Gene Symbol: Casp9
Description: caspase 9
Alias: AI115399, APAF-3, AW493809, CASP-9, Caspase-9, ICE-LAP6, Mch6, caspase-9, ICE-like apoptotic protease 6, apoptotic protease Mch-6, apoptotic protease-activating factor 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Casp9

Top Publications

  1. Lakhani S, Masud A, Kuida K, Porter G, Booth C, Mehal W, et al. Caspases 3 and 7: key mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis. Science. 2006;311:847-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the early apoptotic events of Bax translocation and cytochrome c release were also delayed. We conclude that caspases 3 and 7 are critical mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis. ..
  2. Marsden V, O Connor L, O Reilly L, Silke J, Metcalf D, Ekert P, et al. Apoptosis initiated by Bcl-2-regulated caspase activation independently of the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 apoptosome. Nature. 2002;419:634-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Bcl-2 regulates a caspase activation programme independently of the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 'apoptosome', which seems to amplify rather than initiate the caspase cascade. ..
  3. Scott C, Schuler M, Marsden V, Egle A, Pellegrini M, Nesic D, et al. Apaf-1 and caspase-9 do not act as tumor suppressors in myc-induced lymphomagenesis or mouse embryo fibroblast transformation. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:89-96 pubmed
    ..Moreover, loss of Apaf-1 did not promote oncogene-induced transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts. Thus, Apaf-1 and caspase-9 do not suppress c-myc-induced lymphomagenesis and embryo fibroblast transformation. ..
  4. Kuida K, Haydar T, Kuan C, Gu Y, Taya C, Karasuyama H, et al. Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9. Cell. 1998;94:325-37 pubmed
    Caspases are essential components of the mammalian cell death machinery. Here we test the hypothesis that Caspase 9 (Casp9) is a critical upstream activator of caspases through gene targeting in mice...
  5. Cecconi F, Roth K, Dolgov O, Munarriz E, Anokhin K, Gruss P, et al. Apaf1-dependent programmed cell death is required for inner ear morphogenesis and growth. Development. 2004;131:2125-35 pubmed
    ..This pathway most probably operates through the apoptosome complex because caspase 9 mutant mice suffered similar defects...
  6. Ekert P, Read S, Silke J, Marsden V, Kaufmann H, Hawkins C, et al. Apaf-1 and caspase-9 accelerate apoptosis, but do not determine whether factor-deprived or drug-treated cells die. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:835-42 pubmed
    ..Unlike expression of Bcl-2, loss of Apaf-1, caspase-2, or caspase-9 would therefore be unlikely to enhance the survival of cancer cells. ..
  7. Cepero E, King A, Coffey L, Perez R, Boise L. Caspase-9 and effector caspases have sequential and distinct effects on mitochondria. Oncogene. 2005;24:6354-66 pubmed
  8. O Reilly L, Ekert P, Harvey N, Marsden V, Cullen L, Vaux D, et al. Caspase-2 is not required for thymocyte or neuronal apoptosis even though cleavage of caspase-2 is dependent on both Apaf-1 and caspase-9. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:832-41 pubmed
    ..Caspase-2 processing does not occur in thymocytes lacking Apaf-1 or caspase-9, suggesting that in this cell type, activation of caspase-2 occurs downstream of apoptosome formation. ..
  9. Murray T, McMahon J, Howley B, Stanley A, Ritter T, Mohr A, et al. A non-apoptotic role for caspase-9 in muscle differentiation. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3786-93 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Morishima N, Nakanishi K, Takenouchi H, Shibata T, Yasuhiko Y. An endoplasmic reticulum stress-specific caspase cascade in apoptosis. Cytochrome c-independent activation of caspase-9 by caspase-12. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34287-94 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that procaspase-9 is a substrate of caspase-12 and that ER stress triggers a specific cascade involving caspase-12, -9, and -3 in a cytochrome c-independent manner. ..
  2. Hakem R, Hakem A, Duncan G, Henderson J, Woo M, Soengas M, et al. Differential requirement for caspase 9 in apoptotic pathways in vivo. Cell. 1998;94:339-52 pubmed
    Mutation of Caspase 9 (Casp9) results in embryonic lethality and defective brain development associated with decreased apoptosis...
