Cd44

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cd44
Description: CD44 antigen
Alias: AU023126, AW121933, AW146109, HERMES, Ly-24, Pgp-1, CD44 antigen, ECMR-III, GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor, HUTCH-I, PGP-I, extracellular matrix receptor III, hermes antigen, hyaluronate receptor, lymphocyte antigen 24, phagocytic glycoprotein 1, phagocytic glycoprotein I
Species: mouse
Products:     Cd44

Top Publications

  1. Nedvetzki S, Gonen E, Assayag N, Reich R, Williams R, Thurmond R, et al. RHAMM, a receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, compensates for CD44 in inflamed CD44-knockout mice: a different interpretation of redundancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:18081-6 pubmed
    We report here that joint inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis is more aggravated in CD44-knockout mice than in WT mice, and we provide evidence for molecular redundancy as a causal factor...
  2. Krause D, Lazarides K, von Andrian U, Van Etten R. Requirement for CD44 in homing and engraftment of BCR-ABL-expressing leukemic stem cells. Nat Med. 2006;12:1175-80 pubmed
    ..Here we show that CD44 expression is increased on mouse stem-progenitor cells expressing BCR-ABL and that CD44 contributes functional E-..
  3. Jiang D, Liang J, Fan J, Yu S, Chen S, Luo Y, et al. Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan. Nat Med. 2005;11:1173-9 pubmed
    ..Hyaluronan-TLR2 and hyaluronan-TLR4 interactions provide signals that initiate inflammatory responses, maintain epithelial cell integrity and promote recovery from acute lung injury. ..
  4. Chellaiah M, Biswas R, Rittling S, Denhardt D, Hruska K. Rho-dependent Rho kinase activation increases CD44 surface expression and bone resorption in osteoclasts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:29086-97 pubmed
    Osteoclasts from osteopontin-deficient mice exhibit decreased CD44 surface expression [corrected]. Osteopontin (OPN)/alphavbeta3 generated Rho signaling pathway is required for the surface expression of CD44...
  5. Lefebvre D, Lai J, Maeshima N, Ford J, Wong A, Cross J, et al. CD44 interacts directly with Lck in a zinc-dependent manner. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1882-9 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule with functional similarities to the selectin and integrin adhesion molecules. CD44 has a lectin domain that binds hyaluronan, a component of the extracellular matrix...
  6. Rouschop K, Sylva M, Teske G, Hoedemaeker I, Pals S, Weening J, et al. Urothelial CD44 facilitates Escherichia coli infection of the murine urinary tract. J Immunol. 2006;177:7225-32 pubmed
    ..We report that CD44, a hyaluronic acid (HA) binding protein that mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, facilitates the ..
  7. Teder P, Vandivier R, Jiang D, Liang J, Cohn L, Pure E, et al. Resolution of lung inflammation by CD44. Science. 2002;296:155-8 pubmed
    ..We have examined whether the cell-surface adhesion molecule and hyaluronan receptor CD44 plays a role in resolving lung inflammation...
  8. Matzke A, Sargsyan V, Holtmann B, Aramuni G, Asan E, Sendtner M, et al. Haploinsufficiency of c-Met in cd44-/- mice identifies a collaboration of CD44 and c-Met in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8797-806 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that c-Met (and hepatocyte growth factor and Gab1) is haploinsufficient in a cd44-/- background, as the cd44-/-; met+/- (and cd44-/-; hgf+/- and cd44-/-; gab1+/-) mice die at birth...
  9. Yu Q, Stamenkovic I. Localization of matrix metalloproteinase 9 to the cell surface provides a mechanism for CD44-mediated tumor invasion. Genes Dev. 1999;13:35-48 pubmed
    The cell surface hyaluronan receptor CD44 promotes tumor growth and metastasis by mechanisms that remain poorly understood...
  10. Lakshman M, Subramaniam V, Wong S, Jothy S. CD44 promotes resistance to apoptosis in murine colonic epithelium. J Cell Physiol. 2005;203:583-8 pubmed
    Dysregulated expression of CD44 isoforms occurs consistently in colon carcinogenesis, and this change occurs also in most other types of cancer...

