Gene Symbol: Casp4
Description: caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase
Alias: CASP-11, CASP-4, Casp11, Caspl, ich-3, caspase-4, caspase 11, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, caspase 11, apoptosis-related cysteine protease, caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine protease, caspase-11 short form splicing, protease ICH-3
Species: mouse
Products:     Casp4

Top Publications

  1. Casson C, Copenhaver A, Zwack E, Nguyen H, Strowig T, Javdan B, et al. Caspase-11 activation in response to bacterial secretion systems that access the host cytosol. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003400 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumophila. Our findings demonstrate that virulent, but not avirulent, bacteria trigger a rapid caspase-11-dependent innate immune response important for host defense...
  2. Aachoui Y, Leaf I, Hagar J, Fontana M, Campos C, Zak D, et al. Caspase-11 protects against bacteria that escape the vacuole. Science. 2013;339:975-8 pubmed publisher
    ..thailandensis and B. pseudomallei. Thus, caspase-11 is critical for surviving exposure to ubiquitous environmental pathogens...
  3. Broz P, Ruby T, Belhocine K, Bouley D, Kayagaki N, Dixit V, et al. Caspase-11 increases susceptibility to Salmonella infection in the absence of caspase-1. Nature. 2012;490:288-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also highlighted that previously generated caspase-1 knockout mice lack a functional allele of Casp11 (also known as Casp4), making them functionally Casp1?Casp11 double knockouts...
  4. Akhter A, Caution K, Abu Khweek A, Tazi M, Abdulrahman B, Abdelaziz D, et al. Caspase-11 promotes the fusion of phagosomes harboring pathogenic bacteria with lysosomes by modulating actin polymerization. Immunity. 2012;37:35-47 pubmed publisher
    ..However, caspase-11 was dispensable for the fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes containing nonpathogenic bacteria, uncovering a fundamental difference in the trafficking of phagosomes according to their cargo. ..
  5. Li J, Yin H, Yuan J. Flightless-I regulates proinflammatory caspases by selectively modulating intracellular localization and caspase activity. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a new mechanism controlling the localization and activation of proinflammatory caspases. ..
  6. Li J, Brieher W, Scimone M, Kang S, Zhu H, Yin H, et al. Caspase-11 regulates cell migration by promoting Aip1-Cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:276-86 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a novel cell autonomous caspase-mediated mechanism that regulates actin dynamics and mammalian cell migration distinct from the receptor mediated Rho-Rac-Cdc42 pathway. ..
  7. Wang S, Miura M, Jung Y, Zhu H, Gagliardini V, Shi L, et al. Identification and characterization of Ich-3, a member of the interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE)/Ced-3 family and an upstream regulator of ICE. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:20580-7 pubmed
    ..Ich-3 does not process proIL-1beta directly but does promote proIL-1beta processing by ICE. These results suggest that Ich-3 may play a very important role in apoptosis and inflammatory responses and may be an upstream regulator of ICE. ..
  8. Shi J, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Gao W, Ding J, Li P, et al. Inflammatory caspases are innate immune receptors for intracellular LPS. Nature. 2014;514:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of caspase-4/5/11 represents a new mode of pattern recognition in immunity and also an unprecedented means of caspase activation. ..
  9. Case C, Kohler L, Lima J, Strowig T, de Zoete M, Flavell R, et al. Caspase-11 stimulates rapid flagellin-independent pyroptosis in response to Legionella pneumophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1851-6 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Gurung P, Malireddi R, Anand P, Demon D, Vande Walle L, Liu Z, et al. Toll or interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-? (TRIF)-mediated caspase-11 protease production integrates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein- and Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated host defense against enteropathogens. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:34474-83 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium. Thus, TLR4- and TRIF-induced caspase-11 synthesis is critical for noncanonical Nlrp3 inflammasome activation in macrophages infected with enteric pathogens. ..
