Gene Symbol: Cd274
Description: CD274 antigen
Alias: A530045L16Rik, B7h1, Pdcd1l1, Pdcd1lg1, Pdl1, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, B7 homolog 1, PDCD1 ligand 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Cd274

Top Publications

  1. Zhu B, Guleria I, Khosroshahi A, Chitnis T, Imitola J, Azuma M, et al. Differential role of programmed death-ligand 1 [corrected] and programmed death-ligand 2 [corrected] in regulating the susceptibility and chronic progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2006;176:3480-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PD-L1 and PD-L2 differentially regulate the susceptibility and chronic progression of EAE in a strain-specific manner. ..
  2. Ni X, Sui H, Liu Y, Ke S, Wang Y, Gao F. TGF-? of lung cancer microenvironment upregulates B7H1 and GITRL expression in dendritic cells and is associated with regulatory T cell generation. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, TGF-? efficiently increased regulatory T-cell (Treg) expansion and upregulated DC B7H1 and GITRL expression...
  3. Ozkaynak E, Wang L, Goodearl A, McDonald K, Qin S, O Keefe T, et al. Programmed death-1 targeting can promote allograft survival. J Immunol. 2002;169:6546-53 pubmed
  4. Talay O, Shen C, Chen L, Chen J. B7-H1 (PD-L1) on T cells is required for T-cell-mediated conditioning of dendritic cell maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2741-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In return, the mature DCs stimulate a robust T-cell response against the infecting pathogen. ..
  5. Martin Orozco N, Wang Y, Yagita H, Dong C. Cutting Edge: Programmed death (PD) ligand-1/PD-1 interaction is required for CD8+ T cell tolerance to tissue antigens. J Immunol. 2006;177:8291-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, during the presentation of tissue Ags to CD8+ T cells, PD-1/PD-L1 interaction crucially controls the effector differentiation of autoreactive T cells to maintain self-tolerance. ..
  6. Allie S, Zhang W, Fuse S, Usherwood E. Programmed death 1 regulates development of central memory CD8 T cells after acute viral infection. J Immunol. 2011;186:6280-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes indicate a skewing of the memory population toward the central memory phenotype in the absence of PD-1 signaling. ..
  7. Keir M, Freeman G, Sharpe A. PD-1 regulates self-reactive CD8+ T cell responses to antigen in lymph nodes and tissues. J Immunol. 2007;179:5064-70 pubmed
  8. Rowe J, Johanns T, Ertelt J, Way S. PDL-1 blockade impedes T cell expansion and protective immunity primed by attenuated Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 2008;180:7553-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that for immunity to intracellular bacterial infection, PDL-1 plays an important stimulatory role for priming and expansion of protective T cells. ..
  9. Fife B, Guleria I, Gubbels Bupp M, Eagar T, Tang Q, Bour Jordan H, et al. Insulin-induced remission in new-onset NOD mice is maintained by the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2737-47 pubmed

More Information


  1. Parekh V, Lalani S, Kim S, Halder R, Azuma M, Yagita H, et al. PD-1/PD-L blockade prevents anergy induction and enhances the anti-tumor activities of glycolipid-activated invariant NKT cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:2816-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings reveal a critical role for the PD-1/PD-L costimulatory pathway in the alphaGalCer-mediated induction of iNKT cell anergy that can be targeted for the development of immunotherapies. ..
  2. Yao S, Wang S, Zhu Y, Luo L, Zhu G, Flies S, et al. PD-1 on dendritic cells impedes innate immunity against bacterial infection. Blood. 2009;113:5811-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a novel role of PD-1 in the negative regulation of DC function during innate immune response. ..
  3. RUFFNER M, Kim S, Bianco N, Francisco L, Sharpe A, Robbins P. B7-1/2, but not PD-L1/2 molecules, are required on IL-10-treated tolerogenic DC and DC-derived exosomes for in vivo function. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3084-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that B7-1 and B7-2, but not PD-L1 and PD-L2, on IL-10-treated DC and DC-derived exosomes play a critical role in immunosuppressive functions of both DC and exosomes. ..
