Ccl19

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ccl19
Description: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19
Alias: CKb11, ELC, MIP3B, Scya19, exodus-3, C-C motif chemokine 19, EBI-1 ligand chemokine, EBI1 ligand chemokine, EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine, chemokine CCL19, epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine, small-inducible cytokine A19
Species: mouse
Products:     Ccl19

Top Publications

  1. Luther S, Tang H, Hyman P, Farr A, Cyster J. Coexpression of the chemokines ELC and SLC by T zone stromal cells and deletion of the ELC gene in the plt/plt mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:12694-9 pubmed
    ..demonstrate here that the gene for the related chemokine, Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule-1 ligand chemokine (ELC), is also deleted in this immunodeficient mouse strain...
  2. Link A, Vogt T, Favre S, Britschgi M, Acha Orbea H, Hinz B, et al. Fibroblastic reticular cells in lymph nodes regulate the homeostasis of naive T cells. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:1255-65 pubmed
    ..prevent the death of naive T lymphocytes but not of B lymphocytes by secreting interleukin 7 and the CCR7 ligand CCL19. Using gene-targeted mice, we demonstrate a nonredundant function for CCL19 in T cell homeostasis...
  3. Honda K, Nakano H, Yoshida H, Nishikawa S, Rennert P, Ikuta K, et al. Molecular basis for hematopoietic/mesenchymal interaction during initiation of Peyer's patch organogenesis. J Exp Med. 2001;193:621-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, promotion of PP development relies on mutual interaction between mesenchymal and lymphoid cells. ..
  4. Britschgi M, Link A, Lissandrin T, Luther S. Dynamic modulation of CCR7 expression and function on naive T lymphocytes in vivo. J Immunol. 2008;181:7681-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast to blood, T cells in SLO had most surface CCR7 occupied with CCL19, presumably leading to continuous signaling and cell motility...
  5. Ngo V, Tang H, Cyster J. Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine is expressed by dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues and strongly attracts naive T cells and activated B cells. J Exp Med. 1998;188:181-91 pubmed
    ..Epstein-Barr virus- induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC/MIP3beta) is expressed constitutively within lymphoid tissues and may act as such a guidance cue...
  6. Bleul C, Boehm T. Chemokines define distinct microenvironments in the developing thymus. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:3371-9 pubmed
    ..regulated temporally during embryogenesis; in the alymphoid early thymic anlage, only TECK, SDF-1 and SLC but not ELC, MDC or TARC are expressed...
  7. Nakano H, Gunn M. Gene duplications at the chemokine locus on mouse chromosome 4: multiple strain-specific haplotypes and the deletion of secondary lymphoid-organ chemokine and EBI-1 ligand chemokine genes in the plt mutation. J Immunol. 2001;166:361-9 pubmed
    ..We now find that the plt defect is due to the loss of both SLC and EBI-1 ligand chemokine (ELC) expression in secondary lymphoid organs...
  8. Yoshida R, Nagira M, Kitaura M, Imagawa N, Imai T, Yoshie O. Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor CCR7. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:7118-22 pubmed
    ..The SLC gene and the gene encoding another lymphocyte-specific CC chemokine, EBI1-ligand chemokine (ELC), form a mini-cluster at human chromosome 9p13...
  9. Luther S, Bidgol A, Hargreaves D, Schmidt A, Xu Y, Paniyadi J, et al. Differing activities of homeostatic chemokines CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL12 in lymphocyte and dendritic cell recruitment and lymphoid neogenesis. J Immunol. 2002;169:424-33 pubmed
    Despite their widespread expression, the in vivo recruitment activities of CCL19 (EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine) and CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) have not been established...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Comerford I, Nibbs R, Litchfield W, Bunting M, Harata Lee Y, Haylock Jacobs S, et al. The atypical chemokine receptor CCX-CKR scavenges homeostatic chemokines in circulation and tissues and suppresses Th17 responses. Blood. 2010;116:4130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..mice, CCX-CKR(-/-) have a 5-fold increase in the level of CCL21 protein in blood, and 2- to 3-fold increases in CCL19 and CCL21 in peripheral lymph nodes...