  2. Rathinam V, Vanaja S, Waggoner L, Sokolovska A, Becker C, Stuart L, et al. TRIF licenses caspase-11-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation by gram-negative bacteria. Cell. 2012;150:606-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of TRIF as a regulator of caspase-11 underscores the importance of TLRs as master regulators of inflammasomes during Gram-negative bacterial infection...
  3. Kayagaki N, Warming S, Lamkanfi M, Vande Walle L, Louie S, Dong J, et al. Non-canonical inflammasome activation targets caspase-11. Nature. 2011;479:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show, with C57BL/6 Casp11 gene-targeted mice, that caspase-11 (also known as caspase-4) is critical for caspase-1 activation and IL-1? ..
  4. Yen J, Ganea D. Interferon beta induces mature dendritic cell apoptosis through caspase-11/caspase-3 activation. Blood. 2009;114:1344-54 pubmed publisher
  5. Kang S, Wang S, Kuida K, Yuan J. Distinct downstream pathways of caspase-11 in regulating apoptosis and cytokine maturation during septic shock response. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:1115-25 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that caspase-11-mediated apoptosis under septic condition is Bid-independent. Our work suggests that the human homologue of caspase-11 may be an effective therapeutic target for treatment of septic shock. ..
  6. Hisahara S, Yuan J, Momoi T, Okano H, Miura M. Caspase-11 mediates oligodendrocyte cell death and pathogenesis of autoimmune-mediated demyelination. J Exp Med. 2001;193:111-22 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that OLG death is mediated by a pathway that involves caspases-11 and -3 and leads to the demyelination observed in EAE. ..
  7. Wang S, Miura M, Jung Y, Zhu H, Li E, Yuan J. Murine caspase-11, an ICE-interacting protease, is essential for the activation of ICE. Cell. 1998;92:501-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that caspase-11 is a component of ICE complex and is required for the activation of ICE. ..
  8. Schauvliege R, Vanrobaeys J, Schotte P, Beyaert R. Caspase-11 gene expression in response to lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma requires nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41624-30 pubmed
    ..In the case of interferon-gamma stimulation, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 binding to the caspase-11 promoter could be shown to be required for caspase-11 expression. ..
  9. Demon D, Kuchmiy A, Fossoul A, Zhu Q, Kanneganti T, Lamkanfi M. Caspase-11 is expressed in the colonic mucosa and protects against dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Mucosal Immunol. 2014;7:1480-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, DSS-induced inflammasome activation relied on caspase-1, but not caspase-11. These results suggest a role for other caspase-11 effector mechanisms such as pyroptosis in protection against intestinal inflammation. ..
  10. Man S, Karki R, Malireddi R, Neale G, Vogel P, Yamamoto M, et al. The transcription factor IRF1 and guanylate-binding proteins target activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by Francisella infection. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a specific requirement for IRF1 and GBPs in the liberation of DNA for sensing by AIM2 depending on the pathogen encountered by the cell. ..
  11. Tomioka M, Shirotani K, Iwata N, Lee H, Yang F, Cole G, et al. In vivo role of caspases in excitotoxic neuronal death: generation and analysis of transgenic mice expressing baculoviral caspase inhibitor, p35, in postnatal neurons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;108:18-32 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that p35-inhibitable caspases play rather minor roles in the kainate-induced excitotoxicity and that the relative contribution of calpain is likely to be greater than that of caspases. ..
  12. Dumas A, Amiable N, de Rivero Vaccari J, Chae J, Keane R, Lacroix S, et al. The inflammasome pyrin contributes to pertussis toxin-induced IL-1? synthesis, neutrophil intravascular crawling and autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004150 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies the first microbial molecule that activates pyrin, a mechanism by which infections may influence MS and a potential therapeutic target for immune disorders. ..
  13. Ydens E, Demon D, Lornet G, de Winter V, Timmerman V, Lamkanfi M, et al. Nlrp6 promotes recovery after peripheral nerve injury independently of inflammasomes. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:143 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our observations suggest that Nlrp6 contributes to recovery from peripheral nerve injury by dampening inflammatory responses independently of IL-1β and inflammasomes. ..
