Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Cd19
Description: CD19 antigen
Alias: AW495831, B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, differentiation antigen CD19
- Kuwahara K, Fujimura S, Takahashi Y, Nakagata N, Takemori T, Aizawa S, et al. Germinal center-associated nuclear protein contributes to affinity maturation of B cell antigen receptor in T cell-dependent responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1010-5 pubmed..We conclude that GC-associated nuclear protein is necessary for generation or maintenance of B cells with high-affinity B cell Ag receptors during the maturation in GCs. ..
- Arana E, Vehlow A, Harwood N, Vigorito E, Henderson R, Turner M, et al. Activation of the small GTPase Rac2 via the B cell receptor regulates B cell adhesion and immunological-synapse formation. Immunity. 2008;28:88-99 pubmed publisher..We postulate that this critical role for Rac2 in mediating B cell adhesion and IS formation might apply in all lymphocytes. ..
- Shimoda M, Li T, Pihkala J, Koni P. Role of MHC class II on memory B cells in post-germinal center B cell homeostasis and memory response. J Immunol. 2006;176:2122-33 pubmed..a conditional allele for the beta-chain of MHC class II (MHC-II) is deleted in the vast majority of all B cells by cd19 promoter-mediated expression of Cre recombinase (IA-B mice)...
- Otero D, Rickert R. CD19 function in early and late B cell development. II. CD19 facilitates the pro-B/pre-B transition. J Immunol. 2003;171:5921-30 pubmed..b>CD19 promotes the proliferation and survival of mature B cells, but its role in early B cell development is less well ..
- Mattila P, Feest C, Depoil D, Treanor B, Montaner B, Otipoby K, et al. The actin and tetraspanin networks organize receptor nanoclusters to regulate B cell receptor-mediated signaling. Immunity. 2013;38:461-74 pubmed publisher..cytoskeleton disruption triggered signaling requiring not only the B cell receptor (BCR), but also the coreceptor CD19 and tetraspanin CD81, thus providing a mechanism for signal amplification upon surface-bound antigen stimulation...
- Leung W, Tarasenko T, Biesova Z, Kole H, Walsh E, Bolland S. Aberrant antibody affinity selection in SHIP-deficient B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:371-81 pubmed publisher..These results illustrate the importance of negative regulation of B-cell responses, as lower thresholds for B-cell activation promote survival of low affinity and deleterious receptors to the detriment of optimal Ab affinity maturation. ..
- Cazac B, Roes J. TGF-beta receptor controls B cell responsiveness and induction of IgA in vivo. Immunity. 2000;13:443-51 pubmed..The data reveal differential roles of TbetaR in homeostasis and antigen responsiveness of B cell subpopulations and establish a critical function of the TGF-beta receptor ligand pair in the induction of IgA responses in vivo. ..
- Anzelon A, Wu H, Rickert R. Pten inactivation alters peripheral B lymphocyte fate and reconstitutes CD19 function. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:287-94 pubmed..Inactivation of PTEN rescued germinal center, MZ B and B1 cell formation in CD19-/- mice, arguing that recruitment and activation of PI3K are the dominant roles for CD19 in these B cell ..
- Tumanov A, Grivennikov S, Shakhov A, Rybtsov S, Koroleva E, Takeda J, et al. Dissecting the role of lymphotoxin in lymphoid organs by conditional targeting. Immunol Rev. 2003;195:106-16 pubmed..in a non-transgenic model, expression of lymphoid tissue chemokines is only minimally dependent on the expression of surface LT complex on B and T lymphocytes. ..
- Shapiro Shelef M, Lin K, McHeyzer Williams L, Liao J, McHeyzer Williams M, Calame K. Blimp-1 is required for the formation of immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells and pre-plasma memory B cells. Immunity. 2003;19:607-20 pubmed..B cells lacking Blimp-1 cannot secrete Ig or induce muS mRNA when stimulated ex vivo. Furthermore, although prdm1-/- B cells fail to induce XBP-1, XBP-1 cannot rescue plasmacytic differentiation without Blimp-1. ..