  3. Zheng T, Hunot S, Kuida K, Momoi T, Srinivasan A, Nicholson D, et al. Deficiency in caspase-9 or caspase-3 induces compensatory caspase activation. Nat Med. 2000;6:1241-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide direct experimental evidence for compensatory pathways of caspase activation. This issue should therefore be considered in developing caspase inhibitors for therapeutic applications. ..
  4. Ohsawa S, Hamada S, Kuida K, Yoshida H, Igaki T, Miura M. Maturation of the olfactory sensory neurons by Apaf-1/caspase-9-mediated caspase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13366-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Apaf-1/caspase-9-mediated nonapoptotic caspase signaling is required for the proper neural network formation during olfactory development. ..
  5. Joza N, Susin S, Daugas E, Stanford W, Cho S, Li C, et al. Essential role of the mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor in programmed cell death. Nature. 2001;410:549-54 pubmed
    ..Our data provide genetic evidence for a caspase-independent pathway of programmed cell death that controls early morphogenesis. ..
  6. Choi W, Eom D, Han B, Kim W, Han B, Choi E, et al. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK induced by oxidative stress is linked to activation of both caspase-8- and -9-mediated apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20451-60 pubmed
  7. Chu Y, Senghaas N, Köster R, Wurst W, Kühn R. Novel caspase-suicide proteins for tamoxifen-inducible apoptosis. Genesis. 2008;46:530-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel tool for targeted cell ablation greatly facilitates the generation of disease models as well as developmental and regeneration studies in model organisms. ..
  8. Xia Y, Yang W, Bu W, Ji H, Zhao X, Zheng Y, et al. Differential regulation of c-Jun protein plays an instrumental role in chemoresistance of cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the instrumental role of c-Jun in the resistance of tumors to treatment with CDDP and indicate that c-Jun is a molecular target for improving cancer therapy. ..
  9. Liu E, Raimann A, Chae B, Martins J, Baccarini M, Demay M. c-Raf promotes angiogenesis during normal growth plate maturation. Development. 2016;143:348-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, c-Raf plays an important role in growth plate maturation by regulating vascular invasion, which is crucial for replacement of terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes by bone. ..
  10. Fujita E, Jinbo A, Matuzaki H, Konishi H, Kikkawa U, Momoi T. Akt phosphorylation site found in human caspase-9 is absent in mouse caspase-9. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;264:550-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that inhibition of caspase-9 activation by Akt-dependent phosphorylation is not generalized across species. ..
  11. Oishi K, Kamakura S, Isazawa Y, Yoshimatsu T, Kuida K, Nakafuku M, et al. Notch promotes survival of neural precursor cells via mechanisms distinct from those regulating neurogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;276:172-84 pubmed
    ..Moreover, knockdown of these proteins by RNA interference resulted in blockade of the Notch1-induced survival. These results reveal a new function of Notch, the promotion of NPC survival. ..
  12. Zong W, Li C, Hatzivassiliou G, Lindsten T, Yu Q, Yuan J, et al. Bax and Bak can localize to the endoplasmic reticulum to initiate apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:59-69 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that in addition to their functions at mitochondria, Bax and Bak also localize to the ER and function to initiate a parallel pathway of caspase activation and apoptosis. ..
  13. Zheng T, Hunot S, Kuida K, Flavell R. Caspase knockouts: matters of life and death. Cell Death Differ. 1999;6:1043-53 pubmed
    ..We will also provide our prediction on the direction of future studies in this ever-growing field of caspases. ..
  14. Rongvaux A, Jackson R, Harman C, Li T, West A, de Zoete M, et al. Apoptotic caspases prevent the induction of type I interferons by mitochondrial DNA. Cell. 2014;159:1563-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism provides a dual control, which determines whether mitochondria initiate an immunologically silent or a proinflammatory type of cell death. ..
