Gene Symbol: Casp3
Description: caspase 3
Alias: A830040C14Rik, AC-3, CASP-3, CC3, CPP-32, CPP32, Caspase-3, Lice, SCA-1, Yama, mldy, caspase-3, SREBP cleavage activity 1, apopain, caspase 3, apoptosis related cysteine protease, cysteine protease CPP32, protein Yama
Species: mouse
Products:     Casp3

Top Publications

  1. Sabbagh L, Bourbonnière M, SEKALY R, Cohen L. Selective up-regulation of caspase-3 gene expression following TCR engagement. Mol Immunol. 2005;42:1345-54 pubmed
    ..Together, these results show that TCR activation triggers the selective increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels, independently of caspase activity and the induction of apoptosis. ..
  2. Rainger J, Keighren M, Keene D, Charbonneau N, Rainger J, Fisher M, et al. A trans-acting protein effect causes severe eye malformation in the Mp mouse. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003998 pubmed publisher
    ..The prediction of similar trans-acting protein effects will be an important challenge in the medical interpretation of human mutations from whole exome sequencing. ..
  3. Ingram K, Curtis C, Silasi Mansat R, Lupu F, Griffin C. The NuRD chromatin-remodeling enzyme CHD4 promotes embryonic vascular integrity by transcriptionally regulating extracellular matrix proteolysis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1004031 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a novel mechanism by which a chromatin-remodeling enzyme regulates ECM stability to maintain vascular integrity during embryonic development. ..
  4. Udager A, Prakash A, Saenz D, Schinke M, Moriguchi T, Jay P, et al. Proper development of the outer longitudinal smooth muscle of the mouse pylorus requires Nkx2-5 and Gata3. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:157-165.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that regulatory changes that alter Nkx2-5 or Gata3 expression could contribute to pathogenesis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. ..
  5. Larsen B, Rampalli S, Burns L, Brunette S, Dilworth F, Megeney L. Caspase 3/caspase-activated DNase promote cell differentiation by inducing DNA strand breaks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4230-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Caspase 3 is required for the differentiation of a wide variety of cell types, yet it remains unclear how this apoptotic protein could promote such a cell-fate decision...
  6. Barkic M, Crnomarković S, Grabusic K, Bogetić I, Panic L, Tamarut S, et al. The p53 tumor suppressor causes congenital malformations in Rpl24-deficient mice and promotes their survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2489-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that activation of a p53-dependent checkpoint mechanism in response to various ribosomal protein deficiencies might also play a role in the pathogenesis of congenital malformations in humans. ..
  7. Chen J, Lan Y, Baek J, Gao Y, Jiang R. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in activation of odontogenic mesenchyme during early tooth development. Dev Biol. 2009;334:174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that activation of the mesenchymal odontogenic program during early tooth development requires concerted actions of Bmp, Fgf and Wnt signaling from the presumptive dental epithelium to the mesenchyme...
  8. Vidaki M, Tivodar S, Doulgeraki K, Tybulewicz V, Kessaris N, Pachnis V, et al. Rac1-dependent cell cycle exit of MGE precursors and GABAergic interneuron migration to the cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:680-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Rac1 is necessary for their transition from G1 to S phase, at least in part by regulating cyclin D levels and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. ..
  9. Martinez P, Flores J, Blasco M. 53BP1 deficiency combined with telomere dysfunction activates ATR-dependent DNA damage response. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:283-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In intact mice, combined 53BP1/TRF1 deficiency in stratified epithelia resulted in earlier onset of DNA damage and increased CHK1 phosphorylation during embryonic development, leading to aggravation of skin phenotypes. ..