  4. Schreiner B, Bailey S, Shin T, Chen L, Miller S. PD-1 ligands expressed on myeloid-derived APC in the CNS regulate T-cell responses in EAE. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, blockade of B7-DC has less pronounced regulatory effects. Overall, the results demonstrate that B7-H1 expressed by CNS myeloid APC negatively regulates T-cell activation during acute relapsing EAE. ..
  5. Frank G, Lepisto A, Freeman M, Sheridan B, Cherpes T, Hendricks R. Early CD4(+) T cell help prevents partial CD8(+) T cell exhaustion and promotes maintenance of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 latency. J Immunol. 2010;184:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4(+) T cells are not needed to maintain CD8(+) T cell memory through 34 d after infection, nor do they have a direct involvement in the maintenance of HSV-1 latency...
  6. Lukens J, Cruise M, Lassen M, Hahn Y. Blockade of PD-1/B7-H1 interaction restores effector CD8+ T cell responses in a hepatitis C virus core murine model. J Immunol. 2008;180:4875-84 pubmed
    ..This also suggests that manipulation of the PD-1/B7-H1 pathway may be a potential immunotherapy to enhance effector T cell responses during persistent HCV infection. ..
  7. Yamazaki T, Akiba H, Koyanagi A, Azuma M, Yagita H, Okumura K. Blockade of B7-H1 on macrophages suppresses CD4+ T cell proliferation by augmenting IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide production. J Immunol. 2005;175:1586-92 pubmed
  8. Zozulya A, Ortler S, Fabry Z, Sandor M, Wiendl H. The level of B7 homologue 1 expression on brain DC is decisive for CD8 Treg cell recruitment into the CNS during EAE. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The recruitment of regulatory-type CD8(+) T cells into the CNS and the role of brain DC expressing B7-homologue 1 molecules in this process open up the possibility of DC-targeted therapeutic manipulation of neuroinflammatory diseases. ..
  9. Blackburn S, Shin H, Freeman G, Wherry E. Selective expansion of a subset of exhausted CD8 T cells by alphaPD-L1 blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15016-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for predicting clinical responses to PD-1-based therapeutic interventions and for understanding T cell dynamics during persisting infections. ..
  10. Liang S, Greenwald R, Latchman Y, Rosas L, Satoskar A, Freeman G, et al. PD-L1 and PD-L2 have distinct roles in regulating host immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:58-64 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that PD-L1 and PD-L2 have distinct roles in regulating the immune response to L. mexicana. ..
  11. Paterson A, Brown K, Keir M, Vanguri V, Riella L, Chandraker A, et al. The programmed death-1 ligand 1:B7-1 pathway restrains diabetogenic effector T cells in vivo. J Immunol. 2011;187:1097-105 pubmed publisher
  12. Ishida M, Iwai Y, Tanaka Y, Okazaki T, Freeman G, Minato N, et al. Differential expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2, ligands for an inhibitory receptor PD-1, in the cells of lymphohematopoietic tissues. Immunol Lett. 2002;84:57-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, present results demonstrate the distinct expression patterns of PD-L1 and PD-L2 with the cells of lymphohematopoietic tissues exclusively expressing the former. ..
  13. Barber D, Wherry E, Masopust D, Zhu B, Allison J, Sharpe A, et al. Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection. Nature. 2006;439:682-7 pubmed
    ..These studies identify a specific mechanism of T-cell exhaustion and define a potentially effective immunological strategy for the treatment of chronic viral infections. ..
  14. Erickson J, Gilchuk P, Hastings A, Tollefson S, Johnson M, Downing M, et al. Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8+ T cells through PD-1. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2967-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of respiratory viruses...
  15. Hori J, Wang M, Miyashita M, Tanemoto K, Takahashi H, Takemori T, et al. B7-H1-induced apoptosis as a mechanism of immune privilege of corneal allografts. J Immunol. 2006;177:5928-35 pubmed
    ..B7-H1 expressed on corneal endothelial cells maintains long-term acceptance of the corneal allografts by inducing apoptosis of effector T cells within the cornea. ..
  16. Phares T, Ramakrishna C, Parra G, Epstein A, Chen L, Atkinson R, et al. Target-dependent B7-H1 regulation contributes to clearance of central nervous system infection and dampens morbidity. J Immunol. 2009;182:5430-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the beneficial role of PD-1:B7-H1 interactions in limiting morbidity highlights the need to evaluate tissue-specific intervention strategies...
