of intestinal differentiation and intercalary regeneration in Cdx2 mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:7318-23 pubmed
    The homeobox gene Cdx2, a homologue of the Drosophila gene caudal, has been implicated in the control of cell differentiation in the intestinal epithelium...

More Information

Publications77

  1. van Rooijen C, Simmini S, Bialecka M, Neijts R, van de Ven C, Beck F, et al. Evolutionarily conserved requirement of Cdx for post-occipital tissue emergence. Development. 2012;139:2576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdx requirement for the post-head section of the axis is ancestral as it takes place in arthropods as well. ..
  2. Kan N, Stemmler M, Junghans D, Kanzler B, de Vries W, Dominis M, et al. Gene replacement reveals a specific role for E-cadherin in the formation of a functional trophectoderm. Development. 2007;134:31-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, N-cadherin can maintain epithelia in differentiating ES cells, but not during the formation of the trophectoderm. Our results point to a specific and unique function for E-cadherin during mouse preimplantation development. ..
  3. Hinoi T, Akyol A, Theisen B, Ferguson D, Greenson J, Williams B, et al. Mouse model of colonic adenoma-carcinoma progression based on somatic Apc inactivation. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9721-30 pubmed
    ..We defined human CDX2 sequences conferring colon epithelium-preferential transgene expression in the adult mouse...
  4. Chawengsaksophak K, de Graaff W, Rossant J, Deschamps J, Beck F. Cdx2 is essential for axial elongation in mouse development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7641-5 pubmed
    Inactivation of Cdx2 leads to preimplantation embryonic lethality...
  5. Tamai Y, Nakajima R, Ishikawa T, Takaku K, Seldin M, Taketo M. Colonic hamartoma development by anomalous duplication in Cdx2 knockout mice. Cancer Res. 1999;59:2965-70 pubmed
    To determine the biological role of caudal-like homeobox gene CDX2, we constructed knockout mice in which its mouse homologue Cdx2 was inactivated by homologous recombination, placing a bacterial lacZ gene under the control of the Cdx2 ..
  6. Silberg D, Swain G, Suh E, Traber P. Cdx1 and cdx2 expression during intestinal development. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:961-71 pubmed
    The intestine-specific transcription factors Cdx1 and Cdx2 are candidate genes for directing intestinal development, differentiation, and maintenance of the intestinal phenotype...
  7. Ralston A, Rossant J. Cdx2 acts downstream of cell polarization to cell-autonomously promote trophectoderm fate in the early mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2008;313:614-29 pubmed
    ..The Caudal-like transcription factor Cdx2 is required for repression of inner cell mass genes Oct4 and Nanog in the trophectoderm...
  8. Aoki K, Tamai Y, Horiike S, Oshima M, Taketo M. Colonic polyposis caused by mTOR-mediated chromosomal instability in Apc+/Delta716 Cdx2+/- compound mutant mice. Nat Genet. 2003;35:323-30 pubmed
    The mammalian homeobox transcription factor CDX2 has key roles in intestinal development and differentiation...
  9. Hryniuk A, Grainger S, Savory J, Lohnes D. Cdx function is required for maintenance of intestinal identity in the adult. Dev Biol. 2012;363:426-37 pubmed publisher
    The homeodomain transcription factors Cdx1 and Cdx2 are expressed in the intestinal epithelium from early development, with expression persisting throughout the life of the animal...
  10. Gaunt S, Drage D, Trubshaw R. cdx4/lacZ and cdx2/lacZ protein gradients formed by decay during gastrulation in the mouse. Int J Dev Biol. 2005;49:901-8 pubmed
    Expression of the mouse caudal genes cdx4 and cdx2 is examined by use of lacZ reporter constructs expressed in transgenic mouse embryos. During early gastrulation, up to at least 8...
  11. Verzi M, Shin H, He H, Sulahian R, Meyer C, Montgomery R, et al. Differentiation-specific histone modifications reveal dynamic chromatin interactions and partners for the intestinal transcription factor CDX2. Dev Cell. 2010;19:713-26 pubmed publisher
    ..intestinal epithelial cells and found enrichment of transcription factor-binding motifs corresponding to CDX2, a critical regulator of the intestine...