- Haynes N, Allen C, Lesley R, Ansel K, Killeen N, Cyster J. Role of CXCR5 and CCR7 in follicular Th cell positioning and appearance of a programmed cell death gene-1high germinal center-associated subpopulation. J Immunol. 2007;179:5099-108 pubmed
- Winslow M, Gallo E, Neilson J, Crabtree G. The calcineurin phosphatase complex modulates immunogenic B cell responses. Immunity. 2006;24:141-52 pubmed..By several different criteria, calcineurin is dispensable for B cell tolerance, indicating that this phosphatase complex modulates immunogenic, but not tolerogenic, responses in vivo. ..
- Inui S, Maeda K, Hua D, Yamashita T, Yamamoto H, Miyamoto E, et al. BCR signal through alpha 4 is involved in S6 kinase activation and required for B cell maturation including isotype switching and V region somatic hypermutation. Int Immunol. 2002;14:177-87 pubmed..role for alpha 4 in B cell activation, the alpha 4 gene was disrupted conditionally in B cells by mating male CD19-Cre mice with female alpha 4-floxed mice...
- Feng J, Wang H, Shin D, Masiuk M, Qi C, Morse H. IFN regulatory factor 8 restricts the size of the marginal zone and follicular B cell pools. J Immunol. 2011;186:1458-66 pubmed publisher..the B cell-intrinsic effects of IRF8 deficiency, we generated mice with a conditional allele of Irf8 crossed with CD19-Cre mice (designated IRF8-conditional knockout [CKO])...
- Belver L, de Yebenes V, Ramiro A. MicroRNAs prevent the generation of autoreactive antibodies. Immunity. 2010;33:713-22 pubmed publisher..Here, we have examined the role of microRNAs in terminal B cell differentiation by analyzing Cd19-Cre(ki/+) Dicer1(fl/fl) mice...
- Sato S, Steeber D, Jansen P, Tedder T. CD19 expression levels regulate B lymphocyte development: human CD19 restores normal function in mice lacking endogenous CD19. J Immunol. 1997;158:4662-9 pubmed..The effects of altered signaling thresholds in B lymphocytes were examined in CD19-deficient mice and transgenic mice that expressed human CD19 at varying densities...
- Fehr T, Rickert R, Odermatt B, Roes J, Rajewsky K, Hengartner H, et al. Antiviral protection and germinal center formation, but impaired B cell memory in the absence of CD19. J Exp Med. 1998;188:145-55 pubmedColigation of CD19, a molecule expressed during all stages of B cell development except plasmacytes, lowers the threshold for B cell activation with anti-IgM by a factor of 100...
- Jeevan Raj B, Robert I, Heyer V, Page A, Wang J, Cammas F, et al. Epigenetic tethering of AID to the donor switch region during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1649-60 pubmed publisher..We propose that KAP1 and HP1 tether AID to H3K9me3 residues at the donor switch region, thus providing a mechanism linking AID to epigenetic modifications during CSR. ..
- Nie Y, Waite J, Brewer F, Sunshine M, Littman D, Zou Y. The role of CXCR4 in maintaining peripheral B cell compartments and humoral immunity. J Exp Med. 2004;200:1145-56 pubmed..These findings establish an important role for CXCR4 in regulating homeostasis of B cell compartmentalization and humoral immunity. ..
- Tanigaki K, Han H, Yamamoto N, Tashiro K, Ikegawa M, Kuroda K, et al. Notch-RBP-J signaling is involved in cell fate determination of marginal zone B cells. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:443-50 pubmed..In contrast, these mice exhibited increased mortality rates after blood-borne bacterial infection, which indicates that MZB cells play pivotal roles in the clearance of these bacteria. ..