  17. Freeman G, Long A, Iwai Y, Bourque K, Chernova T, Nishimura H, et al. Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1027-34 pubmed
    ..PD-L1 expression on nonlymphoid tissues and its potential interaction with PD-1 may subsequently determine the extent of immune responses at sites of inflammation. ..
  18. Lazar Molnar E, Gacser A, Freeman G, Almo S, Nathenson S, Nosanchuk J. The PD-1/PD-L costimulatory pathway critically affects host resistance to the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2658-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the PD-1/PD-L pathway has a key role in the regulation of antifungal immunity, and suggest that manipulation of this pathway represents a strategy of immunotherapy for histoplasmosis. ..
  19. Ito T, Ueno T, Clarkson M, Yuan X, Jurewicz M, Yagita H, et al. Analysis of the role of negative T cell costimulatory pathways in CD4 and CD8 T cell-mediated alloimmune responses in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;174:6648-56 pubmed
    ..Harnessing physiological mechanisms that regulate alloimmunity should lead to development of novel strategies to induce durable and reproducible transplantation tolerance. ..
  20. Yi T, Li X, Yao S, Wang L, Chen Y, Zhao D, et al. Host APCs augment in vivo expansion of donor natural regulatory T cells via B7H1/B7.1 in allogeneic recipients. J Immunol. 2011;186:2739-49 pubmed publisher
    ..and exacerbation of graft-versus-host disease, which was associated with downregulation of host APC expression of B7H1. Furthermore, host APC expression of B7H1 was shown to augment donor Treg survival and expansion...
  21. Schilbach K, Schick J, Wehrmann M, Wollny G, Simon P, Perikles S, et al. PD-1-PD-L1 pathway is involved in suppressing alloreactivity of heart infiltrating t cells during murine gvhd across minor histocompatibility antigen barriers. Transplantation. 2007;84:214-22 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to refine the significance of the PD-L1 pathway in GVHD and its versatility for therapeutic intervention. ..
  22. Tanaka K, Albin M, Yuan X, Yamaura K, Habicht A, Murayama T, et al. PDL1 is required for peripheral transplantation tolerance and protection from chronic allograft rejection. J Immunol. 2007;179:5204-10 pubmed
    ..Early as well as delayed blockade of PDL1 but not PDL2 abrogated tolerance induced by CTLA4Ig in a fully MHC-mismatched cardiac allograft model...
  23. Yi T, Chen Y, Wang L, Du G, Huang D, Zhao D, et al. Reciprocal differentiation and tissue-specific pathogenesis of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in graft-versus-host disease. Blood. 2009;114:3101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate donor CD4(+) T cells can reciprocally differentiate into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells that mediate organ-specific GVHD. ..
  24. Augello A, Tasso R, Negrini S, Amateis A, Indiveri F, Cancedda R, et al. Bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells inhibit lymphocyte proliferation by activation of the programmed death 1 pathway. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:1482-90 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results highlight the complexity of the role of BMSC in regulating the immune response, asserting the possibility of their therapeutic application in transplantation and autoimmune diseases. ..
  25. Latchman Y, Wood C, Chernova T, Chaudhary D, Borde M, Chernova I, et al. PD-L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:261-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies show overlapping functions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and indicate a key role for the PD-L-PD-1 pathway in regulatingT cell responses. ..
  26. Jun H, Seo S, Jeong H, Seo H, Zhu G, Chen L, et al. B7-H1 (CD274) inhibits the development of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). FEBS Lett. 2005;579:6259-64 pubmed
    The co-signaling molecule B7-H1 (CD274) functions as both a co-inhibitor through programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and a co-stimulator via an as-yet-unidentified receptor on T cells...
  27. Park J, Omiya R, Matsumura Y, Sakoda Y, Kuramasu A, Augustine M, et al. B7-H1/CD80 interaction is required for the induction and maintenance of peripheral T-cell tolerance. Blood. 2010;116:1291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the B7-H1/CD80 pathway is a crucial regulator in the induction and maintenance of T-cell tolerance. ..