  15. Rodriguez Enfedaque A, Delmas E, Guillaume A, Gaumer S, Mignotte B, Vayssiere J, et al. zVAD-fmk upregulates caspase-9 cleavage and activity in etoposide-induced cell death of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:1343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that caspase-9 activity is up-regulated by zVAD-fmk and is involved in an amplification loop of etoposide-induced cell death at the mitochondrial level in MEFs. ..
  16. Stoka V, Turk V, Bredesen D. Differential regulation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in brain and liver during ageing. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:3739-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a decrease in apoptosis activation during ageing is not tissue-specific, but rather displays a complex dependence on species and strains of animals. ..
  17. Marsden V, Kaufmann T, O Reilly L, Adams J, Strasser A. Apaf-1 and caspase-9 are required for cytokine withdrawal-induced apoptosis of mast cells but dispensable for their functional and clonogenic death. Blood. 2006;107:1872-7 pubmed
    ..However, although Apaf-1 and caspase-9 are essential for mast cell apoptosis, neither is required for the functional or clonogenic death of the cells, which may be due to mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  18. Xu W, Guo G, Li J, Ding Z, Sheng J, Li J, et al. Activation of Bcl-2-Caspase-9 Apoptosis Pathway in the Testis of Asthmatic Mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149353 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that asthma could lead to the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway in the mouse testis. ..
  19. Papaioannou G, Petit E, Liu E, Baccarini M, Pritchard C, Demay M. Raf Kinases Are Essential for Phosphate Induction of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation in Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Normal Endochondral Bone Development. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:3164-3171 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further demonstrated that Raf kinases are required for phosphate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes and perform essential, but partially redundant roles in growth plate maturation. ..
  20. Han J, Hou W, Goldstein L, Stolz D, Watkins S, Rabinowich H. A Complex between Atg7 and Caspase-9: A NOVEL MECHANISM OF CROSS-REGULATION BETWEEN AUTOPHAGY AND APOPTOSIS. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Atg7·caspase-9 complex performs a dual function of linking caspase-9 to the autophagic process while keeping in check its apoptotic activity. ..
  21. Peterson S, Yang A, Bushman D, Westra J, Yung Y, Barral S, et al. Aneuploid cells are differentially susceptible to caspase-mediated death during embryonic cerebral cortical development. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16213-22 pubmed publisher
  22. Jimbo A, Fujita E, Kouroku Y, Ohnishi J, Inohara N, Kuida K, et al. ER stress induces caspase-8 activation, stimulating cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Exp Cell Res. 2003;283:156-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, in parallel with the caspase-12 activation, ER stress triggers caspase-8 activation, resulting in cytochrome c/caspase-9 activation via Bid processing. ..
  23. Berube C, Boucher L, Ma W, Wakeham A, Salmena L, Hakem R, et al. Apoptosis caused by p53-induced protein with death domain (PIDD) depends on the death adapter protein RAIDD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14314-20 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that caspase-2 contributes to PIDD-mediated cell death, but that it is not the sole effector of this pathway. ..
  24. Haydar T, Kuan C, Flavell R, Rakic P. The role of cell death in regulating the size and shape of the mammalian forebrain. Cereb Cortex. 1999;9:621-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the precise coordination of different apoptotic signaling pathways during early stages of neurogenesis is crucial for regulation of the proper cortical size and shape. ..
  25. Akhtar R, Geng Y, Klocke B, Roth K. Neural precursor cells possess multiple p53-dependent apoptotic pathways. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1727-39 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that p53 is in a unique position to regulate at least two distinct signaling portals that activate the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway in NPCs. ..
  26. Prows D, Hafertepen A, Winterberg A, Gibbons W, Liu C, Nick T. Genetic analysis of hyperoxic acute lung injury survival in reciprocal intercross mice. Physiol Genomics. 2007;30:271-81 pubmed
    ..QTL results confirmed that both parental strains contribute dominant resistance alleles to their offspring to determine individual HALI susceptibility. ..
  27. Ottewell P, Lefley D, Cross S, Evans C, Coleman R, Holen I. Sustained inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival following sequential administration of doxorubicin and zoledronic acid in a breast cancer model. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:522-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are the first to show a sustained antitumor effect in vivo following a limited course of sequential administration of doxorubicin followed by zoledronic acid. ..