  12. Stephenson R, Yamanaka Y, Rossant J. Disorganized epithelial polarity and excess trophectoderm cell fate in preimplantation embryos lacking E-cadherin. Development. 2010;137:3383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A larger proportion of cells than normal showed expression of TE markers such as Cdx2, suggesting that formation of an organized epithelium is not necessary for TE-specific gene expression...
  13. Stringer E, Duluc I, Saandi T, Davidson I, Bialecka M, Sato T, et al. Cdx2 determines the fate of postnatal intestinal endoderm. Development. 2012;139:465-74 pubmed publisher
    Knock out of intestinal Cdx2 produces different effects depending upon the developmental stage at which this occurs. Early in development it produces histologically ordered stomach mucosa in the midgut...
  14. Rings E, Boudreau F, Taylor J, Moffett J, Suh E, Traber P. Phosphorylation of the serine 60 residue within the Cdx2 activation domain mediates its transactivation capacity. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:1437-50 pubmed
    b>Cdx2 is critical in intestinal proliferation and differentiation. Modulation of Cdx2 function in response to cellular signaling is to be elucidated...
  15. van Nes J, de Graaff W, Lebrin F, Gerhard M, Beck F, Deschamps J. The Cdx4 mutation affects axial development and reveals an essential role of Cdx genes in the ontogenesis of the placental labyrinth in mice. Development. 2006;133:419-28 pubmed
    ..A subtle contribution of Cdx4 to anteroposterior (AP) vertebral patterning was revealed in Cdx1/Cdx4 and Cdx2/Cdx4 compound mutants...
  16. Cockburn K, Biechele S, Garner J, Rossant J. The Hippo pathway member Nf2 is required for inner cell mass specification. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..of the embryo, Yap is nuclear localized and cooperates with Tead4 to induce the TE-specifying transcription factor Cdx2. In inside cells, Lats1/2 phosphorylate Yap and prevent its nuclear localization...
  17. Do D, Ueda J, Messerschmidt D, Lorthongpanich C, Zhou Y, Feng B, et al. A genetic and developmental pathway from STAT3 to the OCT4-NANOG circuit is essential for maintenance of ICM lineages in vivo. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a novel genetic model of cell fate determination operating through STAT3 in the preimplantation embryo and pluripotent stem cells in vivo. ..
  18. Keller M, Ezaki T, Guo R, Lynch J. Cdx1 or Cdx2 expression activates E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and compaction in human COLO 205 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G104-14 pubmed
    ..The Cdx homeodomain transcription factors (Cdx1 and Cdx2) regulate intestine-specific gene expression and intestinal epithelial differentiation...
  19. Schenke Layland K, Angelis E, Rhodes K, Heydarkhan Hagvall S, Mikkola H, MacLellan W. Collagen IV induces trophoectoderm differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2007;25:1529-38 pubmed
    ..was only seen in ES cell lines maintained on embryonic feeder layers and was caudal-type homeobox protein 2 (Cdx2)-dependent, consistent with Cdx2's postulated role in trophoectoderm commitment...
  20. Bernardo A, Faial T, Gardner L, Niakan K, Ortmann D, Senner C, et al. BRACHYURY and CDX2 mediate BMP-induced differentiation of human and mouse pluripotent stem cells into embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;9:144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These conditions induced cells with high levels of BRACHYURY (BRA) that coexpressed CDX2. BRA was necessary for and preceded CDX2 expression; both genes were essential for expression not only of ..
  21. Crissey M, Guo R, Funakoshi S, Kong J, Liu J, Lynch J. Cdx2 levels modulate intestinal epithelium maturity and Paneth cell development. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:517-528.e8 pubmed publisher
    Caudal-related homeobox protein 2 (Cdx2) is an intestine-specific transcription factor that is important for intestinal development and intestine-specific gene expression...
  22. Adachi K, Soeta Saneyoshi C, Sagara H, Iwakura Y. Crucial role of Bysl in mammalian preimplantation development as an integral factor for 40S ribosome biogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2202-14 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence for a crucial role of Bysl as an integral factor for ribosome biogenesis and suggest a critical dependence of blastocyst formation on active translation machinery. ..