Detail Information

Publications70

  1. Nedvetzki S, Gonen E, Assayag N, Reich R, Williams R, Thurmond R, et al. RHAMM, a receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, compensates for CD44 in inflamed CD44-knockout mice: a different interpretation of redundancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:18081-6 pubmed
    We report here that joint inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis is more aggravated in CD44-knockout mice than in WT mice, and we provide evidence for molecular redundancy as a causal factor...
  2. Krause D, Lazarides K, von Andrian U, Van Etten R. Requirement for CD44 in homing and engraftment of BCR-ABL-expressing leukemic stem cells. Nat Med. 2006;12:1175-80 pubmed
    ..Here we show that CD44 expression is increased on mouse stem-progenitor cells expressing BCR-ABL and that CD44 contributes functional E-..
  3. Jiang D, Liang J, Fan J, Yu S, Chen S, Luo Y, et al. Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan. Nat Med. 2005;11:1173-9 pubmed
    ..Hyaluronan-TLR2 and hyaluronan-TLR4 interactions provide signals that initiate inflammatory responses, maintain epithelial cell integrity and promote recovery from acute lung injury. ..
  4. Chellaiah M, Biswas R, Rittling S, Denhardt D, Hruska K. Rho-dependent Rho kinase activation increases CD44 surface expression and bone resorption in osteoclasts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:29086-97 pubmed
    Osteoclasts from osteopontin-deficient mice exhibit decreased CD44 surface expression [corrected]. Osteopontin (OPN)/alphavbeta3 generated Rho signaling pathway is required for the surface expression of CD44...
  5. Lefebvre D, Lai J, Maeshima N, Ford J, Wong A, Cross J, et al. CD44 interacts directly with Lck in a zinc-dependent manner. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1882-9 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule with functional similarities to the selectin and integrin adhesion molecules. CD44 has a lectin domain that binds hyaluronan, a component of the extracellular matrix...
  6. Rouschop K, Sylva M, Teske G, Hoedemaeker I, Pals S, Weening J, et al. Urothelial CD44 facilitates Escherichia coli infection of the murine urinary tract. J Immunol. 2006;177:7225-32 pubmed
    ..We report that CD44, a hyaluronic acid (HA) binding protein that mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, facilitates the ..
  7. Teder P, Vandivier R, Jiang D, Liang J, Cohn L, Pure E, et al. Resolution of lung inflammation by CD44. Science. 2002;296:155-8 pubmed
    ..We have examined whether the cell-surface adhesion molecule and hyaluronan receptor CD44 plays a role in resolving lung inflammation...
  8. Matzke A, Sargsyan V, Holtmann B, Aramuni G, Asan E, Sendtner M, et al. Haploinsufficiency of c-Met in cd44-/- mice identifies a collaboration of CD44 and c-Met in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8797-806 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that c-Met (and hepatocyte growth factor and Gab1) is haploinsufficient in a cd44-/- background, as the cd44-/-; met+/- (and cd44-/-; hgf+/- and cd44-/-; gab1+/-) mice die at birth...
  9. Yu Q, Stamenkovic I. Localization of matrix metalloproteinase 9 to the cell surface provides a mechanism for CD44-mediated tumor invasion. Genes Dev. 1999;13:35-48 pubmed
    The cell surface hyaluronan receptor CD44 promotes tumor growth and metastasis by mechanisms that remain poorly understood...
  10. Lakshman M, Subramaniam V, Wong S, Jothy S. CD44 promotes resistance to apoptosis in murine colonic epithelium. J Cell Physiol. 2005;203:583-8 pubmed
    Dysregulated expression of CD44 isoforms occurs consistently in colon carcinogenesis, and this change occurs also in most other types of cancer...
  11. Mendiratta S, Martin W, Hong S, Boesteanu A, Joyce S, van Kaer L. CD1d1 mutant mice are deficient in natural T cells that promptly produce IL-4. Immunity. 1997;6:469-77 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for CD1 in the positive selection and function of NT cells. ..