  28. Inoue S, Browne G, Melino G, Cohen G. Ordering of caspases in cells undergoing apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The processing of caspase-2 and -6 occurs within the cytoplasm and active caspase-6 is then responsible for both the processing of caspase-8 and the cleavage of caspase-6 substrates, including lamin A/C. ..
  29. Pfister Y, Savioz A, Vallet P, Dubois Dauphin M. Permanent cerebral ischemia induces sustained procaspase 9L increase not controlled by Bcl-2. Brain Res. 2003;966:26-39 pubmed
    ..artery occlusion induced a sustained increase of procaspase 9L and a decrease in procaspase 9S concomitant to caspase 9 production. These events were observed in the operated but not in the unoperated hemisphere...
  30. Lysiak J, Zheng S, Woodson R, Turner T. Caspase-9-dependent pathway to murine germ cell apoptosis: mediation by oxidative stress, BAX, and caspase 2. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;328:411-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, microinfusion of a specific caspase 9 inhibitor significantly reduced active caspase 3 after testicular IR and the number of apoptotic germ cells...
  31. Bae K, Kim M, Yu D, Shin M, Kim H, Yuh H, et al. Overexpression of Jazf1 induces cardiac malformation through the upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes in mice. Transgenic Res. 2011;20:1019-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Jazf1 overexpression may induce heart failure symptoms through the upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes in cardiomyocytes. ..
  32. McDonnell M, Abedin M, Melendez M, Platikanova T, Ecklund J, Ahmed K, et al. Phosphorylation of murine caspase-9 by the protein kinase casein kinase 2 regulates its cleavage by caspase-8. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that modification of procaspase-9 to protect it from inappropriate cleavage and activation is yet another mechanism by which the oncogenic kinase CK2 promotes survival. ..
  33. Farias de Oliveira D, Villa Verde D, Nunes Panzenhagen P, Silva Dos Santos D, Berbert L, Savino W, et al. Caspase-8 and caspase-9 mediate thymocyte apoptosis in Trypanosoma cruzi acutely infected mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;93:227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that DP T cell apoptosis following experimental T. cruzi acute infection is dependent on glucocorticoid stimulation, promoting caspase-8 and -9 activation...
  34. Simon D, Weimer R, McLaughlin T, Kallop D, Stanger K, Yang J, et al. A caspase cascade regulating developmental axon degeneration. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17540-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, Caspase-3 and Caspase-6-knockout mice show a delay in developmental pruning of retinocollicular axons, thereby implicating both Caspase-3 and Caspase-6 in axon degeneration that occurs as a part of normal development...
  35. Imao T, Nagata S. Apaf-1- and Caspase-8-independent apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:343-52 pubmed publisher
  36. Ene A, Park S, Edelmann W, Taketo T. Caspase 9 is constitutively activated in mouse oocytes and plays a key role in oocyte elimination during meiotic prophase progression. Dev Biol. 2013;377:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoblot and immunofluorescence staining showed that an initiator caspase 9 and an effector caspase 7 were constitutively activated in almost all oocytes in fetal ovaries regardless of ..
  37. Oppenheim R, Flavell R, Vinsant S, Prevette D, Kuan C, Rakic P. Programmed cell death of developing mammalian neurons after genetic deletion of caspases. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4752-60 pubmed
  38. Viswanath V, Wu Y, Boonplueang R, Chen S, Stevenson F, Yantiri F, et al. Caspase-9 activation results in downstream caspase-8 activation and bid cleavage in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9519-28 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that caspase inhibitors constitute a plausible therapeutic for PD. ..
  39. Shah V, Koster M, Roop D, Spencer D, Wei L, Li Q, et al. Double-inducible gene activation system for caspase 3 and 9 in epidermis. Genesis. 2007;45:194-9 pubmed
    ..This Double-Inducible Gene Activation System generates two barriers for the target gene expression and protein activation thereby minimizing leakage. ..