  28. Kleinschnitz C, Schwab N, Kraft P, Hagedorn I, Dreykluft A, Schwarz T, et al. Early detrimental T-cell effects in experimental cerebral ischemia are neither related to adaptive immunity nor thrombus formation. Blood. 2010;115:3835-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that T cells critically contribute to cerebral ischemia, but their detrimental effect neither depends on antigen recognition nor TCR costimulation or thrombus formation. ..
  29. Fife B, Pauken K, Eagar T, Obu T, Wu J, Tang Q, et al. Interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 promote tolerance by blocking the TCR-induced stop signal. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of the immunomodulatory receptor CTLA-4 did not alter T cell motility or abrogate tolerance. Thus, PD-1-PD-L1 interactions maintain peripheral tolerance by mechanisms fundamentally distinct from those of CTLA-4...
  30. Sheng H, Wang Y, Jin Y, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Wang L, et al. A critical role of IFNgamma in priming MSC-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation through up-regulation of B7-H1. Cell Res. 2008;18:846-57 pubmed publisher
  31. Wang S, Bajorath J, Flies D, Dong H, Honjo T, Chen L. Molecular modeling and functional mapping of B7-H1 and B7-DC uncouple costimulatory function from PD-1 interaction. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1083-91 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal unique binding characteristics of B7-H1 and B7-DC and provide direct evidence for an independent costimulatory receptor other than PD-1. ..
  32. Li W, Wang X, Chen R, Zhu H, Chen G, Sun X. Overexpression of programmed death ligand 1 in dendritic cells inhibits allogeneic lymphocyte activation in mice. J Surg Res. 2012;176:e79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..05). PD-L1 delivers an immunoinhibitory signal, suppressing T cell activation. Overexpression of PD-L1 signaling induces tolerance, which presents a promising immunotherapeutic approach for long-term graft acceptance. ..
  33. Chang W, Kim J, Kim Y, Kim Y, Lee J, Azuma M, et al. Cutting edge: Programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 interaction regulates the induction and maintenance of invariant NKT cell anergy. J Immunol. 2008;181:6707-10 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is essential for the induction and maintenance of iNKT cell anergy. ..
  34. Magnus T, Schreiner B, Korn T, Jack C, Guo H, Antel J, et al. Microglial expression of the B7 family member B7 homolog 1 confers strong immune inhibition: implications for immune responses and autoimmunity in the CNS. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2537-46 pubmed
    ..Human and mouse microglial cells constitutively express B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) in vitro...
  35. Carter L, Leach M, Azoitei M, Cui J, Pelker J, Jussif J, et al. PD-1/PD-L1, but not PD-1/PD-L2, interactions regulate the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;182:124-34 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that interactions between PD-1/PD-L1, but not PD-1/PDL-2, are crucial in attenuating T cell responses in EAE. ..
  36. Yamazaki T, Akiba H, Iwai H, Matsuda H, Aoki M, Tanno Y, et al. Expression of programmed death 1 ligands by murine T cells and APC. J Immunol. 2002;169:5538-45 pubmed
    ..The inducible expression of PD-1 ligands on both T cells and APCs may suggest new paradigms of PD-1-mediated immune regulation...
  37. Keir M, Liang S, Guleria I, Latchman Y, Qipo A, Albacker L, et al. Tissue expression of PD-L1 mediates peripheral T cell tolerance. J Exp Med. 2006;203:883-95 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that PD-L1 expression on parenchymal cells rather than hematopoietic cells protects against autoimmune diabetes and point to a novel role for PD-1-PD-L1 interactions in mediating tissue tolerance. ..
  38. Smith P, Walsh C, Mangan N, Fallon R, Sayers J, McKenzie A, et al. Schistosoma mansoni worms induce anergy of T cells via selective up-regulation of programmed death ligand 1 on macrophages. J Immunol. 2004;173:1240-8 pubmed
    ..mansoni worms have usurped the natural function of PD-L1 to reduce T cell activation during early acute stages of infection before the subsequent emergence of egg-induced T cell suppression in the chronic stages of infection. ..
  39. Klotz L, Hucke S, Thimm D, Classen S, Gaarz A, Schultze J, et al. Increased antigen cross-presentation but impaired cross-priming after activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is mediated by up-regulation of B7H1. J Immunol. 2009;183:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitantly, activation of PPARgamma in dendritic cells induced up-regulation of the coinhibitory molecule B7H1, which, despite enhanced cross-presentation, caused an impaired activation of naive OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells and ..