  23. Gregorieff A, Grosschedl R, Clevers H. Hindgut defects and transformation of the gastro-intestinal tract in Tcf4(-/-)/Tcf1(-/-) embryos. EMBO J. 2004;23:1825-33 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a novel role for Wnt signalling in early gut morphogenesis and suggest that specific Wnt-driven patterning events are determined by the unique tissue distribution of Tcf/Lef family members. ..
  24. James R, Erler T, Kazenwadel J. Structure of the murine homeobox gene cdx-2. Expression in embryonic and adult intestinal epithelium. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:15229-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that cdx-2 is expressed specifically in gut epithelium where it is not restricted to a particular cell lineage. Rather, the rostrocaudal expression gradient suggests that it may play a role in specifying positional identity. ..
  25. Grainger S, Savory J, Lohnes D. Cdx2 regulates patterning of the intestinal epithelium. Dev Biol. 2010;339:155-65 pubmed publisher
    Cdx1, Cdx2 and Cdx4 encode homeodomain transcription factors that are involved in vertebral anterior-posterior (AP) patterning...
  26. Messerschmidt D, Kemler R. Nanog is required for primitive endoderm formation through a non-cell autonomous mechanism. Dev Biol. 2010;344:129-37 pubmed publisher
    Early lineage segregation in mouse development results in two, either CDX2- or OCT4/NANOG-positive, cell populations. CDX2-positive cells form the trophectoderm (TE), OCT4/NANOG-positive cells the inner cell mass (ICM)...
  27. Ng R, Dean W, Dawson C, Lucifero D, Madeja Z, Reik W, et al. Epigenetic restriction of embryonic cell lineage fate by methylation of Elf5. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Elf5 creates a positive-feedback loop with the TS cell determinants Cdx2 and Eomes that is restricted to the trophoblast lineage by epigenetic regulation of Elf5...
  28. Zhang J, Tomasini A, Mayer A. RBM19 is essential for preimplantation development in the mouse. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:115 pubmed publisher
    ..of the inner cell mass markers OCT3/4 and NANOG, but prior to the specification of trophectoderm as reflected by CDX2 expression...
  29. Home P, Ray S, Dutta D, Bronshteyn I, Larson M, Paul S. GATA3 is selectively expressed in the trophectoderm of peri-implantation embryo and directly regulates Cdx2 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that, knockdown of GATA3 by RNA interference (RNAi) down-regulates expression of caudal-type homeobox 2 (CDX2), a key regulator of the TE lineage...
  30. Beck F, Chawengsaksophak K, Luckett J, Giblett S, Tucci J, Brown J, et al. A study of regional gut endoderm potency by analysis of Cdx2 null mutant chimaeric mice. Dev Biol. 2003;255:399-406 pubmed
    Inactivation of Cdx2 by homologous recombination results in the development of forestomach epithelium at ectopic sites in pericaecal areas of the midgut of heterozygote mice...
  31. Savory J, Pilon N, Grainger S, Sylvestre J, Béland M, Houle M, et al. Cdx1 and Cdx2 are functionally equivalent in vertebral patterning. Dev Biol. 2009;330:114-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the lack of a Cdx2 null mutant makes these analyses incomplete...
  32. Chazaud C, Yamanaka Y, Pawson T, Rossant J. Early lineage segregation between epiblast and primitive endoderm in mouse blastocysts through the Grb2-MAPK pathway. Dev Cell. 2006;10:615-24 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which the ICM develops as a mosaic of EPI and PE progenitors at E3.5, dependent on Grb2-Ras-MAP kinase signaling, followed by later segregation of the progenitors into the appropriate cell layers...
  33. Nishiyama A, Xin L, Sharov A, Thomas M, Mowrer G, Meyers E, et al. Uncovering early response of gene regulatory networks in ESCs by systematic induction of transcription factors. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5:420-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 50 TFs, Cdx2 provoked the most extensive transcriptome perturbation in ESCs, followed by Esx1, Sox9, Tcf3, Klf4, and Gata3...