  40. Ho A, Li Q, Hakem R, Mak T, Zacksenhaus E. Coupling of caspase-9 to Apaf1 in response to loss of pRb or cytotoxic drugs is cell-type-specific. EMBO J. 2004;23:460-72 pubmed
    ..Processing of procaspase-9 occurred in Apaf1(-/-) myoblasts but not fibroblasts, and ablation of Casp9 prevented drug-induced apoptosis in both cell types...
  41. Tsujimoto K, Ono T, Sato M, Nishida T, Oguma T, Tadakuma T. Regulation of the expression of caspase-9 by the transcription factor activator protein-4 in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27638-44 pubmed
    ..GC has a two-sided effect on apoptosis, i.e. a pro-apoptotic effect on certain cell types and a prosurvival effect on other cell types. Our findings will explain, at least in part, this effect. ..
  42. Yang Q, Church Hajduk R, Ren J, Newton M, Du C. Omi/HtrA2 catalytic cleavage of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) irreversibly inactivates IAPs and facilitates caspase activity in apoptosis. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1487-96 pubmed
    ..This IAP cleavage by Omi is independent of caspase. Taken together, these results indicate that unlike Smac/DIABLO, Omi/HtrA2's catalytic cleavage of IAPs is a key mechanism for it to irreversibly inactivate IAPs and promote apoptosis. ..
  43. Imagawa Y, Saitoh T, Tsujimoto Y. Vital staining for cell death identifies Atg9a-dependent necrosis in developmental bone formation in mouse. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13391 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that necrosis has an active role in developmental morphogenesis. ..
  44. D Sa Eipper C, Leonard J, Putcha G, Zheng T, Flavell R, Rakic P, et al. DNA damage-induced neural precursor cell apoptosis requires p53 and caspase 9 but neither Bax nor caspase 3. Development. 2001;128:137-46 pubmed
    ..damage-induced neural precursor cell apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo, was critically dependent on p53 and caspase 9, but neither Bax nor caspase 3 expression...
  45. Inoue H, Tsukita K, Iwasato T, Suzuki Y, Tomioka M, Tateno M, et al. The crucial role of caspase-9 in the disease progression of a transgenic ALS mouse model. EMBO J. 2003;22:6665-74 pubmed
    ..Moreover, caspase-9 was activated in spinal motor neurons of human ALS subjects. These data strongly suggest that caspase-9 plays a crucial role in disease progression of ALS and constitutes a promising therapeutic target. ..
  46. Gyrd Hansen M, Farkas T, Fehrenbacher N, Bastholm L, Høyer Hansen M, Elling F, et al. Apoptosome-independent activation of the lysosomal cell death pathway by caspase-9. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7880-91 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the findings indicate that caspase-9 plays a dual role in cell death signaling, as an activator of effector caspases and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. ..
  47. Zhang W, Lu D, Dong W, Zhang L, Zhang X, Quan X, et al. Expression of CYP2E1 increases oxidative stress and induces apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in transgenic mice. FEBS J. 2011;278:1484-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that CYP2E1 over-expression produces apoptosis and that the up-regulation of CYP2E1 in cTnT(R141W) transgenic mice also correlates with apoptosis in this model. ..
  48. Fujita E, Egashira J, Urase K, Kuida K, Momoi T. Caspase-9 processing by caspase-3 via a feedback amplification loop in vivo. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:335-44 pubmed
    ..This feedback amplification loop also played a predominant role during programmed cell death of dorsal root ganglia neurons at mouse embryonic day 11.5. ..
  49. Papandile A, Tyas D, O Malley D, Warner C. Analysis of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 enzymatic activities in mouse oocytes and zygotes. Zygote. 2004;12:57-64 pubmed
  50. Chen L, Woo M, Hakem R, Miller R. Perforin-dependent activation-induced cell death acts through caspase 3 but not through caspases 8 or 9. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:769-78 pubmed
    ..Blocking anti-Fas ligand antibody failed to inhibit death, and no processing of either caspase 8 or caspase 9 was detected in recrosslinked cells...
  51. Wang J, Lenardo M. Roles of caspases in apoptosis, development, and cytokine maturation revealed by homozygous gene deficiencies. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 5):753-7 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that caspases function in cell signaling events including apoptosis, cell growth and differentiation. ..