  14. Kumar S, Colussi P. Prodomains--adaptors--oligomerization: the pursuit of caspase activation in apoptosis. Trends Biochem Sci. 1999;24:1-4 pubmed
  15. Knodler L, Crowley S, Sham H, Yang H, Wrande M, Ma C, et al. Noncanonical inflammasome activation of caspase-4/caspase-11 mediates epithelial defenses against enteric bacterial pathogens. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;16:249-256 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, an epithelial cell-intrinsic noncanonical inflammasome plays a critical role in antimicrobial defense at the intestinal mucosal surface. ..
  16. Kajiwara Y, McKenzie A, Dorr N, Gama Sosa M, Elder G, Schmeidler J, et al. The human-specific CASP4 gene product contributes to Alzheimer-related synaptic and behavioural deficits. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:4315-4327 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently characterized transgenic mice carrying human CASP4, and observed that the mice manifested profound innate immune responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
  17. Kovarova M, Hesker P, Jania L, Nguyen M, Snouwaert J, Xiang Z, et al. NLRP1-dependent pyroptosis leads to acute lung injury and morbidity in mice. J Immunol. 2012;189:2006-16 pubmed publisher
  18. Los M, Wesselborg S, Schulze Osthoff K. The role of caspases in development, immunity, and apoptotic signal transduction: lessons from knockout mice. Immunity. 1999;10:629-39 pubmed
  19. Bossaller L, Chiang P, Schmidt Lauber C, Ganesan S, Kaiser W, Rathinam V, et al. Cutting edge: FAS (CD95) mediates noncanonical IL-1? and IL-18 maturation via caspase-8 in an RIP3-independent manner. J Immunol. 2012;189:5508-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Fas controls a novel noncanonical IL-1? activation pathway in myeloid cells, which could play an essential role in inflammatory processes, tumor surveillance, and control of infectious diseases. ..
  20. Abdalla H, Srinivasan L, Shah S, Mayer Barber K, Sher A, Sutterwala F, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of dendritic cells leads to partially caspase-1/11-independent IL-1? and IL-18 secretion but not to pyroptosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40722 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point towards a potential role of DCs in the host innate immune response to mycobacterial infections via their capacity to induce IL-1? and IL-18 secretion. ..
  21. Ng T, Monack D. Revisiting caspase-11 function in host defense. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the emerging understanding of caspase-11 functions and the mechanisms of activation and discuss the implications for human disease. ..
  22. Wang J, Lenardo M. Roles of caspases in apoptosis, development, and cytokine maturation revealed by homozygous gene deficiencies. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 5):753-7 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that caspases function in cell signaling events including apoptosis, cell growth and differentiation. ..
  23. Ikeda T, Kanazawa T, Otsuka S, Ichii O, Hashimoto Y, Kon Y. Expression of caspase family and muscle- and apoptosis-specific genes during skeletal myogenesis in mouse embryo. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1161-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the activation of Casps in skeletal myogenesis is deeply associated with myoblast differentiation, but not directly related to apoptosis. ..
  24. He Y, Zeng M, Yang D, Motro B, Núñez G. NEK7 is an essential mediator of NLRP3 activation downstream of potassium efflux. Nature. 2016;530:354-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that NEK7 is an essential protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to mediate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. ..
  25. Zanoni I, Tan Y, Di Gioia M, Broggi A, Ruan J, Shi J, et al. An endogenous caspase-11 ligand elicits interleukin-1 release from living dendritic cells. Science. 2016;352:1232-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The cells and receptors of the innate immune system can therefore achieve different activation states, which may permit context-dependent responses to infection. ..
  26. Morita Y, Maravei D, Bergeron L, Wang S, Perez G, Tsutsumi O, et al. Caspase-2 deficiency prevents programmed germ cell death resulting from cytokine insufficiency but not meiotic defects caused by loss of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (Atm) gene function. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:614-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, genetically distinct mechanisms exist for developmental deletion of oocytes via programmed cell death, one of which probably functions as a meiotic quality-control checkpoint that cannot be overridden. ..