- Tokoyoda K, Egawa T, Sugiyama T, Choi B, Nagasawa T. Cellular niches controlling B lymphocyte behavior within bone marrow during development. Immunity. 2004;20:707-18 pubmed..We demonstrate the B lymphocyte characteristic location and movement between specific niches within bone marrow during development and suggest that CXCL12 maintains the cells in the niche. ..
- Tumanov A, Kuprash D, Lagarkova M, Grivennikov S, Abe K, Shakhov A, et al. Distinct role of surface lymphotoxin expressed by B cells in the organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. Immunity. 2002;17:239-50 pubmed..Thus, the organogenic function of B-LTbeta is almost entirely restricted to spleen, where it supports the correct lymphoid architecture that is critical for an effective humoral immune response. ..
- Suzuki A, Kaisho T, Ohishi M, Tsukio Yamaguchi M, Tsubata T, Koni P, et al. Critical roles of Pten in B cell homeostasis and immunoglobulin class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2003;197:657-67 pubmed..Thus, Pten plays a role in developmental fate determination of B cells and is an indispensable regulator of B cell homeostasis. ..
- Haas K, Poe J, Steeber D, Tedder T. B-1a and B-1b cells exhibit distinct developmental requirements and have unique functional roles in innate and adaptive immunity to S. pneumoniae. Immunity. 2005;23:7-18 pubmed..Transgenic mice overexpressing CD19 (hCD19Tg) generated B-1a cells and natural antibodies that provided protection during infection, while CD19-..
- Takeuchi O, Fisher J, Suh H, Harada H, Malynn B, Korsmeyer S. Essential role of BAX,BAK in B cell homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11272-7 pubmed..Furthermore, inducible deletion of Bax and Bak in adult mice results in the development of severe autoimmune disease. ..
- Kamphuis E, Junt T, Waibler Z, Forster R, Kalinke U. Type I interferons directly regulate lymphocyte recirculation and cause transient blood lymphopenia. Blood. 2006;108:3253-61 pubmed..In conclusion, our data identify a new effect of direct IFN-alpha/beta stimulation of lymphocytes that profoundly affects lymphocyte redistribution. ..
- Rickert R, Rajewsky K, Roes J. Impairment of T-cell-dependent B-cell responses and B-1 cell development in CD19-deficient mice. Nature. 1995;376:352-5 pubmedb>CD19 is the hallmark differentiation antigen of the B lineage...
- Prinz M, Schmidt H, Mildner A, Knobeloch K, Hanisch U, Raasch J, et al. Distinct and nonredundant in vivo functions of IFNAR on myeloid cells limit autoimmunity in the central nervous system. Immunity. 2008;28:675-86 pubmed publisher..In contrast, absence of IFNAR on myeloid cells led to severe disease with an enhanced effector phase and increased lethality, indicating a distinct protective function of type I IFNs during autoimmune inflammation of the CNS. ..
- Kranc K, Schepers H, Rodrigues N, Bamforth S, Villadsen E, Ferry H, et al. Cited2 is an essential regulator of adult hematopoietic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5:659-65 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our studies provide genetic evidence that Cited2 selectively maintains adult HSC functions, at least in part, via Ink4a/Arf and Trp53. ..
- Cinamon G, Zachariah M, Lam O, Foss F, Cyster J. Follicular shuttling of marginal zone B cells facilitates antigen transport. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:54-62 pubmed..Marginal zone-follicle shuttling of marginal zone B cells provides an efficient mechanism for systemic antigen capture and delivery to follicular dendritic cells. ..
- Henderson R, Grys K, Vehlow A, de Bettignies C, Zachacz A, Henley T, et al. A novel Rac-dependent checkpoint in B cell development controls entry into the splenic white pulp and cell survival. J Exp Med. 2010;207:837-53 pubmed publisher..Thus, these studies identify a novel developmental checkpoint that coincides with B cell positive selection. ..