  52. Supinski G, Ji X, Wang W, Callahan L. The extrinsic caspase pathway modulates endotoxin-induced diaphragm contractile dysfunction. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:1649-57 pubmed
    ..The caspase-8 pathway is strongly activated in the diaphragm following endotoxin and is responsible for caspase-3 activation and diaphragm weakness. ..
  53. Zhao Z, Yang P, Eckert R, Reece E. Caspase-8: a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic embryopathy. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2009;86:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that caspase-8 may control diabetic embryopathy-associated apoptosis via regulation of the Bid-stimulated mitochondrion/caspase-9 pathway. ..
  54. Damiani D, Goffinet A, ALBERTS A, Tissir F. Lack of Diaph3 relaxes the spindle checkpoint causing the loss of neural progenitors. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13509 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify Diaph3 as a major guard of cortical progenitors, unravel novel functions of Diaphanous formins and add insights into the pathobiology of microcephaly. ..
  55. Kolaczkowska E, Koziol A, Plytycz B, Arnold B, Opdenakker G. Altered apoptosis of inflammatory neutrophils in MMP-9-deficient mice is due to lower expression and activity of caspase-3. Immunol Lett. 2009;126:73-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also reinforce the notion that MMP-9 is a key enzyme in neutrophil biology. ..
  56. Harding H, Zhang Y, Zeng H, Novoa I, Lu P, Calfon M, et al. An integrated stress response regulates amino acid metabolism and resistance to oxidative stress. Mol Cell. 2003;11:619-33 pubmed
    ..A signaling pathway initiated by eIF2alpha phosphorylation protects cells against metabolic consequences of ER oxidation by promoting the linked processes of amino acid sufficiency and resistance to oxidative stress. ..
  57. Arnault E, Tosca L, Courtot A, Doussau M, Pesty A, Finaz C, et al. Caspase-2(L), caspase-9, and caspase-3 during in vitro maturation and fragmentation of the mouse oocyte. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3892-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that, if cleaved, caspases may be dispensable for final oocyte death and they could be involved in regulating the maturation process. ..
  58. Brentnall M, Rodriguez Menocal L, De Guevara R, Cepero E, Boise L. Caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 have distinct roles during intrinsic apoptosis. BMC Cell Biol. 2013;14:32 pubmed publisher
    ..After activation by caspase-9, caspase-3 inhibits ROS production and is required for efficient execution of apoptosis, while effector caspase-7 is required for apoptotic cell detachment. ..
  59. Zhu H, Pytel P, Gomez C. Selective inhibition of caspases in skeletal muscle reverses the apoptotic synaptic degeneration in slow-channel myasthenic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:69-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, treatments that reduce muscle caspase activity are likely to be of benefit for SCS patients. ..
  60. Amin S, Matalova E, Simpson C, Yoshida H, Tucker A. Incudomalleal joint formation: the roles of apoptosis, migration and downregulation. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:134 pubmed
    ..Failure in this process may result in fusion of this joint, as observed in human syndromes such as Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome or Treacher Collins Syndrome. ..
  61. Yin Y, Huang W, Lin C, Chen H, MacKenzie A, Ma L. Estrogen suppresses uterine epithelial apoptosis by inducing birc1 expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:113-25 pubmed
    ..These results for the first time establish Birc1 proteins as functional targets of estrogen in suppressing apoptosis in the uterus. ..
  62. Nie C, Luo Y, Zhao X, Luo N, Tong A, Liu X, et al. Caspase-9 mediates Puma activation in UCN-01-induced apoptosis. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1495 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, caspase-9 mediates Puma activation to determine the threshold for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer cells. ..
  63. Taranukhin A, Taranukhina E, Saransaari P, Djatchkova I, Pelto Huikko M, Oja S. Taurine reduces caspase-8 and caspase-9 expression induced by ischemia in the mouse hypothalamic nuclei. Amino Acids. 2008;34:169-74 pubmed
    ..Taurine reduces ischemia-induced caspase-8 and caspase-9 expression, the key inductors of apoptosis in SON and PVN. ..