  27. Wynosky Dolfi M, Snyder A, Philip N, Doonan P, Poffenberger M, Avizonis D, et al. Oxidative metabolism enables Salmonella evasion of the NLRP3 inflammasome. J Exp Med. 2014;211:653-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data link Salmonella genes controlling oxidative metabolism to inflammasome activation and suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome evasion promotes systemic Salmonella virulence. ..
  28. Endo M, Mori M, Akira S, Gotoh T. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is crucial for the induction of caspase-11 and the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. J Immunol. 2006;176:6245-53 pubmed
    ..Caspase-11 was also induced by such ER stress inducers as thapsigargin or tunicamycin. These results show that CHOP plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation through the induction of caspase-11. ..
  29. Yin Y, Zhang Y, Yu P, Luo J, Jiang Y, Li S. Comparative study of apoptosis-related gene loci in human, mouse and rat genomes. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2005;37:341-8 pubmed
    ..All data produced in this work were stored in a relational database and may be viewed at ..
  30. Py B, Jin M, Desai B, Penumaka A, Zhu H, Kober M, et al. Caspase-11 controls interleukin-1? release through degradation of TRPC1. Cell Rep. 2014;6:1122-1128 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that caspase-11 modulates the cationic channel composition of the cell and thus regulates the unconventional secretion pathway in a manner independent of caspase-1. ..
  31. Rühl S, Broz P. Caspase-11 activates a canonical NLRP3 inflammasome by promoting K(+) efflux. Eur J Immunol. 2015;45:2927-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that active caspase-11 leads to a drop of intracellular potassium levels, which is necessary to activate NLRP3. Our study, therefore, sheds new light on the mechanism of noncanonical inflammasome signaling. ..
  32. Roth K, Kuan C, Haydar T, D Sa Eipper C, Shindler K, Zheng T, et al. Epistatic and independent functions of caspase-3 and Bcl-X(L) in developmental programmed cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:466-71 pubmed
  33. Van de Craen M, van Loo G, Declercq W, Schotte P, Van den Brande I, Mandruzzato S, et al. Molecular cloning and identification of murine caspase-8. J Mol Biol. 1998;284:1017-26 pubmed
    ..In addition, murine caspase-8 induced cell death that was inhibited both by cytokine response modifier A and p35. In vitro experiments demonstrated that p35 inhibits caspase-8 directly. ..
  34. Meunier E, Dick M, Dreier R, Schürmann N, Kenzelmann Broz D, Warming S, et al. Caspase-11 activation requires lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles by IFN-induced GTPases. Nature. 2014;509:366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that host-mediated lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles is an essential immune function and is necessary for efficient recognition of pathogens by inflammasome complexes in the cytosol. ..
  35. Vince J, Wong W, Gentle I, Lawlor K, Allam R, O Reilly L, et al. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins limit RIP3 kinase-dependent interleukin-1 activation. Immunity. 2012;36:215-27 pubmed publisher
  36. Freeman L, Guo H, David C, Brickey W, JHA S, Ting J. NLR members NLRC4 and NLRP3 mediate sterile inflammasome activation in microglia and astrocytes. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1351-1370 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that NLRC4 and NLRP3, which normally form distinct inflammasomes, activate an LPC-induced inflammasome and are important in astrogliosis and microgliosis. ..
  37. Ebmeyer J, Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Ebmeyer U, Husseman J, Pak K, et al. TNFA deletion alters apoptosis as well as caspase 3 and 4 expression during otitis media. BMC Immunol. 2011;12:12 pubmed publisher
    ..TNFA is also required for appropriate regulation of caspase genes. ..
  38. Douglas T, Champagne C, Morizot A, Lapointe J, Saleh M. The Inflammatory Caspases-1 and -11 Mediate the Pathogenesis of Dermatitis in Sharpin-Deficient Mice. J Immunol. 2015;195:2365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results position the inflammasome as an important initiating signal in skin disease pathogenesis and provide novel insights about inflammasome and cell death effector cross-talk in the context of inflammatory diseases. ..