  34. Grainger S, Lam J, Savory J, Mears A, Rijli F, Lohnes D. Cdx regulates Dll1 in multiple lineages. Dev Biol. 2012;361:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine Cdx homologues Cdx1, Cdx2 and Cdx4 play important roles in anterior-posterior patterning of the embryonic axis and the intestine, as well as ..
  35. Tesar P. Derivation of germ-line-competent embryonic stem cell lines from preblastocyst mouse embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8239-44 pubmed
    ..This finding raises the interesting question of whether ES cell lines derived from embryos at different stages of preimplantation development possess the same potential. ..
  36. Suh E, Traber P. An intestine-specific homeobox gene regulates proliferation and differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:619-25 pubmed
    ..Here we show that an intestine-specific homeobox gene, Cdx2, is a transcription factor that regulates both proliferation and differentiation in intestinal epithelial cells...
  37. Chawengsaksophak K, James R, Hammond V, Kontgen F, Beck F. Homeosis and intestinal tumours in Cdx2 mutant mice. Nature. 1997;386:84-7 pubmed
    ..There are three mouse homologues of Drosophila caudal: Cdx1 (ref. 2), Cdx2 (ref. 3) and Cdx4 (ref. 4). We have generated a null mutation of murine Cdx2 by homologous recombination...
  38. Kakizaki F, Aoki K, Miyoshi H, Carrasco N, Aoki M, Taketo M. CDX transcription factors positively regulate expression of solute carrier family 5, member 8 in the colonic epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:627-35 pubmed publisher
    Caudal-related homeodomain transcription factors CDX1 and CDX2 regulate gut development and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells; they are candidate tumor suppressors of colorectal carcinomas...
  39. Lorentz O, Duluc I, Arcangelis A, Simon Assmann P, Kedinger M, Freund J. Key role of the Cdx2 homeobox gene in extracellular matrix-mediated intestinal cell differentiation. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:1553-65 pubmed
    ..the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco2-TC7 has been stably transfected with plasmids synthesizing Cdx1 and Cdx2 sense and antisense RNAs...
  40. Benahmed F, Gross I, Gaunt S, Beck F, Jehan F, Domon Dell C, et al. Multiple regulatory regions control the complex expression pattern of the mouse Cdx2 homeobox gene. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1238-1247, 1247.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    The Cdx2 homeobox gene exerts multiple functions including trophectoderm specification, antero-posterior patterning, and determination of intestinal identity...
  41. Verzi M, Shin H, Ho L, Liu X, Shivdasani R. Essential and redundant functions of caudal family proteins in activating adult intestinal genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2026-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We conditionally inactivated mouse Cdx2, a dominant regulator of intestinal development, and mapped its genome occupancy in adult intestinal villi...
  42. Silberg D, Sullivan J, Kang E, Swain G, Moffett J, Sund N, et al. Cdx2 ectopic expression induces gastric intestinal metaplasia in transgenic mice. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:689-96 pubmed
    ..b>Cdx2, a transcription factor whose expression is normally limited to the intestine, has been detected in gastric ..
  43. Beck F, Erler T, Russell A, James R. Expression of Cdx-2 in the mouse embryo and placenta: possible role in patterning of the extra-embryonic membranes. Dev Dyn. 1995;204:219-27 pubmed
  44. Ralston A, Cox B, Nishioka N, Sasaki H, Chea E, Rugg Gunn P, et al. Gata3 regulates trophoblast development downstream of Tead4 and in parallel to Cdx2. Development. 2010;137:395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Cdx2 plays a central role by repressing pluripotency genes, such as Oct4, and promoting extraembryonic trophoblast fate ..
  45. Mutoh H, Hakamata Y, Sato K, Eda A, Yanaka I, Honda S, et al. Conversion of gastric mucosa to intestinal metaplasia in Cdx2-expressing transgenic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;294:470-9 pubmed
    ..To clarify how an intestine-specific homeobox gene, Cdx2, affects the morphogenesis of gastric mucosa, we generated transgenic mice expressing Cdx2 in parietal cells...