  12. Maatouk D, Choi K, Bouldin C, Harfe B. In the limb AER Bmp2 and Bmp4 are required for dorsal-ventral patterning and interdigital cell death but not limb outgrowth. Dev Biol. 2009;327:516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggests that AER expression of Bmp2 and Bmp4 is required for digit and dorsal-ventral patterning but surprisingly not for limb outgrowth...
  13. McDonald B, McAvoy E, Lam F, Gill V, de la Motte C, Savani R, et al. Interaction of CD44 and hyaluronan is the dominant mechanism for neutrophil sequestration in inflamed liver sinusoids. J Exp Med. 2008;205:915-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking CD44-HA interactions reduced neutrophil adhesion in the sinusoids of endotoxemic mice, with no effect on rolling or ..
  14. Vachon E, Martin R, Kwok V, Cherepanov V, Chow C, Doerschuk C, et al. CD44-mediated phagocytosis induces inside-out activation of complement receptor-3 in murine macrophages. Blood. 2007;110:4492-502 pubmed
    ..b>CD44, a transmembrane adhesion molecule involved in binding and metabolism of hyaluronan, may have additional functions ..
  15. Mine S, Fujisaki T, Kawahara C, Tabata T, Iida T, Yasuda M, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor enhances adhesion of breast cancer cells to endothelial cells in vitro through up-regulation of CD44. Exp Cell Res. 2003;288:189-97 pubmed
    ..showed the following features of breast cancer cells: (1) HGF stimulated breast cancer cells by up-regulating CD44 expression in a concentration-dependent manner...
  16. Zhuo L, Kanamori A, Kannagi R, Itano N, Wu J, Hamaguchi M, et al. SHAP potentiates the CD44-mediated leukocyte adhesion to the hyaluronan substratum. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20303-14 pubmed
    b>CD44-hyaluronan (HA) interaction is involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes. Regulation of interacting avidity is well studied on CD44 but rarely on HA...
  17. Muto J, Yamasaki K, Taylor K, Gallo R. Engagement of CD44 by hyaluronan suppresses TLR4 signaling and the septic response to LPS. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:449-56 pubmed publisher
    Fragments of hyaluronan released after injury bind and activate TLR4 in a complex with CD44. Here we investigated if the recognition of hyaluronan by CD44 and TLR4 alters lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness and thus could alter the ..
  18. Kang H, Liao G, Degraff L, Gerrish K, Bortner C, Garantziotis S, et al. CD44 plays a critical role in regulating diet-induced adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58417 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is a multifunctional membrane receptor implicated in the regulation of several biological processes, including inflammation...
  19. Kawana H, Karaki H, Higashi M, Miyazaki M, Hilberg F, Kitagawa M, et al. CD44 suppresses TLR-mediated inflammation. J Immunol. 2008;180:4235-45 pubmed
    The cell adhesion molecule CD44, which is the major hyaluronan receptor, has been implicated in the binding, endocytosis, and metabolism of hyaluronan...
  20. Guo X, Day T, Jiang X, Garrett Beal L, Topol L, Yang Y. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is sufficient and necessary for synovial joint formation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2404-17 pubmed
    ..Wnt4, Wnt14, and Wnt16 may play redundant roles in synovial joint induction by signaling through the beta-catenin-mediated canonical Wnt pathway. ..
  21. Stoop R, Gal I, Glant T, McNeish J, Mikecz K. Trafficking of CD44-deficient murine lymphocytes under normal and inflammatory conditions. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2532-42 pubmed
    b>CD44 has been implicated in hyaluronan (HA)-dependent primary adhesion between leukocytes and endothelium...
  22. Willerford D, Chen J, Ferry J, Davidson L, Ma A, Alt F. Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment. Immunity. 1995;3:521-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-2R alpha is essential for regulation of both the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment, probably by influencing the balance between clonal expansion and cell death following lymphocyte activation. ..
  23. Acharya P, Majumdar S, Jacob M, Hayden J, Mrass P, Weninger W, et al. Fibroblast migration is mediated by CD44-dependent TGF beta activation. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1393-402 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 contributes to inflammation and fibrosis in response to injury. As fibroblast recruitment is critical to wound healing, we compared cytoskeletal architecture and migration of wild-type (CD44WT) and CD44-deficient (CD44KO) fibroblasts...