  2. Marsland B, Bättig P, Bauer M, Ruedl C, Lässing U, Beerli R, et al. CCL19 and CCL21 induce a potent proinflammatory differentiation program in licensed dendritic cells. Immunity. 2005;22:493-505 pubmed
    ..Using an alphaviral expression cloning technology, we have identified the chemokine CCL19 as a potent inducer of T cell proliferation in a DC-T cell coculture system...
  3. Kuwabara T, Ishikawa F, Yasuda T, Aritomi K, Nakano H, Tanaka Y, et al. CCR7 ligands are required for development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through generating IL-23-dependent Th17 cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:2513-21 pubmed publisher
    b>CCL19 and CCL21 are thought to be critical for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induction, but their precise role is unknown. We examined the role of these chemokines in inducing EAE...
  4. Mori S, Nakano H, Aritomi K, Wang C, Gunn M, Kakiuchi T. Mice lacking expression of the chemokines CCL21-ser and CCL19 (plt mice) demonstrate delayed but enhanced T cell immune responses. J Exp Med. 2001;193:207-18 pubmed
    The paucity of lymph node T cells (plt) mutation leads to a loss of CCL21 and CCL19 expression in secondary lymphoid organs...
  5. Yanagawa Y, Onoe K. CCR7 ligands induce rapid endocytosis in mature dendritic cells with concomitant up-regulation of Cdc42 and Rac activities. Blood. 2003;101:4923-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the effects of CCL19 and CCL21, 2 CCR7 ligands, on endocytosis of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran by murine DCs...
  6. Nguyen Hoai T, Baldenhofer G, Ahmed M, Pham Duc M, Gries M, Lipp M, et al. CCL19 (ELC) improves TH1-polarized immune responses and protective immunity in a murine Her2/neu DNA vaccination model. J Gene Med. 2012;14:128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Coexpression of immunomodulatory molecules can help to amplify the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. CCL19 (ELC) is a CC chemokine with immunoregulatory properties, binding to the chemokine receptor CCR7 that is expressed ..
  7. Luther S, Ansel K, Cyster J. Overlapping roles of CXCL13, interleukin 7 receptor alpha, and CCR7 ligands in lymph node development. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1191-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that CXCL13 and CCR7 ligands promote accumulation of CD4+ CD3- IL-7R alpha hi cells, delivering IL-7R alpha-dependent LT alpha 1 beta 2 signals critical for LN development. ..
  8. Akhavanpoor M, Gleissner C, Gorbatsch S, Doesch A, Akhavanpoor H, Wangler S, et al. CCL19 and CCL21 modulate the inflammatory milieu in atherosclerotic lesions. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2014;8:2359-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and elevated expression of CCL19 and CCL21 has been observed in ruptured lesions of coronary arteries of patients with myocardial infarction and ..
  9. Abe J, Ueha S, Suzuki J, Tokano Y, Matsushima K, Ishikawa S. Increased Foxp3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells with intact suppressive activity but altered cellular localization in murine lupus. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1682-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we conclude that T(reg) cells in BWF1 mice are not predisposed to functional incompetence but rather are present in a highly activated state. ..
  10. Ato M, Maroof A, Zubairi S, Nakano H, Kakiuchi T, Kaye P. Loss of dendritic cell migration and impaired resistance to Leishmania donovani infection in mice deficient in CCL19 and CCL21. J Immunol. 2006;176:5486-93 pubmed
    ..that following Leishmania donovani infection of mice, the migration of splenic DC is regulated by the CCR7 ligands CCL19/CCL21...
  11. Jafarnejad M, Zawieja D, Brook B, Nibbs R, Moore J. A Novel Computational Model Predicts Key Regulators of Chemokine Gradient Formation in Lymph Nodes and Site-Specific Roles for CCL19 and ACKR4. J Immunol. 2017;199:2291-2304 pubmed publisher
    ..It is activated by chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are scavenged by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4...