  46. Frum T, Halbisen M, Wang C, Amiri H, Robson P, Ralston A. Oct4 cell-autonomously promotes primitive endoderm development in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2013;25:610-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Oct4 is required for the expression of multiple EPI and PE genes as well as multiple metabolic pathways essential for the continued growth of the preimplantation embryo. ..
  47. Schrode N, Saiz N, Di Talia S, Hadjantonakis A. GATA6 levels modulate primitive endoderm cell fate choice and timing in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2014;29:454-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a framework for quantitative analyses of mammalian embryos and establishes GATA6 as a nodal point in the gene regulatory network driving ICM lineage specification. ..
  48. Savory J, Bouchard N, Pierre V, Rijli F, De Repentigny Y, Kothary R, et al. Cdx2 regulation of posterior development through non-Hox targets. Development. 2009;136:4099-110 pubmed publisher
    The homeodomain transcription factors Cdx1, Cdx2 and Cdx4 play essential roles in anteroposterior vertebral patterning through regulation of Hox gene expression. Cdx2 is also expressed in the trophectoderm commencing at E3...
  49. Jedrusik A, Bruce A, Tan M, Leong D, Skamagki M, Yao M, et al. Maternally and zygotically provided Cdx2 have novel and critical roles for early development of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2010;344:66-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Elimination of zygotic expression of trophectoderm-specific transcription factor Cdx2 leads to defects in the maintenance of the blastocyst cavity, suggesting that it participates only in the late ..
  50. Suh E, Chen L, Taylor J, Traber P. A homeodomain protein related to caudal regulates intestine-specific gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:7340-51 pubmed
  51. Lorthongpanich C, Messerschmidt D, Chan S, Hong W, Knowles B, Solter D. Temporal reduction of LATS kinases in the early preimplantation embryo prevents ICM lineage differentiation. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that precisely timed YAP localization in early morulae is essential to prevent trophectoderm marker expression in, and lineage specification of, the ICM. ..
  52. Young T, Rowland J, van de Ven C, Bialecka M, Novoa A, Carapuco M, et al. Cdx and Hox genes differentially regulate posterior axial growth in mammalian embryos. Dev Cell. 2009;17:516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitant regulation of Cyp26a1 expression, restraining retinoic acid signaling away from the posterior growth zone, may likewise play a role in timing the trunk-tail transition. ..
  53. Nishioka N, Inoue K, Adachi K, Kiyonari H, Ota M, Ralston A, et al. The Hippo signaling pathway components Lats and Yap pattern Tead4 activity to distinguish mouse trophectoderm from inner cell mass. Dev Cell. 2009;16:398-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that transcriptionally active Tead4 can induce Cdx2 and other trophoblast genes in parallel in embryonic stem cells...
  54. Krawchuk D, Honma Yamanaka N, Anani S, Yamanaka Y. FGF4 is a limiting factor controlling the proportions of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the ICM of the mouse blastocyst. Dev Biol. 2013;384:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the amount of FGF4 is limited and regulates PE/EPI proportions in the mouse embryo...
  55. van den Akker E, Forlani S, Chawengsaksophak K, de Graaff W, Beck F, Meyer B, et al. Cdx1 and Cdx2 have overlapping functions in anteroposterior patterning and posterior axis elongation. Development. 2002;129:2181-93 pubmed
    ..Two of the three mouse Cdx paralogues, Cdx 1 and Cdx2, are expressed early in a Hox-like manner in the three germ layers...
  56. Plusa B, Piliszek A, Frankenberg S, Artus J, Hadjantonakis A. Distinct sequential cell behaviours direct primitive endoderm formation in the mouse blastocyst. Development. 2008;135:3081-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, a gradual progression towards a mutually exclusive expression of PrE- and EPI-specific markers occurs. Finally, cell sorting is achieved by a variety of cell behaviours and by selective apoptosis. ..
  57. Gaunt S, Drage D, Trubshaw R. Increased Cdx protein dose effects upon axial patterning in transgenic lines of mice. Development. 2008;135:2511-20 pubmed publisher
    ..axial patterning in embryos, we made lines of mice OE1, OE2 and OE4 that overexpress each of the Cdx genes Cdx1, Cdx2 and Cdx4, respectively...