  40. Phares T, Stohlman S, Hinton D, Atkinson R, Bergmann C. Enhanced antiviral T cell function in the absence of B7-H1 is insufficient to prevent persistence but exacerbates axonal bystander damage during viral encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2010;185:5607-18 pubmed publisher
  41. Grabie N, Gotsman I, Dacosta R, Pang H, Stavrakis G, Butte M, et al. Endothelial programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) regulates CD8+ T-cell mediated injury in the heart. Circulation. 2007;116:2062-71 pubmed
    ..Myocardial PD-L1, mainly localized on endothelium, is critical for control of immune-mediated cardiac injury and polymorphonuclear leukocyte inflammation. ..
  42. Rajasalu T, Brosi H, Schuster C, Spyrantis A, Boehm B, Chen L, et al. Deficiency in B7-H1 (PD-L1)/PD-1 coinhibition triggers pancreatic beta-cell destruction by insulin-specific, murine CD8 T-cells. Diabetes. 2010;59:1966-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, regulation of the susceptibility of the beta-cells for a preproinsulin-specific CD8 T-cell attack can allow or suppress EAD. ..
  43. Tamura H, Dong H, Zhu G, Sica G, Flies D, Tamada K, et al. B7-H1 costimulation preferentially enhances CD28-independent T-helper cell function. Blood. 2001;97:1809-16 pubmed
    ..The study thus identifies a unique costimulatory pathway that preferentially affects T-helper cell functions. ..
  44. Lafon M, Mégret F, Meuth S, Simon O, Velandia Romero M, Lafage M, et al. Detrimental contribution of the immuno-inhibitor B7-H1 to rabies virus encephalitis. J Immunol. 2008;180:7506-15 pubmed
    ..They show that the B7-H1/PD-1 pathway can be exploited locally and in an organ specific manner--here the nervous system--by a neurotropic virus to promote successful host invasion. ..
  45. Eppihimer M, Gunn J, Freeman G, Greenfield E, Chernova T, Erickson J, et al. Expression and regulation of the PD-L1 immunoinhibitory molecule on microvascular endothelial cells. Microcirculation. 2002;9:133-45 pubmed
    ..These data show the expression of a novel B7-like molecule on murine ECs that is mediated by IFN-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, and suggest a potential pathway by which ECs may modulate T-cell function. ..
  46. Lee S, O Donnell H, McSorley S. B7-H1 (programmed cell death ligand 1) is required for the development of multifunctional Th1 cells and immunity to primary, but not secondary, Salmonella infection. J Immunol. 2010;185:2442-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that B7-H1 is required for the generation of multifunctional Th1 responses and optimal protective immunity to primary Salmonella infection. ..
  47. Ortler S, Leder C, Mittelbronn M, Zozulya A, Knolle P, Chen L, et al. B7-H1 restricts neuroantigen-specific T cell responses and confines inflammatory CNS damage: implications for the lesion pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:1734-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate the critical importance of B7-H1 as an immune-inhibitory molecule capable of down-regulating T cell responses thus contributing to the confinement of immunopathological damage. ..
  48. Mueller S, Vanguri V, Ha S, West E, Keir M, Glickman J, et al. PD-L1 has distinct functions in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells in regulating T cell responses during chronic infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2508-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that there are distinct roles for PD-L1 on hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells in regulating CD8+ T cell responses and viral clearance during chronic viral infection. ..
  49. Francisco L, Salinas V, Brown K, Vanguri V, Freeman G, Kuchroo V, et al. PD-L1 regulates the development, maintenance, and function of induced regulatory T cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3015-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define a novel mechanism for iT reg cell development and function, as well as a new strategy for controlling T reg cell plasticity. ..
  50. Butte M, Keir M, Phamduy T, Sharpe A, Freeman G. Programmed death-1 ligand 1 interacts specifically with the B7-1 costimulatory molecule to inhibit T cell responses. Immunity. 2007;27:111-22 pubmed
    ..Our findings point to a substantial bidirectional inhibitory interaction between B7-1 and PD-L1 and add an additional dimension to immunoregulatory functions of the B7:CD28 family. ..