  24. Calikoglu E, Sorg O, Tran C, Grand D, Carraux P, Saurat J, et al. UVA and UVB decrease the expression of CD44 and hyaluronate in mouse epidermis, which is counteracted by topical retinoids. Photochem Photobiol. 2006;82:1342-7 pubmed
    The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is currently thought to be the main cell surface receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronate...
  25. Zhu B, Suzuki K, Goldberg H, Rittling S, Denhardt D, McCulloch C, et al. Osteopontin modulates CD44-dependent chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages through G-protein-coupled receptors: evidence of a role for an intracellular form of osteopontin. J Cell Physiol. 2004;198:155-67 pubmed
    ..Acting through integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and CD44 receptors, OPN can promote chemoattraction and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages...
  26. Shi X, Leng L, Wang T, Wang W, Du X, Li J, et al. CD44 is the signaling component of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor-CD74 receptor complex. Immunity. 2006;25:595-606 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that signaling requires an additional molecule such as CD44, which activates nonreceptor tyrosine kinases...
  27. Marhaba R, Bourouba M, Zoller M. CD44v6 promotes proliferation by persisting activation of MAP kinases. Cell Signal. 2005;17:961-73 pubmed
    ..The underlying mechanism is unknown. The mouse thymoma EL4 was transfected with CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) or CD44v6 cDNA (EL4-s, EL4-v6)...
  28. Liu Y, Han S, Wu Y, Tuohy T, Xue H, Cai J, et al. CD44 expression identifies astrocyte-restricted precursor cells. Dev Biol. 2004;276:31-46 pubmed
    ..We show that CD44 identifies an astrocyte-restricted precursor cell (ARP) that is committed to generating astrocytes in vitro and in ..
  29. Taylor K, Yamasaki K, Radek K, Di Nardo A, Goodarzi H, Golenbock D, et al. Recognition of hyaluronan released in sterile injury involves a unique receptor complex dependent on Toll-like receptor 4, CD44, and MD-2. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18265-75 pubmed
    ..Explanation for the unique response to hyaluronan was provided by observations that a lack of TLR4 or CD44 in mice diminished the response to sterile injury, and together with MD-2, was required for responsiveness to ..
  30. Maltzman J, Carman J, Monroe J. Role of EGR1 in regulation of stimulus-dependent CD44 transcription in B lymphocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2283-94 pubmed
    ..Here we identify the gene encoding the lymphocyte homing and migration protein CD44 as a target of EGR1 regulation in B cells...
  31. Cuff C, Kothapalli D, Azonobi I, Chun S, Zhang Y, Belkin R, et al. The adhesion receptor CD44 promotes atherosclerosis by mediating inflammatory cell recruitment and vascular cell activation. J Clin Invest. 2001;108:1031-40 pubmed
    ..b>CD44 is an adhesion protein expressed on inflammatory and vascular cells...
  32. Katoh S, McCarthy J, Kincade P. Characterization of soluble CD44 in the circulation of mice. Levels are affected by immune activity and tumor growth. J Immunol. 1994;153:3440-9 pubmed
    ELISA determinations revealed substantial concentrations (0.49 to 2.10 micrograms/ml) of soluble CD44 in murine serum, with some variation among normal mouse strains...
  33. Schmits R, Filmus J, Gerwin N, Senaldi G, Kiefer F, Kundig T, et al. CD44 regulates hematopoietic progenitor distribution, granuloma formation, and tumorigenicity. Blood. 1997;90:2217-33 pubmed
    b>CD44 is expressed in various isoforms on numerous cell types and tissues during embryogenesis and in the mature organism. CD44 may also be involved in tumor growth...
  34. Krebs L, Shutter J, Tanigaki K, Honjo T, Stark K, Gridley T. Haploinsufficient lethality and formation of arteriovenous malformations in Notch pathway mutants. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2469-73 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that vascular remodeling in the mouse embryo is sensitive to Dll4 gene dosage and that Notch activation in endothelial cells is essential for embryonic vascular remodeling. ..