  58. James R, Kazenwadel J. Homeobox gene expression in the intestinal epithelium of adult mice. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:3246-51 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that homeobox gene expression may play an important role in cellular differentiation in the adult intestine. ..
  59. Yagi R, Kohn M, Karavanova I, Kaneko K, Vullhorst D, DePamphilis M, et al. Transcription factor TEAD4 specifies the trophectoderm lineage at the beginning of mammalian development. Development. 2007;134:3827-36 pubmed
    ..Tead4(-/-) embryos do not express trophectoderm-specific genes, such as Cdx2, but do express ICM-specific genes, such as Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1)...
  60. Niwa H, Toyooka Y, Shimosato D, Strumpf D, Takahashi K, Yagi R, et al. Interaction between Oct3/4 and Cdx2 determines trophectoderm differentiation. Cell. 2005;123:917-29 pubmed
    ..We show here that this event can be mimicked by overexpression of Caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2), which is sufficient to generate proper trophoblast stem (TS) cells...
  61. Savory J, Mansfield M, Rijli F, Lohnes D. Cdx mediates neural tube closure through transcriptional regulation of the planar cell polarity gene Ptk7. Development. 2011;138:1361-70 pubmed publisher
    The vertebrate Cdx genes (Cdx1, Cdx2 and Cdx4) encode homeodomain transcription factors with well-established roles in anteroposterior patterning...
  62. Strumpf D, Mao C, Yamanaka Y, Ralston A, Chawengsaksophak K, Beck F, et al. Cdx2 is required for correct cell fate specification and differentiation of trophectoderm in the mouse blastocyst. Development. 2005;132:2093-102 pubmed
    ..The T-box protein eomesodermin (Eomes) and the caudal-type homeodomain protein Cdx2 are expressed in the TE, and both Eomes and Cdx2 homozygous mutant embryos die around the time of implantation...
  63. Wu G, Han D, Gong Y, Sebastiano V, Gentile L, Singhal N, et al. Establishment of totipotency does not depend on Oct4A. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1089-97 pubmed publisher
  64. Suwinska A, Czołowska R, Ożdżeński W, Tarkowski A. Blastomeres of the mouse embryo lose totipotency after the fifth cleavage division: expression of Cdx2 and Oct4 and developmental potential of inner and outer blastomeres of 16- and 32-cell embryos. Dev Biol. 2008;322:133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In 24 h old blastocysts developed from blastomeres derived from 16-cell embryos the expression of Cdx2 protein was upregulated in outer cells (new trophectoderm) of the inner cells-derived aggregates and downregulated ..
  65. Kong J, Crissey M, Funakoshi S, Kreindler J, Lynch J. Ectopic Cdx2 expression in murine esophagus models an intermediate stage in the emergence of Barrett's esophagus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18280 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic mice were derived in which the transcription factor Cdx2 is expressed in squamous epithelium using the murine Keratin-14 gene promoter...
  66. Donnison M, Beaton A, Davey H, Broadhurst R, L Huillier P, Pfeffer P. Loss of the extraembryonic ectoderm in Elf5 mutants leads to defects in embryonic patterning. Development. 2005;132:2299-308 pubmed
    ..Embryos without ExE tissue are able to form the anterior visceral endoderm but fail to undergo gastrulation, demonstrating an essential role for the ExE in embryonic patterning during a defined window of development. ..
  67. Bonhomme C, Duluc I, Martin E, Chawengsaksophak K, Chenard M, Kedinger M, et al. The Cdx2 homeobox gene has a tumour suppressor function in the distal colon in addition to a homeotic role during gut development. Gut. 2003;52:1465-71 pubmed
    During development, the homeobox gene Cdx2 exerts a homeotic function, providing the positional information necessary for correct specification of the midgut endoderm...
  68. Nishioka N, Yamamoto S, Kiyonari H, Sato H, Sawada A, Ota M, et al. Tead4 is required for specification of trophectoderm in pre-implantation mouse embryos. Mech Dev. 2008;125:270-83 pubmed
    ..Differentiation of TE is regulated by the transcription factor Caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2), but the mechanisms which act upstream of Cdx2 expression remain unknown...