  51. Barber D, Mayer Barber K, Feng C, Sharpe A, Sher A. CD4 T cells promote rather than control tuberculosis in the absence of PD-1-mediated inhibition. J Immunol. 2011;186:1598-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the absence of the PD-1 pathway, M. tuberculosis benefits from CD4 T cell responses, and host resistance requires inhibition by PD-1 to prevent T cell-driven exacerbation of the infection. ..
  52. Iwai Y, Ishida M, Tanaka Y, Okazaki T, Honjo T, Minato N. Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12293-7 pubmed
  53. Guleria I, Gubbels Bupp M, Dada S, Fife B, Tang Q, Ansari M, et al. Mechanisms of PDL1-mediated regulation of autoimmune diabetes. Clin Immunol. 2007;125:16-25 pubmed
    The PD-1-PDL1 pathway plays a critical role in regulating autoimmune diabetes as blockade or deficiency of PD-1 or PDL1 results in accelerated disease in NOD mice...
  54. Latchman Y, Liang S, Wu Y, Chernova T, Sobel R, Klemm M, et al. PD-L1-deficient mice show that PD-L1 on T cells, antigen-presenting cells, and host tissues negatively regulates T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10691-6 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that PD-L1 on T cells, APCs, and host tissue inhibits naïve and effector T cell responses and plays a critical role in T cell tolerance. ..
  55. Subudhi S, Zhou P, Yerian L, Chin R, Lo J, Anders R, et al. Local expression of B7-H1 promotes organ-specific autoimmunity and transplant rejection. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:694-700 pubmed
    ..Ig fusion protein augmented naive T cell priming both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that B7-H1 can provide positive costimulation for naive T cells to promote allograft rejection and autoimmune disease pathogenesis. ..
  56. Akbari O, Stock P, Singh A, Lombardi V, Lee W, Freeman G, et al. PD-L1 and PD-L2 modulate airway inflammation and iNKT-cell-dependent airway hyperreactivity in opposing directions. Mucosal Immunol. 2010;3:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies also indicate that PD-L1 and PD-L2 have important but opposing roles in the regulation of AHR and iNKT-cell-mediated activation. ..
  57. Dong H, Zhu G, Tamada K, Flies D, van Deursen J, Chen L. B7-H1 determines accumulation and deletion of intrahepatic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Immunity. 2004;20:327-36 pubmed
    ..Therefore, B7-H1 is a key protein selectively regulating the accumulation and deletion of intrahepatic CD8(+) T cells and may also contribute to inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and tolerance in the liver. ..
  58. Allen S, Hamrah P, Gate D, Mott K, Mantopoulos D, Zheng L, et al. The role of LAT in increased CD8+ T cell exhaustion in trigeminal ganglia of mice latently infected with herpes simplex virus 1. J Virol. 2011;85:4184-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results may suggest that both PD-1 and Tim-3 are mediators of CD8(+) T cell exhaustion and latency in HSV-1 infection. ..
  59. Guleria I, Khosroshahi A, Ansari M, Habicht A, Azuma M, Yagita H, et al. A critical role for the programmed death ligand 1 in fetomaternal tolerance. J Exp Med. 2005;202:231-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the inhibitory T cell costimulatory molecule, programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1), has an important role in conferring fetomaternal tolerance in an allogeneic pregnancy model...
  60. Carter L, Fouser L, Jussif J, Fitz L, Deng B, Wood C, et al. PD-1:PD-L inhibitory pathway affects both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and is overcome by IL-2. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:634-43 pubmed
    ..However, CD8(+) T cells may be more sensitive to modulation by the PD-1:PD-L pathway because of their intrinsic inability to produce significant levels of IL-2. ..
  61. Tsushima F, Iwai H, Otsuki N, Abe M, Hirose S, Yamazaki T, et al. Preferential contribution of B7-H1 to programmed death-1-mediated regulation of hapten-specific allergic inflammatory responses. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:2773-82 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate the regulatory role of PD-1 and the differential roles of B7-H1 and B7-DC in hapten-induced immune responses. The PD-1-B7-H1 pathway may play a unique role in regulating inflammatory responses. ..