  35. van der Windt G, Florquin S, de Vos A, Van T Veer C, Queiroz K, Liang J, et al. CD44 deficiency is associated with increased bacterial clearance but enhanced lung inflammation during Gram-negative pneumonia. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2483-94 pubmed publisher
    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequently isolated causative pathogen in respiratory tract infections. CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule that has been implicated in several immunological processes...
  36. Sherman L, Wainwright D, Ponta H, Herrlich P. A splice variant of CD44 expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge presents fibroblast growth factors to limb mesenchyme and is required for limb outgrowth. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1058-71 pubmed
    ..We report here that a specific CD44 splice variant is crucial for the proliferation of these mesenchymal cells...
  37. Khan A, Kerfoot S, Heit B, Liu L, Andonegui G, Ruffell B, et al. Role of CD44 and hyaluronan in neutrophil recruitment. J Immunol. 2004;173:7594-601 pubmed
    Lymphocyte CD44 interactions with hyaluronan localized on the endothelium have been demonstrated to mediate rolling and regulate lymphocyte entry into sites of chronic inflammation...
  38. Yu W, Woessner J, McNeish J, Stamenkovic I. CD44 anchors the assembly of matrilysin/MMP-7 with heparin-binding epidermal growth factor precursor and ErbB4 and regulates female reproductive organ remodeling. Genes Dev. 2002;16:307-23 pubmed
    b>CD44 is a facultative proteoglycan implicated in cell adhesion and trafficking, as well as in tumor survival and progression...
  39. Khaldoyanidi S, Karakhanova S, Sleeman J, Herrlich P, Ponta H. CD44 variant-specific antibodies trigger hemopoiesis by selective release of cytokines from bone marrow macrophages. Blood. 2002;99:3955-61 pubmed
    ..Using long-term bone marrow cultures, we show here that monoclonal antibodies directed against the CD44 v4 and CD44 v6 epitopes stimulate myelopoiesis (CD44 v4 and CD44 v6) and lymphopoiesis (CD44 v6)...
  40. Zarbock A, Lowell C, Ley K. Spleen tyrosine kinase Syk is necessary for E-selectin-induced alpha(L)beta(2) integrin-mediated rolling on intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Immunity. 2007;26:773-83 pubmed
    ..This identifies a second neutrophil-activation pathway that is as important as activation through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). ..
  41. Yonemura S, Hirao M, Doi Y, Takahashi N, Kondo T, Tsukita S. Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins bind to a positively charged amino acid cluster in the juxta-membrane cytoplasmic domain of CD44, CD43, and ICAM-2. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:885-95 pubmed
    b>CD44 has been identified as a membrane-binding partner for ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, plasma membrane/actin filament cross-linkers...
  42. Olaku V, Matzke A, Mitchell C, Hasenauer S, Sakkaravarthi A, Pace G, et al. c-Met recruits ICAM-1 as a coreceptor to compensate for the loss of CD44 in Cd44 null mice. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2777-86 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 isoforms act as coreceptors for the receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and VEGFR-2. However, Cd44 knockout mice do not show overt phenotypes, in contrast to Met and Vegfr-2 knockout mice...
  43. Rouschop K, Roelofs J, Claessen N, da Costa Martins P, Zwaginga J, Pals S, et al. Protection against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by CD44 disruption. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2034-43 pubmed
    ..The inflammatory infiltrate mainly consists of neutrophils, which are deleterious for the renal tissue. Because CD44 is expressed by neutrophils and is rapidly upregulated by capillary endothelial cells after I/R injury, it was ..
  44. Jin L, Hope K, Zhai Q, Smadja Joffe F, Dick J. Targeting of CD44 eradicates human acute myeloid leukemic stem cells. Nat Med. 2006;12:1167-74 pubmed
    ..We report a therapeutic approach using an activating monoclonal antibody directed to the adhesion molecule CD44. In vivo administration of this antibody to nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune-deficient mice transplanted ..