- Yanaba K, Bouaziz J, Matsushita T, Tsubata T, Tedder T. The development and function of regulatory B cells expressing IL-10 (B10 cells) requires antigen receptor diversity and TLR signals. J Immunol. 2009;182:7459-72 pubmed publisher..Thereby, both adaptive and innate signals regulate B10 cell development, maturation, CD5 expression, and competence for IL-10 production. ..
- Omori S, Cato M, Anzelon Mills A, Puri K, Shapiro Shelef M, Calame K, et al. Regulation of class-switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Immunity. 2006;25:545-57 pubmed..However, ectopic expression of AID could not fully overcome inhibition of CSR by PI3K, suggesting that PI3K regulates both the expression and function of AID. ..
- Kirkland D, Benson A, Mirpuri J, Pifer R, Hou B, DeFranco A, et al. B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling prevents the lethal dissemination of commensal bacteria during colonic damage. Immunity. 2012;36:228-38 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that the lack of intact MyD88 signaling in B cells, coupled with impaired epithelial integrity, enables commensal bacteria to function as highly pathogenic organisms, causing rapid host death. ..
- Bain G, Maandag E, Izon D, Amsen D, Kruisbeek A, Weintraub B, et al. E2A proteins are required for proper B cell development and initiation of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. Cell. 1994;79:885-92 pubmed..While immunoglobulin germline I mu RAG-1, mb-1, CD19, and lambda 5 transcripts are dramatically reduced in fetal livers of E2A (-/-) mice, B29 and mu degrees ..
- Walmsley M, Ooi S, Reynolds L, Smith S, Ruf S, Mathiot A, et al. Critical roles for Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases in B cell development and signaling. Science. 2003;302:459-62 pubmed..Both GTPases were required to transduce BCR signals leading to proliferation, survival and up-regulation of BAFF-R, a receptor for BAFF, a key survival molecule required for B cell development and maintenance. ..
- Vigorito E, Bardi G, Glassford J, Lam E, Clayton E, Turner M. Vav-dependent and vav-independent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation in murine B cells determined by the nature of the stimulus. J Immunol. 2004;173:3209-14 pubmed..We show in this study that B cell activation following high avidity ligation of IgM or coligation of membrane Ig with CD19 elicits similar levels of Ca(2+) flux using different mechanisms...
- Janas M, Hodson D, Stamataki Z, Hill S, Welch K, Gambardella L, et al. The effect of deleting p110delta on the phenotype and function of PTEN-deficient B cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:739-46 pubmed..These results demonstrate an epistatic relationship between p110delta and PTEN. In addition, they also suggest that additional PI3K catalytic subunits contribute to B cell development and function. ..
- Hayashi K, Yamamoto M, Nojima T, Goitsuka R, Kitamura D. Distinct signaling requirements for Dmu selection, IgH allelic exclusion, pre-B cell transition, and tumor suppression in B cell progenitors. Immunity. 2003;18:825-36 pubmed..Here we show complete arrest of B cell development at the pre-B cell transition in BASH/CD19 double mutant mice, indicating partial redundancy of the two B cell-specific adaptors...
- Pereira J, An J, Xu Y, Huang Y, Cyster J. Cannabinoid receptor 2 mediates the retention of immature B cells in bone marrow sinusoids. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:403-11 pubmed publisher..Our findings identify unique requirements for the retention of B cells in the bone marrow sinusoidal niche and suggest involvement of CB2 in the generation of the B cell repertoire. ..
- Cervantes Barragan L, Kalinke U, Zust R, König M, Reizis B, Lopez Macias C, et al. Type I IFN-mediated protection of macrophages and dendritic cells secures control of murine coronavirus infection. J Immunol. 2009;182:1099-106 pubmed
- Nurieva R, Chung Y, Hwang D, Yang X, Kang H, Ma L, et al. Generation of T follicular helper cells is mediated by interleukin-21 but independent of T helper 1, 2, or 17 cell lineages. Immunity. 2008;29:138-49 pubmed publisher..This study thus demonstrates that Tfh is a distinct Th cell lineage. ..
