Gene Symbol: Ccl3
Description: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3
Alias: AI323804, G0S19-1, LD78alpha, MIP-1alpha, MIP1-(a), MIP1-alpha, Mip1a, Scya3, C-C motif chemokine 3, L2G25B, MIP-1-alpha, MIP1 (a), SIS-alpha, TY-5, heparin-binding chemotaxis protein, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, small-inducible cytokine A3
Species: mouse
Products:     Ccl3

Top Publications

  1. Ramos C, Canetti C, Souto J, Silva J, Hogaboam C, Ferreira S, et al. MIP-1alpha[CCL3] acting on the CCR1 receptor mediates neutrophil migration in immune inflammation via sequential release of TNF-alpha and LTB4. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:167-77 pubmed
    ..we investigated the involvement of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha)[CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3)], MIP-1beta[CCL4], regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES)[CCL5], and CC chemokine ..
  2. Wu Y, Proia R. Deletion of macrophage-inflammatory protein 1 alpha retards neurodegeneration in Sandhoff disease mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8425-30 pubmed
  3. Sato N, Kuziel W, Melby P, Reddick R, Kostecki V, Zhao W, et al. Defects in the generation of IFN-gamma are overcome to control infection with Leishmania donovani in CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 5-, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha-, or CCR2-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1999;163:5519-25 pubmed
    ..donovani infection. Our data also suggest that there might be cross-talk between TCR and chemokine receptor signaling pathways. ..
  4. Yang X, Lu P, Fujii C, Nakamoto Y, Gao J, Kaneko S, et al. Essential contribution of a chemokine, CCL3, and its receptor, CCR1, to hepatocellular carcinoma progression. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1869-76 pubmed
    We previously observed that a chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/CCL3, and its receptor, CCR1, were aberrantly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues...
  5. Salazar Mather T, Lewis C, Biron C. Type I interferons regulate inflammatory cell trafficking and macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha delivery to the liver. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:321-30 pubmed
    b>Macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha, CCL3) is critical for liver NK cell inflammation and delivery of IFN-gamma to mediate downstream protective responses against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infections...
  6. Cook D, Beck M, Coffman T, Kirby S, Sheridan J, Pragnell I, et al. Requirement of MIP-1 alpha for an inflammatory response to viral infection. Science. 1995;269:1583-5 pubmed
    ..The -/- mice had no overt hematopoietic abnormalities. These results demonstrate that MIP-1 alpha is an important mediator of virus-induced inflammation in vivo. ..
  7. Dorner B, Scheffold A, Rolph M, Huser M, Kaufmann S, Radbruch A, et al. MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, and ATAC/lymphotactin function together with IFN-gamma as type 1 cytokines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:6181-6 pubmed
  8. Yang X, Walton W, Cook D, Hua X, Tilley S, Haskell C, et al. The chemokine, CCL3, and its receptor, CCR1, mediate thoracic radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..C57BL/6J mice received thoracic radiation, and the interaction of CCL3 with CCR1 or CCR5 was blocked using genetic techniques, or by pharmacologic intervention...
  9. Surmi B, Webb C, Ristau A, Hasty A. Absence of macrophage inflammatory protein-1{alpha} does not impact macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E437-45 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. McMahon E, Cook D, Suzuki K, Matsushima G. Absence of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha delays central nervous system demyelination in the presence of an intact blood-brain barrier. J Immunol. 2001;167:2964-71 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, despite this possible compensation, our studies show the importance of MIP-1alpha in demyelination in the CNS and highlight its effect, particularly on cellular recruitment and cytokine regulation...
  2. Ishida Y, Kimura A, Kondo T, Hayashi T, Ueno M, Takakura N, et al. Essential roles of the CC chemokine ligand 3-CC chemokine receptor 5 axis in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through regulation of macrophage and fibrocyte infiltration. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:843-54 pubmed
    ..Intrapulmonary CCL3 expression was enhanced rapidly and remained at elevated levels until PF developed...