  64. Zheng T, Flavell R. Divinations and surprises: genetic analysis of caspase function in mice. Exp Cell Res. 2000;256:67-73 pubmed
  65. Katoh I, Tomimori Y, Ikawa Y, Kurata S. Dimerization and processing of procaspase-9 by redox stress in mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15515-23 pubmed
  66. Fombonne J, Bissey P, Guix C, Sadoul R, Thibert C, Mehlen P. Patched dependence receptor triggers apoptosis through ubiquitination of caspase-9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data support the view that the Ptc dependence receptor specifically allows the activation of caspase-9 via its ubiquitination, which occurs via the recruitment by Ptc of NEDD4. ..
  67. Goehe R, Shultz J, Murudkar C, Usanovic S, Lamour N, Massey D, et al. hnRNP L regulates the tumorigenic capacity of lung cancer xenografts in mice via caspase-9 pre-mRNA processing. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3923-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies a cancer-specific mechanism of hnRNP L phosphorylation and subsequent lowering of the caspase-9a/9b ratio, which is required for the tumorigenic capacity of NSCLC cells. ..
  68. Jin D, Ojcius D, Sun D, Dong H, Luo Y, Mao Y, et al. Leptospira interrogans induces apoptosis in macrophages via caspase-8- and caspase-3-dependent pathways. Infect Immun. 2009;77:799-809 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that L. interrogans-induced apoptosis in macrophages is mediated by caspase-3 and -6 activation through a FADD-caspase-8-dependent pathway, independently of mitochondrial cytochrome c-caspase-9-dependent signaling...
  69. Hacker H, Fürmann C, Wagner H, Hacker G. Caspase-9/-3 activation and apoptosis are induced in mouse macrophages upon ingestion and digestion of Escherichia coli bacteria. J Immunol. 2002;169:3172-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that uptake and digestion of bacteria leads to MyD88-independent apoptosis in mouse macrophages. This form of cell death might have implications for the generation of the immune response. ..
  70. Lee H, Lee H, Lee E, Ko S, Bae H, Kim C, et al. Mitochondria-cytochrome C-caspase-9 cascade mediates isorhamnetin-induced apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2008;270:342-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore support isorhamnetin as an active anti-cancer metabolite of quercetin in part through caspase-mediated apoptosis. ..
  71. Janssen K, Pohlmann S, Janicke R, Schulze Osthoff K, Fischer U. Apaf-1 and caspase-9 deficiency prevents apoptosis in a Bax-controlled pathway and promotes clonogenic survival during paclitaxel treatment. Blood. 2007;110:3662-72 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, also the single knockout of Bim or Bax, but not that of Bak or Bid, conferred partial resistance, suggesting a particular role of these mediators in the cell-death pathway activated by paclitaxel. ..
  72. Gashegu J, Vanmuylder N, Philippson C, Choa Duterre M, Rooze M, Louryan S. Correlation of Hsp110 expression with caspase-3 and -9 during apoptosis induced by in vivo embryonic exposition to retinoic acid or irradiation in early mouse craniofacial development. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2006;9:84-92 pubmed
    ..Caspase-3-expressing cells are more numerous than cells expressing caspase-9, especially irradiation-induced apoptotic neural crest cells. This suggests that other caspases, still to be identified, may activate caspase-3 in this model. ..
  73. Wright K, Vaughn A, Deshmukh M. Apoptosome dependent caspase-3 activation pathway is non-redundant and necessary for apoptosis in sympathetic neurons. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:625-33 pubmed
    ..The strict requirement for an intact apoptosome, coupled with a lack of effector caspase redundancy, provides sympathetic neurons with a markedly increased control over their apoptotic pathway. ..
  74. Urase K, Kouroku Y, Fujita E, Momoi T. Region of caspase-3 activation and programmed cell death in the early development of the mouse forebrain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003;145:241-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is likely that decreased cell death in the ventral forebrain of caspase-3- and caspase-9-deficient 129/Sv mice increases the number of neuroprogenitor cells in the MGE, leading to hyperplasia of the forebrain. ..
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