  12. Junt T, Nakano H, Dumrese T, Kakiuchi T, Odermatt B, Zinkernagel R, et al. Antiviral immune responses in the absence of organized lymphoid T cell zones in plt/plt mice. J Immunol. 2002;168:6032-40 pubmed
  13. Iijima N, Yanagawa Y, Clingan J, Onoe K. CCR7-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation regulates cell migration in mature dendritic cells. Int Immunol. 2005;17:1201-12 pubmed
    ..However, functional role(s) of this molecule in dendritic cells (DCs) has not been well understood. CCR7 ligands, CCL19 and CCL21, induce not only chemotaxis but also endocytosis in mature DCs...
  14. Sano T, Nagayasu S, Suzuki S, Iwashita M, Yamashita A, Shinjo T, et al. Epicatechin downregulates adipose tissue CCL19 expression and thereby ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27:249-259 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, EC markedly suppressed chemokine (CC motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) expression. The target cell of EC appeared to macrophages...
  15. Yanagawa Y, Onoe K. CCL19 induces rapid dendritic extension of murine dendritic cells. Blood. 2002;100:1948-56 pubmed
    ..In the present study, using a murine spleen-derived DC line, we analyzed effects of CCR7 ligands, CCL19 and CCL21, on dendritic morphology...
  16. Hillinger S, Yang S, Zhu L, Huang M, Duckett R, Atianzar K, et al. EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC/CCL19) promotes IFN-gamma-dependent antitumor responses in a lung cancer model. J Immunol. 2003;171:6457-65 pubmed
    The antitumor efficacy of EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand CC chemokine (ELC/CCL19) was evaluated in a murine lung cancer model...
  17. Ato M, Nakano H, Kakiuchi T, Kaye P. Localization of marginal zone macrophages is regulated by C-C chemokine ligands 21/19. J Immunol. 2004;173:4815-20 pubmed
    ..We now report that plt/plt mice, which lack functional CCL19 and CCL21, have significantly reduced numbers of MZM compared with normal C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Similarly, in B6.CD45...
  18. Kim S, Han S, Lee H, Kim Y, Choi E, Kim M. Impaired spleen structure and chemokine expression in ME7 scrapie-infected mice. Immunobiology. 2016;221:871-8 pubmed publisher
    ..display impaired T zone structure resulting from decreased splenic expression of the T cell homing chemokines, CCL19 and CCL21. Prions are transported to, and colonise in, the secondary lymphoid tissues...
  19. Weber M, Hauschild R, Schwarz J, Moussion C, de Vries I, Legler D, et al. Interstitial dendritic cell guidance by haptotactic chemokine gradients. Science. 2013;339:328-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings functionally establish the concept of haptotaxis, directed migration along immobilized gradients, in tissues. ..
  20. Laan M, Kisand K, Kont V, Möll K, Tserel L, Scott H, et al. Autoimmune regulator deficiency results in decreased expression of CCR4 and CCR7 ligands and in delayed migration of CD4+ thymocytes. J Immunol. 2009;183:7682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a novel mechanism behind the Aire-dependent induction of central tolerance. ..
  21. Hua J, Stevenson W, Dohlman T, Inomata T, Tahvildari M, Calcagno N, et al. Graft Site Microenvironment Determines Dendritic Cell Trafficking Through the CCR7-CCL19/21 Axis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:1457-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein and mRNA expression of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 were assessed using ELISA and Real-Time qPCR, respectively...
  22. Fukuda K, Yoshida H, Sato T, Furumoto T, Mizutani Koseki Y, Suzuki Y, et al. Mesenchymal expression of Foxl1, a winged helix transcriptional factor, regulates generation and maintenance of gut-associated lymphoid organs. Dev Biol. 2003;255:278-89 pubmed
    ..Together, the data suggest that Foxl1 might be involved in cellular responses of gut-associated lymphoid tissues dependent upon the Lymphotoxins/Lymphotoxin beta-receptor axis. ..
  23. Britschgi M, Favre S, Luther S. CCL21 is sufficient to mediate DC migration, maturation and function in the absence of CCL19. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It is currently unclear which CCR7 ligand mediates these processes in vivo as CCL19 and CCL21 show an overlapping expression pattern and blocking experiments have given contradictory results...