  3. Sato N, Ahuja S, Quinones M, Kostecki V, Reddick R, Melby P, et al. CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 is required for langerhans cell migration and localization of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing dendritic cells. Absence of CCR2 shifts the Leishmania major-resistant phenotype to a susceptible state dominated by Th2 cy. J Exp Med. 2000;192:205-18 pubmed
    ..major-susceptible genetic background. Thus, CCR2 is an important determinant of not only DC migration and localization but also the development of protective cell-mediated immune responses to L. major. ..
  4. Graham G, Wright E, Hewick R, Wolpe S, Wilkie N, Donaldson D, et al. Identification and characterization of an inhibitor of haemopoietic stem cell proliferation. Nature. 1990;344:442-4 pubmed
  5. Takahashi H, Tashiro T, Miyazaki M, Kobayashi M, Pollard R, Suzuki F. An essential role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha/CCL3 on the expression of host's innate immunities against infectious complications. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:1190-7 pubmed
    Sepsis was induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha)/CCL3 knockout (CCL3(-/-)) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice...
  6. Miyazaki D, Nakamura T, Toda M, Cheung Chau K, Richardson R, Ono S. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha as a costimulatory signal for mast cell-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:434-42 pubmed
    ..Antagonizing the interaction of MIP-1alpha with its receptor CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) or signal transduction from CCR1 may therefore prove to be effective as an antiinflammatory therapy on the ocular surface. ..
  7. Yahiaoui L, Gvozdic D, Danialou G, Mack M, Petrof B. CC family chemokines directly regulate myoblast responses to skeletal muscle injury. J Physiol. 2008;586:3991-4004 pubmed publisher to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; CCL2), macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha; CCL3) or MIP-1beta (CCL4)...
  8. Castellino F, Germain R. Chemokine-guided CD4+ T cell help enhances generation of IL-6RalphahighIL-7Ralpha high prememory CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:778-87 pubmed functional memory CD8(+) T cells depended on the early postvaccination action of the inflammatory chemokines CCL3 and CCL4...
  9. Ryschich E, Lizdenis P, Ittrich C, Benner A, Stahl S, Hamann A, et al. Molecular fingerprinting and autocrine growth regulation of endothelial cells in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:198-211 pubmed
    ..We also show that the CC chemokines CCL2 and CCL3 are secreted by neovessels and stimulate proliferation through their cognate receptors in an autocrine fashion...
  10. Ajuebor M, Hogaboam C, Le T, Proudfoot A, Swain M. CCL3/MIP-1alpha is pro-inflammatory in murine T cell-mediated hepatitis by recruiting CCR1-expressing CD4(+) T cells to the liver. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:2907-18 pubmed
    ..Levels of C-C chemokine ligand 3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (CCL3/MIP-1alpha) are elevated in the serum of patients with T cell-mediated liver diseases, but its role is not fully ..
  11. Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002;13:455-81 pubmed
    ..Since both human MIP-1alpha subtypes (LD78alpha and LD78beta) and MIP-1beta signal through CCR5, the major co-receptor for M-tropic HIV-1 strains, these ..
  12. Kiguchi N, Maeda T, Kobayashi Y, Fukazawa Y, Kishioka S. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha mediates the development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury through interleukin-1beta up-regulation. Pain. 2010;149:305-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we propose a novel critical molecule MIP-1alpha derived from macrophages and Schwann cells that appears to play a crucial role in the development of neuropathic pain induced by PSL...
  13. Panoskaltsis Mortari A, Hermanson J, Taras E, Wangensteen O, Serody J, Blazar B. Acceleration of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) in the absence of donor MIP-1 alpha (CCL3) after allogeneic BMT in mice. Blood. 2003;101:3714-21 pubmed
    ..Donor-derived MIP-1 alpha may play a role in allogeneic-induced IPS by limiting aggressive expansion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. ..
  14. Li C, Zhang W, Chen X, Xie L, He Q, Hu X, et al. [Effect of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and its mRNA on airway inflammation of mouse asthma model]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2004;42:90-3 pubmed
  15. Widmer U, Yang Z, Van Deventer S, Manogue K, Sherry B, Cerami A. Genomic structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and conservation of potential regulatory sequences with a human homolog, LD78. J Immunol. 1991;146:4031-40 pubmed
  16. Grove M, Lowe S, Graham G, Pragnell I, Plumb M. Sequence of the murine haemopoietic stem cell inhibitor/macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:5561 pubmed
  17. Chandrasekar B, Deobagkar Lele M, Victor E, Nandi D. Regulation of chemokines, CCL3 and CCL4, by interferon ? and nitric oxide synthase 2 in mouse macrophages and during Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1556-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the repression of CCL3 and CCL4 by IFN-? and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) in macrophages and upon Salmonella typhimurium infection of ..