- Llorian M, Stamataki Z, Hill S, Turner M, Martensson I. The PI3K p110delta is required for down-regulation of RAG expression in immature B cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:1981-5 pubmed..These results demonstrate a role for p110delta in the regulation of RAG gene expression and thereby LC allelic/isotype exclusion. ..
- King A, Keating P, Prabhu A, Blomberg B, Riley R. NK cells in the CD19- B220+ bone marrow fraction are increased in senescence and reduce E2A and surrogate light chain proteins in B cell precursors. Mech Ageing Dev. 2009;130:384-92 pubmed publisher..Herein, we show that aged bone marrow has increased Hardy Fraction A (CD19(-) B220(+)) cells, including NK cells, that can inhibit both E47 (E2A) protein and surrogate light chain protein ..
- Liu C, Miller H, Hui K, Grooman B, Bolland S, Upadhyaya A, et al. A balance of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and SHIP activation regulates B cell receptor cluster formation by controlling actin remodeling. J Immunol. 2011;187:230-9 pubmed publisher..This study suggests a novel feedback loop between BCR signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. ..
- Horcher M, Souabni A, Busslinger M. Pax5/BSAP maintains the identity of B cells in late B lymphopoiesis. Immunity. 2001;14:779-90 pubmed..its late function, we generated a mouse strain carrying a floxed Pax5 allele that was conditionally inactivated by CD19-cre or Mx-cre expression...
- Aiba Y, Kameyama M, Yamazaki T, Tedder T, Kurosaki T. Regulation of B-cell development by BCAP and CD19 through their binding to phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Blood. 2008;111:1497-503 pubmed..In this study, we show that deletion of both BCAP and CD19 leads to an almost complete block of BCR-mediated Akt activation and to severe defects in generation of immature ..
- Bothmer A, Rommel P, Gazumyan A, Polato F, Reczek C, Muellenbeck M, et al. Mechanism of DNA resection during intrachromosomal recombination and immunoglobulin class switching. J Exp Med. 2013;210:115-23 pubmed publisher..We conclude that CtIP, Exo1, and RecQ helicases contribute to the metabolism of DNA ends during DSB repair in B lymphocytes and that minimizing resection favors efficient CSR. ..
- Wang Y, Koroleva E, Kruglov A, Kuprash D, Nedospasov S, Fu Y, et al. Lymphotoxin beta receptor signaling in intestinal epithelial cells orchestrates innate immune responses against mucosal bacterial infection. Immunity. 2010;32:403-13 pubmed publisher..These results support a model wherein LT from RORgammat(+) cells orchestrates the innate immune response against mucosal microbial infection. ..
- Yanaba K, Bouaziz J, Haas K, Poe J, Fujimoto M, Tedder T. A regulatory B cell subset with a unique CD1dhiCD5+ phenotype controls T cell-dependent inflammatory responses. Immunity. 2008;28:639-50 pubmed publisher..In this study, T cell-mediated inflammation was exaggerated in CD19-deficient (Cd19(-/-)) mice and wild-type mice depleted of CD20(+) B cells, whereas inflammation was substantially ..
- Cucak H, Yrlid U, Reizis B, Kalinke U, Johansson Lindbom B. Type I interferon signaling in dendritic cells stimulates the development of lymph-node-resident T follicular helper cells. Immunity. 2009;31:491-501 pubmed publisher..Thus, our results identify type I interferon as a natural adjuvant that selectively supports the generation of lymph node resident Tfh cells. ..
- Liu B, Li Z. Endoplasmic reticulum HSP90b1 (gp96, grp94) optimizes B-cell function via chaperoning integrin and TLR but not immunoglobulin. Blood. 2008;112:1223-30 pubmed publisher..This study also has important implications in resolving the controversial roles of TLR in B-cell biology. ..