  24. de Valle E, Grigoriadis G, O Reilly L, Willis S, Maxwell M, Corcoran L, et al. NF?B1 is essential to prevent the development of multiorgan autoimmunity by limiting IL-6 production in follicular B cells. J Exp Med. 2016;213:621-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings identify a previously unrecognized role for NF?B1 in preventing multiorgan autoimmunity through its negative regulation of Il-6 gene expression in Fo B cells. ..
  25. Kiermaier E, Moussion C, Veldkamp C, Gerardy Schahn R, de Vries I, Williams L, et al. Polysialylation controls dendritic cell trafficking by regulating chemokine recognition. Science. 2016;351:186-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we describe a glycosylation-mediated immune cell trafficking disorder and its mechanistic basis. ..
  26. Demoor T, Bracke K, Maes T, Vandooren B, Elewaut D, Pilette C, et al. Role of lymphotoxin-alpha in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and lymphoid neogenesis. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) stimulation induced CXCL13 and CCL19 mRNA in WT lung fibroblasts...
  27. Stachowiak A, Wang Y, Huang Y, Irvine D. Homeostatic lymphoid chemokines synergize with adhesion ligands to trigger T and B lymphocyte chemokinesis. J Immunol. 2006;177:2340-8 pubmed
    Homeostatic chemokines such as CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL13 are known to elicit chemotaxis from naive T and B cells and play a critical role in lymphocyte homing to appropriate zones within secondary lymphoid organs (SLO)...
  28. Rangel Moreno J, Moyron Quiroz J, Hartson L, Kusser K, Randall T. Pulmonary expression of CXC chemokine ligand 13, CC chemokine ligand 19, and CC chemokine ligand 21 is essential for local immunity to influenza. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10577-82 pubmed
    CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), CC chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21), and CCL19 are constitutively expressed in secondary lymphoid organs, where they control the placement of lymphocytes and dendritic cells...
  29. Misslitz A, Pabst O, Hintzen G, Ohl L, Kremmer E, Petrie H, et al. Thymic T cell development and progenitor localization depend on CCR7. J Exp Med. 2004;200:481-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings establish an essential role for CCR7 in intrathymic migration and proper T cell development. ..
  30. Chen S, Leach M, Chen Y, Cai X, Sullivan L, Wiekowski M, et al. Central nervous system inflammation and neurological disease in transgenic mice expressing the CC chemokine CCL21 in oligodendrocytes. J Immunol. 2002;168:1009-17 pubmed
    To study the biological role of the chemokine ligands CCL19 and CCL21, we generated transgenic mice expressing either gene in oligodendrocytes of the CNS...
  31. Bielecki B, Jatczak Pawlik I, Wolinski P, Bednarek A, Glabinski A. Central Nervous System and Peripheral Expression of CCL19, CCL21 and Their Receptor CCR7 in Experimental Model of Multiple Sclerosis. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2015;63:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, quantitative analysis of CCL19, CCL21 and CCR7 expression in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as in inflammatory mononuclear cells ..
  32. Khader S, Rangel Moreno J, Fountain J, Martino C, Reiley W, Pearl J, et al. In a murine tuberculosis model, the absence of homeostatic chemokines delays granuloma formation and protective immunity. J Immunol. 2009;183:8004-14 pubmed publisher
    ..CXCL13, CCL21, and CCL19 are constitutively expressed in the secondary lymphoid organs and play a dominant role in the homing of ..
  33. Fukuyama S, Nagatake T, Kim D, Takamura K, Park E, Kaisho T, et al. Cutting edge: Uniqueness of lymphoid chemokine requirement for the initiation and maturation of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue organogenesis. J Immunol. 2006;177:4276-80 pubmed
    ..CXCL13(-/-) mice and mice carrying the paucity of lymph node T cell (plt) mutation and lacking expression of CCL19 and CCL21 accumulate CD3(-)CD4(+)CD45(+) cells at the site of NALT but not of PP genesis...