  39. Huang D, Cai D, Chua R, Kemeny D, Wong S. Nitric-oxide synthase 2 interacts with CD74 and inhibits its cleavage by caspase during dendritic cell development. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1713-22 pubmed
    ..Because the trafficking of MHC II is CD74-dependent, the increase in cell surface localization of MHC II in maturing DC is in part due to the increase in CD74 protein expression in the presence of NOS2 and NO. ..
  40. Benchoua A, Braudeau J, Reis A, Couriaud C, Onteniente B. Activation of proinflammatory caspases by cathepsin B in focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004;24:1272-9 pubmed
    ..This new pathway may play a critical role in brain infarction by promoting inflammatory responses, and/or by amplifying the apoptotic process. ..
  41. Birchenough G, Nyström E, Johansson M, Hansson G. A sentinel goblet cell guards the colonic crypt by triggering Nlrp6-dependent Muc2 secretion. Science. 2016;352:1535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, senGCs guard and protect the colonic crypt from bacterial intruders that have penetrated the inner mucus layer. ..
  42. Jakka P, Namani S, Murugan S, Rai N, Radhakrishnan G. The Brucella effector protein TcpB induces degradation of inflammatory caspases and thereby subverts non-canonical inflammasome activation in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:20613-20627 pubmed publisher
    ..Because TcpB suppresses both TLR4- and caspase-4/11-mediated inflammation, TcpB might be a candidate target for developing drugs against LPS-induced septicemia. ..
  43. Zanoni I, Tan Y, Di Gioia M, Springstead J, Kagan J. By Capturing Inflammatory Lipids Released from Dying Cells, the Receptor CD14 Induces Inflammasome-Dependent Phagocyte Hyperactivation. Immunity. 2017;47:697-709.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, multiple phagocytes are capable of hyperactivation in response to oxPAPC, with CD14 acting as the earliest regulator in this process, serving to capture and transport these lipids to promote inflammatory cell fate decisions. ..
  44. Oficjalska K, Raverdeau M, Aviello G, Wade S, Hickey A, Sheehan K, et al. Protective role for caspase-11 during acute experimental murine colitis. J Immunol. 2015;194:1252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that IFN-γ-mediated caspase-11 expression has a key role maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in vivo during experimentally induced acute colitis. ..
  45. Williams T, Leeth R, Rothschild D, McDaniel D, Coutermarsh Ott S, Simmons A, et al. Caspase-11 attenuates gastrointestinal inflammation and experimental colitis pathogenesis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;308:G139-50 pubmed publisher
    ..noncanonical inflammasome during inflammatory bowel disease, experimental colitis was induced in wild-type and Casp11(-/-) mice utilizing dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)...
  46. Meunier E, Broz P. Interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins promote cytosolic lipopolysaccharide detection by caspase-11. DNA Cell Biol. 2015;34:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we review the recent advances in our understanding of cytosolic LPS sensing and the function of mammalian GBPs. ..
  47. Kayagaki N, Stowe I, Lee B, O Rourke K, Anderson K, Warming S, et al. Caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D for non-canonical inflammasome signalling. Nature. 2015;526:666-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify gasdermin D as a critical target of caspase-11 and a key mediator of the host response against Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  48. Van de Craen M, Vandenabeele P, Declercq W, Van den Brande I, van Loo G, Molemans F, et al. Characterization of seven murine caspase family members. FEBS Lett. 1997;403:61-9 pubmed
    ..Only two, mCASP-1 as well as mCASP-3, were able to process precursor interleukin (IL)-1beta to biologically active IL-1beta. In addition, mCASP-3 is the predominant PARP-cleaving enzyme in vivo. ..
  49. Pilla D, Hagar J, Haldar A, Mason A, Degrandi D, Pfeffer K, et al. Guanylate binding proteins promote caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis in response to cytoplasmic LPS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6046-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a role for Gbp(chr3) proteins in the detection of cytoplasmic LPS and the activation of the noncanonical inflammasome. ..