  18. Scully P, MacSharry J, O Mahony D, Lyons A, O BRIEN F, Murphy S, et al. Bifidobacterium infantis suppression of Peyer's patch MIP-1? and MIP-1? secretion during Salmonella infection correlates with increased local CD4+CD25+ T cell numbers. Cell Immunol. 2013;281:134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that although B. infantis 35624-induced Tregs correlate with inhibition of chemokine secretion within the mucosa of pathogen infected animals, indirect cellular mechanisms may play a role. ..
  19. Baba T, Naka K, Morishita S, Komatsu N, Hirao A, Mukaida N. MIP-1?/CCL3-mediated maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells in the initiation process of chronic myeloid leukemia. J Exp Med. 2013;210:2661-73 pubmed publisher
    ..that BCR-ABL(+)lineage(-)c-kit(-) immature leukemia cells produced high levels of an inflammatory chemokine, MIP-1?/CCL3, which promoted the development of CML...
  20. Vazquez Chona F, Khan A, Chan C, Moore A, Dash P, Hernandez M, et al. Genetic networks controlling retinal injury. Mol Vis. 2005;11:958-70 pubmed
    ..Using genetic linkage analysis of natural transcript variation, we identified regulatory loci and candidate regulators that control transcript levels of acute phase genes. ..
  21. Horton M, Burdick M, Strieter R, Bao C, Noble P. Regulation of hyaluronan-induced chemokine gene expression by IL-10 and IFN-gamma in mouse macrophages. J Immunol. 1998;160:3023-30 pubmed
    ..These data identify a previously unrecognized role for IL-10 and IFN-gamma as regulators of ECM-induced macrophage expression of inflammatory chemokines. ..
  22. Wolpe S, Davatelis G, Sherry B, Beutler B, Hesse D, Nguyen H, et al. Macrophages secrete a novel heparin-binding protein with inflammatory and neutrophil chemokinetic properties. J Exp Med. 1988;167:570-81 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that MIP is an endogenous mediator that may play a role in the host responses that occur during endotoxemia and other inflammatory events. ..
  23. Gill B, Jaramillo A, Ma L, Laupland K, Delovitch T. Genetic linkage of thymic T-cell proliferative unresponsiveness to mouse chromosome 11 in NOD mice. A possible role for chemokine genes. Diabetes. 1995;44:614-9 pubmed
    ..This finding raises the possibility that a beta-chemokine(s) may regulate T-cell unresponsiveness as well as diabetes susceptibility in NOD mice. ..
  24. de Jager S, Bot I, Kraaijeveld A, Korporaal S, Bot M, Van Santbrink P, et al. Leukocyte-specific CCL3 deficiency inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development by affecting neutrophil accumulation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:e75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..It has recently been shown that under conditions of inflammation neutrophils can migrate along a CCL3 gradient. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of leukocyte-derived CCL3 in atherogenesis...
  25. Pender S, Chance V, Whiting C, Buckley M, Edwards M, Pettipher R, et al. Systemic administration of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease in a mouse model. Gut. 2005;54:1114-20 pubmed
    ..of chemokines, we have determined whether systemic administration of the CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha) exacerbates colitis in a mouse model...
  26. Ajuebor M, Das A, Virag L, Szabo C, Perretti M. Regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha expression and function by endogenous interleukin-10 in a model of acute inflammation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;255:279-82 pubmed
    ..In summary we propose a functional cross talk between endogenous IL-10 and this CC chemokine during the host inflammatory response. ..
  27. Youn B, Kim S, Lyu M, Kozak C, Taub D, Kwon B. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA, CHEMR1, encoding a chemokine receptor with a homology to the human C-C chemokine receptor, CCR-4. Blood. 1997;89:4448-60 pubmed
    ..Our result is different from the reported properties of human CCR-4. This suggests that CHEMR1 may be a receptor for unidentified C-C chemokine or a low-affinity receptor for MIP-1alpha. ..