  34. Heinonen K, Vanegas J, Brochu S, Shan J, Vainio S, Perreault C. Wnt4 regulates thymic cellularity through the expansion of thymic epithelial cells and early thymic progenitors. Blood. 2011;118:5163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt4 and its downstream signaling pathways could thus represent interesting candidates to improve thymic output in subjects with thymic atrophy. ..
  35. Yopp A, Ochando J, Mao M, Ledgerwood L, Ding Y, Bromberg J. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors regulate chemokine-driven transendothelial migration of lymph node but not splenic T cells. J Immunol. 2005;175:2913-24 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have investigated CCL19-CCR7 and CXCL12-CXCR4-driven migration of both splenic and peripheral lymph node (PLN) nonactivated and naive T ..
  36. Aritomi K, Kuwabara T, Tanaka Y, Nakano H, Yasuda T, Ishikawa F, et al. Altered antibody production and helper T cell function in mice lacking chemokines CCL19 and CCL21-Ser. Microbiol Immunol. 2010;54:691-701 pubmed publisher
    The roles of chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in Ab production were investigated using plt mutant mice, which lack expression of CCL19 and CCL21-ser in their lymphoid organs...
  37. Bouma G, Coppens J, Mourits S, Nikolic T, Sozzani S, Drexhage H, et al. Evidence for an enhanced adhesion of DC to fibronectin and a role of CCL19 and CCL21 in the accumulation of DC around the pre-diabetic islets in NOD mice. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:2386-96 pubmed
    ..We studied the expression of the chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, CCL19 and CCL21 over time in pancreases of NOD and control mice by ELISA on pancreas lysates as well as by ..
  38. Nossent A, Bastiaansen A, Peters E, De Vries M, Aref Z, Welten S, et al. CCR7-CCL19/CCL21 Axis is Essential for Effective Arteriogenesis in a Murine Model of Hindlimb Ischemia. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..In clear contrast, chemokine genes Ccl19, Ccl21a, and Ccl21c and the chemokine receptor CCR7 were upregulated in C57BL/6 mice 1 ..
  39. Kozai M, Kubo Y, Katakai T, Kondo H, Kiyonari H, Schaeuble K, et al. Essential role of CCL21 in establishment of central self-tolerance in T cells. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1925-1935 pubmed publisher
    ..However, how three functional CCR7 ligands in mouse, CCL19, CCL21Ser, and CCL21Leu, divide their roles in immune organs is unclear...
  40. Hamanishi J, Mandai M, Matsumura N, Baba T, Yamaguchi K, Fujii S, et al. Activated local immunity by CC chemokine ligand 19-transduced embryonic endothelial progenitor cells suppresses metastasis of murine ovarian cancer. Stem Cells. 2010;28:164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The eEPCs were retrovirally transduced with the mouse CC chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) gene, a lymphocyte-migrating chemokine...
  41. Pilkington K, Clark Lewis I, McColl S. Inhibition of generation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by a CCL19/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3beta antagonist. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40276-82 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have implicated the ligands CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor, CCR7, in the specific migration of naïve lymphocytes and mature dendritic cells to ..
  42. Takamura K, Fukuyama S, Nagatake T, Kim D, Kawamura A, Kawauchi H, et al. Regulatory role of lymphoid chemokine CCL19 and CCL21 in the control of allergic rhinitis. J Immunol. 2007;179:5897-906 pubmed
    The lymphoid chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 are known to be crucial both for lymphoid cell trafficking and for the structural organization of lymphoid tissues such as nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT)...
  43. Lu J, Ma J, Cai W, Wangpu X, Feng H, Zhao J, et al. CC motif chemokine ligand 19 suppressed colorectal cancer in vivo accompanied by an increase in IL-12 and IFN-γ. Biomed Pharmacother. 2015;69:374-9 pubmed publisher
    In this study we investigate the role of CC motif chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) to colorectal cancer (CRC) in vivo. We injected different dose of recombinant mouse CCL19 (rmCCL19) in the tumor site of the model of transplanted tumor...