  45. He Q, Lesley J, Hyman R, Ishihara K, Kincade P. Molecular isoforms of murine CD44 and evidence that the membrane proximal domain is not critical for hyaluronate recognition. J Cell Biol. 1992;119:1711-9 pubmed
    We previously found that the CD44 glycoprotein on some lymphocytes can mediate adhesion to hyaluronate (HA) bearing cells...
  46. Hollingsworth J, Li Z, Brass D, Garantziotis S, Timberlake S, Kim A, et al. CD44 regulates macrophage recruitment to the lung in lipopolysaccharide-induced airway disease. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;37:248-53 pubmed
    ..In these regions, 28 genes had altered RNA expression after inhalation of LPS, including CD44, which was associated with differences in both TNF-alpha levels and neutrophil recruitment into the lung...
  47. Cao G, Savani R, Fehrenbach M, Lyons C, Zhang L, Coukos G, et al. Involvement of endothelial CD44 during in vivo angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:325-36 pubmed
    b>CD44, a cell-surface receptor for hyaluronan, has been implicated in endothelial cell functions, but its role in the formation of blood vessels in vivo has not been established...
  48. Kaya G, Rodriguez I, Jorcano J, Vassalli P, Stamenkovic I. Selective suppression of CD44 in keratinocytes of mice bearing an antisense CD44 transgene driven by a tissue-specific promoter disrupts hyaluronate metabolism in the skin and impairs keratinocyte proliferation. Genes Dev. 1997;11:996-1007 pubmed
    b>CD44 is a broadly distributed polymorphic glycoprotein that serves as the principal cell-surface receptor for hyaluronate...
  49. Xu H, Manivannan A, Liversidge J, Sharp P, Forrester J, Crane I. Involvement of CD44 in leukocyte trafficking at the blood-retinal barrier. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:1133-41 pubmed
    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of CD44 in leukocyte trafficking in vivo at the blood-retinal barrier using experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) as a model system...
  50. Yu Q, Toole B. A new alternatively spliced exon between v9 and v10 provides a molecular basis for synthesis of soluble CD44. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:20603-7 pubmed
    The numerous isoforms of murine CD44 contain a common peptide region that is encoded by exons 1-5, 16-18, and 20 and variant regions derived from exons 6-15, usually referred to as v1-v10...
  51. Wang C, Entwistle J, Hou G, Li Q, Turley E. The characterization of a human RHAMM cDNA: conservation of the hyaluronan-binding domains. Gene. 1996;174:299-306 pubmed
    ..The overall homology between the overlapping region of human and mouse RHAMM v4 cDNA clone is 85%, but the HA binding motif (B[X7]B), shown to be critical for the signaling capability of this receptor, is 100% conserved. ..
  52. Li Y, Jiang D, Liang J, Meltzer E, Gray A, Miura R, et al. Severe lung fibrosis requires an invasive fibroblast phenotype regulated by hyaluronan and CD44. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the invasive phenotype and the progressive fibrosis were inhibited in the absence of CD44. Treatment with a blocking antibody to CD44 reduced lung fibrosis in mice in vivo...
  53. Hidalgo A, Peired A, Wild M, Vestweber D, Frenette P. Complete identification of E-selectin ligands on neutrophils reveals distinct functions of PSGL-1, ESL-1, and CD44. Immunity. 2007;26:477-489 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1), P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), and CD44 encompassed all endothelial-selectin ligand activity on neutrophils by using gene- and RNA-targeted loss of ..
  54. Kaya G, Tran C, Sorg O, Hotz R, Grand D, Carraux P, et al. Hyaluronate fragments reverse skin atrophy by a CD44-dependent mechanism. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e493 pubmed
    ..Atrophic skin displays a decreased hyaluronate (HA) content and expression of the major cell-surface hyaluronate receptor, CD44...
  55. van der Windt G, Van T Veer C, Florquin S, van der Poll T. CD44 deficiency is associated with enhanced Escherichia coli-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release by peritoneal macrophages. Infect Immun. 2010;78:115-24 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is involved in several immune responses, such as cellular adhesion, migration, proliferation, and activation. Peritonitis is an important cause of sepsis, and Escherichia coli is one of the major pathogens involved therein...