  28. Blázquez Prieto J, López Alonso I, Amado Rodríguez L, Batalla Solís E, González López A, Albaiceta G. Exposure to mechanical ventilation promotes tolerance to ventilator-induced lung injury by Ccl3 downregulation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L847-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the previously identified genes, only Ccl3, which encodes the macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), showed significant differences between intact and preconditioned mice after high-..
  29. Cohen Tannoudji M, Vandormael Pournin S, Le Bras S, Coumailleau F, Babinet C, Baldacci P. A 2-Mb YAC/BAC-based physical map of the ovum mutant (Om) locus region on mouse chromosome 11. Genomics. 2000;68:273-82 pubmed
    ..Two other genes (Rad51l3 and Schlafen 2) and one EST (D11Wsu78e) were also mapped in the Om region. This integrated map provides support for the identification of additional candidate genes for the DDK syndrome. ..
  30. Hoh B, Hosaka K, Downes D, Nowicki K, Fernandez C, Batich C, et al. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 promotes inflammatory vascular repair of murine carotid aneurysms via a macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and macrophage inflammatory protein-2-dependent pathway. Circulation. 2011;124:2243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that MCP-1 has a critical role in promoting inflammatory intra-aneurysmal tissue healing in an MIP-1?- and MIP-2-dependent pathway. ..
  31. Pace L, Tempez A, Arnold Schrauf C, Lemaitre F, Bousso P, Fetler L, et al. Regulatory T cells increase the avidity of primary CD8+ T cell responses and promote memory. Science. 2012;338:532-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that T(regs) are important regulators of the homeostasis of CD8(+) T cell priming and play a critical role in the induction of high-avidity primary responses and effective memory. ..
  32. Tsutsumi T, Kajiya H, Goto K, Takahashi Y, Okabe K. Hyperocclusion up-regulates CCL3 expression in CCL2- and CCR2-deficient mice. J Dent Res. 2013;92:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with that in wild-type mice, expression of CCL3 in PDL cells and TRAP-positive cells in alveolar bone from CCL2((-/-)) and CCR2((-/-)) mice was up-regulated, even ..
  33. Demoule A, Divangahi M, Yahiaoui L, Danialou G, Gvozdic D, Petrof B. Chemokine receptor and ligand upregulation in the diaphragm during endotoxemia and Pseudomonas lung infection. Mediators Inflamm. 2009;2009:860565 pubmed publisher
  34. Dong L, Zheng H, Qu C. CCL3 is a key mediator for the leukemogenic effect of Ptpn11-activating mutations in the stem-cell microenvironment. Blood. 2017;130:1471-1474 pubmed publisher
  35. Fukuda S, Hanano Y, Iio M, Miura R, Yoshie O, Nomiyama H. Genomic organization of the genes for human and mouse CC chemokine LEC. DNA Cell Biol. 1999;18:275-83 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis revealed that the sequence isolated from the BAC clone was the only one hybridizing with human LEC cDNA in the mouse genome. Therefore, mice may have only an LEC pseudogene. ..
  36. Bernhagen J, Calandra T, Mitchell R, Martin S, Tracey K, Voelter W, et al. MIF is a pituitary-derived cytokine that potentiates lethal endotoxaemia. Nature. 1993;365:756-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that MIF plays a central role in the toxic response to endotoxaemia and possibly septic shock. ..
  37. Castor M, Rezende B, Resende C, Alessandri A, Fagundes C, Sousa L, et al. The CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha-binding protein evasin-1 protects from graft-versus-host disease but does not modify graft-versus-leukemia in mice. J Immunol. 2010;184:2646-54 pubmed publisher
    b>CCL3 is a protein of the CC chemokine family known to be important for T cell recruitment in inflammatory diseases...
  38. Llorián Salvador M, González Rodríguez S, Lastra A, Fernández García M, Hidalgo A, Menéndez L, et al. Involvement of CC Chemokine Receptor 1 and CCL3 in Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;119:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor type 1 (CCR1) in pathological pain, we have assessed the participation of CCR1 and its endogenous ligands CCL3 and CCL5 in hyperalgesia and allodynia in mice after acute inflammation with carrageenan and chronic inflammation ..