  44. Wanschel A, Seibert T, Hewing B, Ramkhelawon B, Ray T, van Gils J, et al. Neuroimmune guidance cue Semaphorin 3E is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques and regulates macrophage retention. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:886-93 pubmed publisher
    ..behavior, we treated macrophages with recombinant protein in the presence/absence of chemokines, including CCL19, a chemokine implicated in the egress of macrophages from atherosclerotic plaques...
  45. Yasuda T, Kuwabara T, Nakano H, Aritomi K, Onodera T, Lipp M, et al. Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 promote activation-induced cell death of antigen-responding T cells. Blood. 2007;109:449-56 pubmed
    ..We investigated the influence of chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 constitutively expressed in SLOs on activation-induced cell death (AICD) of CD4+ T cells...
  46. Zhang H, Meng F, Chu C, Takai T, Lowell C. The Src family kinases Hck and Fgr negatively regulate neutrophil and dendritic cell chemokine signaling via PIR-B. Immunity. 2005;22:235-46 pubmed
    ..These data support a model in which the Src family kinases Hck and Fgr function as negative regulators of myeloid cell chemokine signaling by maintaining the tonic phosphorylation of PIR-B. ..
  47. Yamashita N, Tashimo H, Matsuo Y, Ishida H, Yoshiura K, Sato K, et al. Role of CCL21 and CCL19 in allergic inflammation in the ovalbumin-specific murine asthmatic model. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:1040-6 pubmed
    ..in asthma by using BALB/c-plt/plt (plt) mice, which possess genetic defects in expression of both CCL21 and CCL19. Plt and control BALB/c mice were immunized with ovalbumin and alum 4 times and thereafter were subjected to a 2-..
  48. Okada T, Ngo V, Ekland E, Forster R, Lipp M, Littman D, et al. Chemokine requirements for B cell entry to lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. J Exp Med. 2002;196:65-75 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the homing of CXCR4-/- B cells is suppressed in CCL19 (ELC)- and CCL21 (SLC)-deficient paucity of lymph node T cells mice, but not in wild-type mice...
  49. Buettner M, Bode U. Stromal cells directly mediate the re-establishment of the lymph node compartments after transplantation by CXCR5 or CCL19/21 signalling. Immunology. 2011;133:257-69 pubmed publisher
    ..After transplantation of plt/plt LN CCL19/CCL21 expression was observed leading to partial restoration of the T-cell area...
  50. Ricart B, John B, Lee D, Hunter C, Hammer D. Dendritic cells distinguish individual chemokine signals through CCR7 and CXCR4. J Immunol. 2011;186:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The key chemokines directing their migration are CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL12, but how signals from these chemokines are integrated by migrating cells is poorly understood...
  51. Milicevic N, Miljković M, Milicevic Z, Labudović Borović M, Wang X, Laan M, et al. Role of CCL19/21 and its possible signaling through CXCR3 in development of metallophilic macrophages in the mouse thymus. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;135:593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..positioned between the cortex and medulla, in plt/plt (paucity of lymph node T cells) mice lacking the functional CCL19/CCL21 chemokines, metallophilic macrophages are not present in the thymic tissue...
  52. Colvin B, Wang Z, Nakano H, Wu W, Kakiuchi T, Fairchild R, et al. CXCL9 antagonism further extends prolonged cardiac allograft survival in CCL19/CCL21-deficient mice. Am J Transplant. 2005;5:2104-13 pubmed
    b>CCL19/MIP-3beta and CCL21/SLC are essential for chemotactic recruitment of mature dendritic cells (DC) to T-cell areas of secondary lymphoid tissue...
  53. Ueno T, Saito F, Gray D, Kuse S, Hieshima K, Nakano H, et al. CCR7 signals are essential for cortex-medulla migration of developing thymocytes. J Exp Med. 2004;200:493-505 pubmed
    ..CCR7-dependent cortex-medulla migration of thymocytes plays a crucial role in medulla formation and neonatal T cell export but is not essential for maturation, survival, negative selection, and adult export of thymocytes. ..