  50. Exley G, Tang C, McElhinny A, Warner C. Expression of caspase and BCL-2 apoptotic family members in mouse preimplantation embryos. Biol Reprod. 1999;61:231-9 pubmed
    ..This result supports a model in which the ratio of BCL-2 to BAX is altered in apoptotic embryos. ..
  51. Youm Y, Grant R, McCabe L, Albarado D, Nguyen K, Ravussin A, et al. Canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome links systemic low-grade inflammation to functional decline in aging. Cell Metab. 2013;18:519-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal Nlrp3 inflammasome as an upstream target that controls age-related inflammation and offer an innovative therapeutic strategy to lower Nlrp3 activity to delay multiple age-related chronic diseases. ..
  52. Suk K, Kim S, Kim H. Essential role of caspase-11 in activation-induced cell death of rat astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2002;80:230-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that inflammatory stimuli not only induce the production of cytotoxic NO, but also initiate NO-independent apoptotic pathway through the induction of caspase-11 expression. ..
  53. Lee J, Kim Y, Ra H, Kang S, Han S, Koh J, et al. The involvement of caspase-11 in TPEN-induced apoptosis. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:1871-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although mitochondria-mediated caspase-9/-3 activation also contributed to TPEN-induced apoptosis, caspase-11 is likely a key inducible apoptosis-inducing protein...
  54. Deigendesch N, Zychlinsky A, Meissner F. Copper Regulates the Canonical NLRP3 Inflammasome. J Immunol. 2018;200:1607-1617 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that targeting the intracellular copper homeostasis has potential for the treatment of NLRP3-dependent diseases. ..
  55. Cheng K, Xiong S, Ye Z, Hong Z, Di A, Tsang K, et al. Caspase-11-mediated endothelial pyroptosis underlies endotoxemia-induced lung injury. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:4124-4135 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish the requisite role of endothelial pyroptosis in endotoxemic tissue injury and suggest that endothelial inflammatory caspases are an important therapeutic target for acute lung injury. ..
  56. Zhu K, Mu H, Pi B. Regulatory effect of caspase-11 on interleukin-1? in the fungal keratitis. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2016;29:2327-2334 pubmed
    ..TLR4/TRIF pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome and ASC inflammasome are not involved in the pro-IL-1? generation, while Caspase-l, Caspase-11 and Dectin-1/syk pathway are involved in the IL-1? generation. ..
  57. Zheng T, Flavell R. Divinations and surprises: genetic analysis of caspase function in mice. Exp Cell Res. 2000;256:67-73 pubmed
  58. Choi J, Heo H, Lang Y, Shin K, Kang S. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 regulates the expression of caspase-11. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3016-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, knockdown or dominant negative form of Ask1 suppressed the induction of caspase-11 following LPS stimulation. Taken together, our results show that Ask1 regulates the expression of caspase-11 following LPS stimulation. ..
  59. Antonopoulos C, Russo H, El Sanadi C, Martin B, Li X, Kaiser W, et al. Caspase-8 as an Effector and Regulator of NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:20167-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of caspase-1, caspase-8 acts as a positive modulator of the NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 signaling cascades that drive both IL-1β production and pyroptotic death. ..
  60. Meunier E, Wallet P, Dreier R, Costanzo S, Anton L, Rühl S, et al. Guanylate-binding proteins promote activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during infection with Francisella novicida. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:476-484 pubmed publisher
    ..novicida and promoted bacteriolysis. Thus, in addition to their role in host defense against vacuolar pathogens, GBPs also facilitate the presentation of ligands by directly attacking cytosolic bacteria. ..
  61. Yoo L, Hong S, Shin K, Kang S. PARP-1 regulates the expression of caspase-11. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:489-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that PARP-1, as a transcriptional cofactor for NF-?B, regulates the induction of caspase-11 at a transcriptional level. ..