  39. de Jager S, Kraaijeveld A, Grauss R, de Jager W, Liem S, van der Hoeven B, et al. CCL3 (MIP-1 alpha) levels are elevated during acute coronary syndromes and show strong prognostic power for future ischemic events. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;45:446-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of CCL3 were prospectively verified in 54 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP)...
  40. Yoon K, de Paiva C, Qi H, Chen Z, Farley W, Li D, et al. Expression of Th-1 chemokines and chemokine receptors on the ocular surface of C57BL/6 mice: effects of desiccating stress. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2561-9 pubmed
    ..Experimental dry eye was created in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. The concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, monokine induced by interferon (MIG)-gamma, and interferon-gamma-..
  41. de Paula R, Cassali G, Negrão Corrêa D, Guimaraes M. Development and pathology of Fasciola hepatica in CCL3-deficient mice. Vet Parasitol. 2010;173:147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to evaluate the role of CCL3 in the development of F...
  42. Nakajima T, Inagaki N, Tanaka H, Tanaka A, Yoshikawa M, Tamari M, et al. Marked increase in CC chemokine gene expression in both human and mouse mast cell transcriptomes following Fcepsilon receptor I cross-linking: an interspecies comparison. Blood. 2002;100:3861-8 pubmed
    ..CC chemokines were markedly increased, and I-309 (CCL1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) (CCL3) and MIP-1beta (CCL4) were found among the 10 most increased human and mouse transcripts from approximately 12 000 ..
  43. Heinrichs D, Berres M, Nellen A, Fischer P, Scholten D, Trautwein C, et al. The chemokine CCL3 promotes experimental liver fibrosis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66106 pubmed publisher
    ..We here aimed to investigate the effects of the CC chemokine CCL3, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, in two different fibrosis models...
  44. Xiao Y, Xu J, Mao C, Jin M, Wu Q, Zou J, et al. 18Beta-glycyrrhetinic acid ameliorates acute Propionibacterium acnes-induced liver injury through inhibition of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that GA exhibits antiinflammatory effects through inhibition of MIP-1alpha in a mouse model of acute P. acnes-induced inflammatory liver injury. ..
  45. Poddar D, Basu A, Baldwin W, Kondratov R, Barik S, Mazumder B. An extraribosomal function of ribosomal protein L13a in macrophages resolves inflammation. J Immunol. 2013;190:3600-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, to our knowledge, our studies provide the first evidence of an essential extraribosomal function of ribosomal protein L13a in resolving physiological inflammation in a mammalian host. ..
  46. DiPietro L, Burdick M, Low Q, Kunkel S, Strieter R. MIP-1alpha as a critical macrophage chemoattractant in murine wound repair. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1693-8 pubmed
    ..This study examines the role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), a C-C chemokine with monocyte chemoattractant capability, in excisional wound repair...
  47. Standiford T, Kunkel S, Lukacs N, Greenberger M, Danforth J, Kunkel R, et al. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha mediates lung leukocyte recruitment, lung capillary leak, and early mortality in murine endotoxemia. J Immunol. 1995;155:1515-24 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that MIP-1 alpha plays an integral role as a mediator of both PMN and M phi recruitment in murine endotoxemia. ..
  48. Jing H, Vassiliou E, Ganea D. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits production of the inflammatory chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 in dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;74:868-79 pubmed
    ..In this study we report that exogenous PGE2 inhibits CCL3 (MIP-1alpha) and CCL4 (MIP-1beta) expression and release from dendritic cells stimulated with either ..
  49. Post T, Bozic C, Rothenberg M, Luster A, Gerard N, Gerard C. Molecular characterization of two murine eosinophil beta chemokine receptors. J Immunol. 1995;155:5299-305 pubmed
    ..Murine MIP-1 alpha was found to be a potent chemoattractant for murine eosinophils. Our findings suggest that the murine MIP-1 alpha ligand/receptor system is an important mediator of murine eosinophil trafficking. ..