  56. Protin U, Schweighoffer T, Jochum W, Hilberg F. CD44-deficient mice develop normally with changes in subpopulations and recirculation of lymphocyte subsets. J Immunol. 1999;163:4917-23 pubmed
    ..The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44, which is expressed in numerous splice variants on the surface of many different cell types and tissues, has been ..
  57. Chen D, McKallip R, Zeytun A, Do Y, Lombard C, Robertson J, et al. CD44-deficient mice exhibit enhanced hepatitis after concanavalin A injection: evidence for involvement of CD44 in activation-induced cell death. J Immunol. 2001;166:5889-97 pubmed
    ..In the current study, we investigated the role of CD44 in Con A-induced hepatitis...
  58. Stoop R, Kotani H, McNeish J, Otterness I, Mikecz K. Increased resistance to collagen-induced arthritis in CD44-deficient DBA/1 mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:2922-31 pubmed
    To study the role of CD44, the principal hyaluronan (HA) receptor, in experimental arthritis. We generated CD44 gene deficiency in arthritis-susceptible DBA/1LacJ mice to study the role of CD44 directly in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)...
  59. Cao J, Singleton P, Majumdar S, Boudignon B, Burghardt A, Kurimoto P, et al. Hyaluronan increases RANKL expression in bone marrow stromal cells through CD44. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:30-40 pubmed
    HA activates CD44 to stimulate RANKL expression in bone marrow stromal cells. HA stimulation of RANKL is blocked by anti-CD44 antibody and is absent in cells from CD44(-/-) mice...
  60. Mbitikon Kobo F, Vocanson M, Michallet M, Tomkowiak M, Cottalorda A, Angelov G, et al. Characterization of a CD44/CD122int memory CD8 T cell subset generated under sterile inflammatory conditions. J Immunol. 2009;182:3846-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The corresponding memory CD8 T cells can be identified by their intermediate expression levels of CD44 and CD122...
  61. Kimura K, Nagaki M, Saio M, Moriwaki H, Kakimi K. Role of CD44 in CTL-induced acute liver injury in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role of CD44 in these interactions using the hepatitis model...
  62. Wheatley S, Isacke C, Crossley P. Restricted expression of the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, during postimplantation mouse embryogenesis suggests key roles in tissue formation and patterning. Development. 1993;119:295-306 pubmed
    b>CD44 is a multifunctional adhesion protein that acts as a major receptor for the hygroscopic extracellular matrix component, hyaluronan...
  63. Pusch A, Boeckenhoff A, Glaser T, Kaminski T, Kirfel G, Hans M, et al. CD44 and hyaluronan promote invasive growth of B35 neuroblastoma cells into the brain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:261-74 pubmed publisher
    Hyaluronan and its receptor CD44 are known to contribute to the invasive growth of different tumors of the central nervous system. It is not known, however, if CD44 is sufficient to activate invasive growth into the brain tissue...
  64. Brown R, Reinke L, Damerow M, Perez D, Chodosh L, Yang J, et al. CD44 splice isoform switching in human and mouse epithelium is essential for epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer progression. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1064-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a switch in CD44 alternative splicing is required for EMT...
  65. Wang Q, Teder P, Judd N, Noble P, Doerschuk C. CD44 deficiency leads to enhanced neutrophil migration and lung injury in Escherichia coli pneumonia in mice. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:2219-28 pubmed
    b>CD44 is a major cell-surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA), a glycosaminoglycan component of extracellular matrix. HA-CD44 interactions have been implicated in leukocyte extravasation into an inflammatory site...
  66. Yu Q, Toole B, Stamenkovic I. Induction of apoptosis of metastatic mammary carcinoma cells in vivo by disruption of tumor cell surface CD44 function. J Exp Med. 1997;186:1985-96 pubmed
    To understand how the hyaluronan receptor CD44 regulates tumor metastasis, the murine mammary carcinoma TA3/St, which constitutively expresses cell surface CD44, was transfected with cDNAs encoding soluble isoforms of CD44 and the ..