- Matsushita T, Horikawa M, Iwata Y, Tedder T. Regulatory B cells (B10 cells) and regulatory T cells have independent roles in controlling experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis initiation and late-phase immunopathogenesis. J Immunol. 2010;185:2240-52 pubmed publisher..Thus, B10 cells predominantly control disease initiation, whereas Tregs reciprocally inhibit late-phase disease, with overlapping B10 cell and Treg functions shaping the normal course of EAE immunopathogenesis. ..
- Miletic A, Anzelon Mills A, Mills D, Omori S, Pedersen I, Shin D, et al. Coordinate suppression of B cell lymphoma by PTEN and SHIP phosphatases. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2407-20 pubmed publisher..As such, assessment of both PTEN and SHIP function are relevant to understanding the etiology of human B cell malignancies that exhibit augmented activation of the PI3K pathway...
- Saito T, Chiba S, Ichikawa M, Kunisato A, Asai T, Shimizu K, et al. Notch2 is preferentially expressed in mature B cells and indispensable for marginal zone B lineage development. Immunity. 2003;18:675-85 pubmed..Among Notch target genes, the expression level of Deltex1 is prominent in MZB cells and strictly dependent on that of Notch2, suggesting that Deltex1 may play a role in MZB cell differentiation. ..
- Guo F, Velu C, Grimes H, Zheng Y. Rho GTPase Cdc42 is essential for B-lymphocyte development and activation. Blood. 2009;114:2909-16 pubmed publisher..These results reveal multifaceted roles of Cdc42 in B-cell development and activation. ..
- Buch T, Heppner F, Tertilt C, Heinen T, Kremer M, Wunderlich F, et al. A Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mediates cell lineage ablation after toxin administration. Nat Methods. 2005;2:419-26 pubmed..We tested the iDTR strain by crossing to the T cell- and B cell-specific CD4-Cre and CD19-Cre strains, respectively, and observed efficient ablation of T and B cells after exposure to DT...
- Opferman J, Letai A, Beard C, Sorcinelli M, Ong C, Korsmeyer S. Development and maintenance of B and T lymphocytes requires antiapoptotic MCL-1. Nature. 2003;426:671-6 pubmed..Thus, MCL-1, which selectively inhibits the proapoptotic protein BIM, is essential both early in lymphoid development and later on in the maintenance of mature lymphocytes. ..
- de Alboran I, O Hagan R, Gartner F, Malynn B, Davidson L, Rickert R, et al. Analysis of C-MYC function in normal cells via conditional gene-targeted mutation. Immunity. 2001;14:45-55 pubmed..We discuss these findings with respect to potential c-Myc functions in proliferation and apoptosis and also discuss potential limitations in the Cre-mediated gene inactivation approach. ..
- Rickert R, Roes J, Rajewsky K. B lymphocyte-specific, Cre-mediated mutagenesis in mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:1317-8 pubmed..To selectively modify genes in B lymphocytes, we have generated mice (designated CD19-Cre) which express cre under the transcriptional control of the B lineage-restricted CD19 gene...
- Sato S, Steeber D, Tedder T. The CD19 signal transduction molecule is a response regulator of B-lymphocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11558-62 pubmedThe phenotypes of CD19-deficient (CD19-/-) mice, and human CD19-transgenic (hCD19TG) mice that overexpress CD19 indicate that CD19 is a response regulator of B-lymphocyte surface receptor signaling...
- Miller B, Zhao Z, Stephenson L, Cadwell K, Pua H, Lee H, et al. The autophagy gene ATG5 plays an essential role in B lymphocyte development. Autophagy. 2008;4:309-14 pubmed..In addition, B-1a B cells require ATG5 for their maintenance in the periphery. We conclude that ATG5 is differentially required at discrete stages of development in distinct, but closely related, cell lineages. ..