  50. Bhattacharyya S, Ghosh S, Dasgupta B, Mazumder D, Roy S, Majumdar S. Chemokine-induced leishmanicidal activity in murine macrophages via the generation of nitric oxide. J Infect Dis. 2002;185:1704-8 pubmed
  51. Brown K, Zurawski S, Mosmann T, Zurawski G. A family of small inducible proteins secreted by leukocytes are members of a new superfamily that includes leukocyte and fibroblast-derived inflammatory agents, growth factors, and indicators of various activation processes. J Immunol. 1989;142:679-87 pubmed
    ..One of the small, inducible, secreted proteins has a predicted mature N terminus identical to that of the previously described macrophage inflammatory protein. ..
  52. Meyer A, Coyle A, Proudfoot A, Wells T, Power C. Cloning and characterization of a novel murine macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha receptor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:14445-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that this receptor functions as a high affinity murine MIP-1alpha receptor; however, it is likely to be an important target for the biological activities of several CC chemokines in mouse. ..
  53. Verri W, Cunha T, Ferreira S, Wei X, Leung B, Fraser A, et al. IL-15 mediates antigen-induced neutrophil migration by triggering IL-18 production. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:3373-80 pubmed
    ..The cell migration was not induced in IL-18-/-, MIP-1alpha (CCL3)-/-, TNFR1-/- or 5-LOX-/- mice but was normal in IFN-gamma-/- mice...
  54. Irving S, Zipfel P, Balke J, McBride O, Morton C, Burd P, et al. Two inflammatory mediator cytokine genes are closely linked and variably amplified on chromosome 17q. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:3261-70 pubmed
    ..These genes are all located on chromosome 17 in bands q11-q21, the region implicated in von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF1) and in acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML-M3). ..
  55. Souza A, Roffe E, Pinho V, Souza D, Silva A, Russo R, et al. Potential role of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha in human and experimental schistosomiasis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2515-23 pubmed
    In human schistosomiasis, the concentrations of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha/CCL3) is greater in the plasma of patients with clinical hepatosplenic disease...
  56. Chikanishi T, Fujiki R, Hashiba W, Sekine H, Yokoyama A, Kato S. Glucose-induced expression of MIP-1 genes requires O-GlcNAc transferase in monocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:865-70 pubmed publisher
    ..From these findings, we suggest that OGT could be a co-regulatory subunit shared by functionally distinct complexes supporting epigenetic regulation. ..
  57. Nibbs R, Wylie S, Pragnell I, Graham G. Cloning and characterization of a novel murine beta chemokine receptor, D6. Comparison to three other related macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha receptors, CCR-1, CCR-3, and CCR-5. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:12495-504 pubmed
  58. Argiropoulos B, Palmqvist L, Yung E, Kuchenbauer F, Heuser M, Sly L, et al. Linkage of Meis1 leukemogenic activity to multiple downstream effectors including Trib2 and Ccl3. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:845-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed the in vivo occupancy of MEIS1 on regulatory sequences of Trib2, Flt3, Dlk1, Ccl3, Ccl4, Pf4, and Rgs1...
  59. von Stebut E, Metz M, Milon G, Knop J, Maurer M. Early macrophage influx to sites of cutaneous granuloma formation is dependent on MIP-1alpha /beta released from neutrophils recruited by mast cell-derived TNFalpha. Blood. 2003;101:210-5 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that MPhi recruitment to cutaneous PAG- induced granulomas is the result of a sequence of inflammatory processes initiated by MC-derived TNFalpha followed by PMN influx and MIP-1a/beta release. ..
  60. Israelsson C, Kylberg A, Bengtsson H, Hillered L, Ebendal T. Interacting chemokine signals regulate dendritic cells in acute brain injury. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e104754 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice deficient in Ccl3, Ccr2 or Cxcl10 were compared with wildtype mice after controlled cortical impact injury...
  61. Medeiros A, Malheiro A, Jose P, Conroy D, Williams T, Faccioli L. Differential release of MIP-1alpha and eotaxin during infection of mice by Histoplasma capsulatum or inoculation of beta-glucan. Inflamm Res. 2004;53:351-4 pubmed
    ..2C-E). The results suggest that chemokines and leukotrienes may play key roles in the inflammatory cell influx to H. capsulatum infection or to the inoculation of the beta-glucan cell wall component of this fungus ..