  62. Viganò E, Mortellaro A. Caspase-11: the driving factor for noncanonical inflammasomes. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2240-5 pubmed publisher
  63. Gentile L, Cuenca A, Cuenca A, Nacionales D, Ungaro R, Efron P, et al. Improved emergency myelopoiesis and survival in neonatal sepsis by caspase-1/11 ablation. Immunology. 2015;145:300-11 pubmed publisher
  64. Kajiwara Y, Schiff T, Voloudakis G, Gama Sosa M, Elder G, Bozdagi O, et al. A critical role for human caspase-4 in endotoxin sensitivity. J Immunol. 2014;193:335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of the expression, activation, or activity of caspase-4 therefore represents targets for systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, septic shock, and related disorders. ..
  65. Hepworth M, Fung T, Masur S, Kelsen J, McConnell F, Dubrot J, et al. Immune tolerance. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4⁺ T cells. Science. 2015;348:1031-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results define a selection pathway for commensal bacteria-specific CD4(+) T cells in the intestine and suggest that this process is dysregulated in human IBD. ..
  66. Colussi P, Kumar S. Targeted disruption of caspase genes in mice: what they tell us about the functions of individual caspases in apoptosis. Immunol Cell Biol. 1999;77:58-63 pubmed
    ..The present review discusses these recent findings and elaborates on how these mutant mouse models have helped the understanding of the mechanisms that govern programmed cell death in the immune and other systems. ..
  67. Kuechle M, Predd H, Fleckman P, Dale B, Presland R. Caspase-14, a keratinocyte specific caspase: mRNA splice variants and expression pattern in embryonic and adult mouse. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:868-70 pubmed
  68. Kang S, Sanchez I, Jing N, Yuan J. Dissociation between neurodegeneration and caspase-11-mediated activation of caspase-1 and caspase-3 in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5455-60 pubmed
    ..Our study urges caution when considering the inhibition of caspases as a direct therapeutic method for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  69. Caution K, Gavrilin M, Tazi M, Kanneganti A, Layman D, Hoque S, et al. Caspase-11 and caspase-1 differentially modulate actin polymerization via RhoA and Slingshot proteins to promote bacterial clearance. Sci Rep. 2015;5:18479 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, caspase-11 and caspase-1 converge on the actin machinery with opposing effects to promote vesicular trafficking. ..
  70. Maltez V, Tubbs A, Cook K, Aachoui Y, Falcone E, Holland S, et al. Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium. Immunity. 2015;43:987-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens. ..
  71. Gabrielli E, Pericolini E, Luciano E, Sabbatini S, Roselletti E, Perito S, et al. Induction of caspase-11 by aspartyl proteinases of Candida albicans and implication in promoting inflammatory response. Infect Immun. 2015;83:1940-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates a sophisticated interplay between caspase-1 and caspase-11 that connects the canonical and noncanonical pathways of inflammasome activation in response to C. albicans Saps. ..
  72. Yang D, He Y, Muñoz Planillo R, Liu Q, Núñez G. Caspase-11 Requires the Pannexin-1 Channel and the Purinergic P2X7 Pore to Mediate Pyroptosis and Endotoxic Shock. Immunity. 2015;43:923-32 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR3) agonist resulted in high mortality in wild-type mice after secondary LPS challenge, but not in Casp11(-/-), Panx1(-/-), or P2x7(-/-) mice...
  73. Arai H, Furuya T, Yasuda T, Miura M, Mizuno Y, Mochizuki H. Neurotoxic effects of lipopolysaccharide on nigral dopaminergic neurons are mediated by microglial activation, interleukin-1beta, and expression of caspase-11 in mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51647-53 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the neurotoxic effects of LPS on nigral dopaminergic neurons are mediated by microglial activation, interleukin-1beta, and caspase-11 expression in mice. ..
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    ..In contrast, functional caspase-1 is necessary and sufficient to trigger flagellin/NLRC4-mediated restriction of Legionella spp. infection in macrophages and in vivo. ..
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    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate a critical role for OMVs in enabling the cytosolic entry of LPS and, consequently, caspase-11 activation during Gram-negative bacterial infections. ..