  62. Farmaki E, Kaza V, Papavassiliou A, Chatzistamou I, Kiaris H. Induction of the MCP chemokine cluster cascade in the periphery by cancer cell-derived Ccl3. Cancer Lett. 2017;389:49-58 pubmed publisher
    ..cells and media followed by functional validation assays in in vitro and in vivo identified the cytokine Ccl3 as the principle mediator of the communication between the neoplastic epithelium and the peripheral tissues in ..
  63. Baschuk N, Wang N, Watt S, Halse H, House C, Bird P, et al. NK cell intrinsic regulation of MIP-1? by granzyme M. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1115 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that GrzM is a critical mediator of innate immunity that can regulate chemotactic networks and has an important role in the initiation of immune responses and pathogen control. ..
  64. Yi H, Bai Y, Zhu X, Lin L, Zhao L, Wu X, et al. IL-17A induces MIP-1? expression in primary astrocytes via Src/MAPK/PI3K/NF-kB pathways: implications for multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2014;9:629-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the regulation of MIP-1? expression may provide insights into the development of potential therapeutic targets for neuroinflammation associated with multiple sclerosis. ..
  65. Kawao N, Tamura Y, Horiuchi Y, Okumoto K, Yano M, Okada K, et al. The Tissue Fibrinolytic System Contributes to the Induction of Macrophage Function and CCL3 during Bone Repair in Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123982 pubmed publisher
    ..of cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA in the damaged femur, the elevation in CCL3 mRNA levels was suppressed in uPA-/- and Plg-/-, but not in tPA-/- mice...
  66. Buschmann J, Berger K, Awad H, Clarner T, Beyer C, Kipp M. Inflammatory response and chemokine expression in the white matter corpus callosum and gray matter cortex region during cuprizone-induced demyelination. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:66-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular parameters were related to the expression profiles of the chemokines Ccl2 and Ccl3. We are clearly able to demonstrate that both regions are characterized by early oligodendrocyte stress/apoptosis ..
  67. Blackshear P, Verghese G, Johnson J, Haupt D, Stumpo D. Characteristics of the F52 protein, a MARCKS homologue. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:13540-6 pubmed
    ..The F52 protein is clearly a member of the MARCKS family as defined by primary sequence; in addition, the two proteins share several key attributes that may be functionally important. ..
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    ..gondii infection is not known much. We selected 5 genes (ALDH1A2, BEX2, CCL3, EGR2 and PLAU) and compared the mRNA expression levels in the spleen, liver, lung and small intestine of ..
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    ..Our data suggest that MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha are involved in the induction of retinal neovascularization and play a role in the inflammation induced by the ischemic retinopathy, possibly by modulating or attracting macrophages/microglia...
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    ..These results suggest a close association between the MIP-1alpha response and the Th1-type T-cell responses in chlamydial lung infections. ..
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    ..inflammation in the lipid storage disorder (LSD) Niemann-Pick C (NPC), we deleted the macrophage inflammatory gene Mip1a/Ccl3 from NPC diseased mice...
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    ..The availability of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1alpha) knockout mice and congenic C5-deficient and C5-sufficient mice allowed us to ..
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    ..IL-9(+) IL-10(+) T cells play an important role in LPR. This subset of T cells has the potential to be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of LPR and LPR-related inflammation. ..
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    ..Notably, the CCL2 (MCP-1)-CCR2 axis and the closely related ligand-receptor pair CCR1-CCL3 (MIP-1alpha) were among the most up-regulated during disease...
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    ..The results illustrated that MIP-1alpha played a key role in recruitment of macrophages to the OE and provided insight into the genomic regulation involved in OE remodeling. ..
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    ..of neutrophils and macrophages, in association with decreased expression of the chemokines, MIP-2/CXCL2, MIP-1?/CCL3, and MCP-1/CCL2, in the wound...
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    ..We used the cuprizone model to study redundant functions of two chemokines, CCL2/MCP1 and CCL3/MIP1α, which are critically involved in the pathological process of cuprizone-induced demyelination...
  89. Marciniak E, Faivre E, Dutar P, Alves Pires C, Demeyer D, Caillierez R, et al. The Chemokine MIP-1α/CCL3 impairs mouse hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and memory. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15862 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we specifically evaluated the effects of MIP1-α/CCL3 towards hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and spatial memory...