More Information


  1. Okuyama R, Nguyen B, Talora C, Ogawa E, Tommasi di Vignano A, Lioumi M, et al. High commitment of embryonic keratinocytes to terminal differentiation through a Notch1-caspase 3 regulatory mechanism. Dev Cell. 2004;6:551-62 pubmed
    ..promotes keratinocyte differentiation, is upregulated in embryonic keratinocyte and epidermis, and elevated caspase 3 expression, which we identify as a transcriptional Notch1 target, accounts in part for the high commitment of ..
  2. Cecconi F, Alvarez Bolado G, Meyer B, Roth K, Gruss P. Apaf1 (CED-4 homolog) regulates programmed cell death in mammalian development. Cell. 1998;94:727-37 pubmed
    ..elegans CED-4, participates in the CASPASE 9 (CASP9)-dependent activation of CASP3 in the general apoptotic pathway. We have generated by gene trap a null allele of the murine Apaf1...
  3. Araya R, Takahashi R, Nomura Y. Yeast two-hybrid screening using constitutive-active caspase-7 as bait in the identification of PA28gamma as an effector caspase substrate. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:322-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that PA28gamma is an endogenous substrate for caspase-3 and -7 and that yeast two-hybrid screening using reversed-caspase is a novel and useful approach to clone substrates for effector caspases. ..
  4. Thomason H, Dixon M, Dixon J. Facial clefting in Tp63 deficient mice results from altered Bmp4, Fgf8 and Shh signaling. Dev Biol. 2008;321:273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with a role for Tp63 in the regulation of Bmp signaling controlling the growth, modelling and fusion events underlying facial development and shed new light on the complex abnormality of facial clefting. ..
  5. Pan L, Deng M, Xie X, Gan L. ISL1 and BRN3B co-regulate the differentiation of murine retinal ganglion cells. Development. 2008;135:1981-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results uncover a novel regulatory mechanism of BRN3B and ISL1 in RGC differentiation. ..
  6. Fantin A, Vieira J, Gestri G, Denti L, Schwarz Q, Prykhozhij S, et al. Tissue macrophages act as cellular chaperones for vascular anastomosis downstream of VEGF-mediated endothelial tip cell induction. Blood. 2010;116:829-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that tissue macrophages are a target for antiangiogenic therapies, but that they could equally well be exploited to stimulate tissue vascularization in ischemic disease. ..
  7. Houde C, Banks K, Coulombe N, Rasper D, Grimm E, Roy S, et al. Caspase-7 expanded function and intrinsic expression level underlies strain-specific brain phenotype of caspase-3-null mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9977-84 pubmed
    ..We biochemically isolated caspase-7 from B6-caspase-3-null (Casp3-/-) tissues as being the enzyme with caspase-3-like properties and capability of performing a caspase-3 surrogate ..
  8. Tateossian H, Hardisty Hughes R, Morse S, Romero M, Hilton H, Dean C, et al. Regulation of TGF-beta signalling by Fbxo11, the gene mutated in the Jeff otitis media mouse mutant. Pathogenetics. 2009;2:5 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that Fbxo11 impacts upon TGF-beta signalling has important implications for our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms of middle ear inflammatory disease. ..
  9. Urase K, Fujita E, Miho Y, Kouroku Y, Mukasa T, Yagi Y, et al. Detection of activated caspase-3 (CPP32) in the vertebrate nervous system during development by a cleavage site-directed antiserum. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1998;111:77-87 pubmed
    ..Mukasa, K. Urase, Y.M. Momoi, I. Kimura, T. Momoi, Specific expression of CPP32 in sensory neurons of mouse embryos and activation of CPP32 in the apoptosis induced by a withdrawal of NGF, ..
  10. Deng M, Pan L, Xie X, Gan L. Requirement for Lmo4 in the vestibular morphogenesis of mouse inner ear. Dev Biol. 2010;338:38-49 pubmed publisher
  11. Williams M, Lu X, McKenna W, Washington R, Boyette A, Strickland P, et al. UNC5A promotes neuronal apoptosis during spinal cord development independent of netrin-1. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:996-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, loss of netrin-1 (Ntn1) did not affect the amount of apoptosis, suggesting that NTN1 is not required for neuronal apoptosis in vivo. ..
  12. Lizarraga S, Margossian S, Harris M, Campagna D, Han A, Blevins S, et al. Cdk5rap2 regulates centrosome function and chromosome segregation in neuronal progenitors. Development. 2010;137:1907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the reduction in brain size observed in humans with mutations in CDK5RAP2 is associated with impaired centrosomal function and with changes in mitotic spindle orientation during progenitor proliferation. ..
  13. Bertrand M, Kenchappa R, Andrieu D, Leclercq Smekens M, Nguyen H, Carter B, et al. NRAGE, a p75NTR adaptor protein, is required for developmental apoptosis in vivo. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1921-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies demonstrate that NRAGE plays an important role in apoptotic-signaling in vivo. ..
  14. Braunstein E, Crenshaw E, Morrow B, Adams J. Cooperative function of Tbx1 and Brn4 in the periotic mesenchyme is necessary for cochlea formation. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2008;9:33-43 pubmed publisher
  15. Welsh I, Thomsen M, Gludish D, Alfonso Parra C, Bai Y, Martin J, et al. Integration of left-right Pitx2 transcription and Wnt signaling drives asymmetric gut morphogenesis via Daam2. Dev Cell. 2013;26:629-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work highlights how integration of two conserved cascades may be the ultimate force through which Pitx2 sculpts L-R organs. ..
  16. Lien W, Klezovitch O, Fernandez T, Delrow J, Vasioukhin V. alphaE-catenin controls cerebral cortical size by regulating the hedgehog signaling pathway. Science. 2006;311:1609-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that alphaE-catenin connects cell-density-dependent adherens junctions with the developmental hedgehog pathway and that this connection may provide a negative feedback loop controlling the size of developing cerebral cortex. ..
  17. Shaw A, Meissner A, Dowdle J, Crowley D, Magendantz M, Ouyang C, et al. Sprouty-2 regulates oncogenic K-ras in lung development and tumorigenesis. Genes Dev. 2007;21:694-707 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that in the lung, Sprouty-2 plays a critical role in the regulation of oncogenic K-ras, and implicate counter-regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Ras-based disease. ..
  18. Puga I, Rao A, Macian F. Targeted cleavage of signaling proteins by caspase 3 inhibits T cell receptor signaling in anergic T cells. Immunity. 2008;29:193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Casp3 is one of the genes activated during anergy induction. Here we show that caspase 3 is required for the induction of T cell unresponsiveness...
  19. Walker K, Sims Lucas S, Di Giovanni V, Schaefer C, Sunseri W, Novitskaya T, et al. Deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 from the peri-wolffian duct stroma leads to ureteric induction abnormalities and vesicoureteral reflux. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56062 pubmed publisher
    ..E10.5 Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice had decreases in Bmp4 mRNA in stromal tissues, suggesting a mechanism underlying the ureteric induction and VUR phenotypes. Mutations in FGFR2 could possibly cause VUR in humans. ..
  20. Kuida K, Zheng T, Na S, Kuan C, Yang D, Karasuyama H, et al. Decreased apoptosis in the brain and premature lethality in CPP32-deficient mice. Nature. 1996;384:368-72 pubmed
    ..Among the ten or more members of the ICE protease family, CPP32/yama/apopain exhibits the highest similarity to CED-3 in both sequence homology and substrate specificity...
  21. Vemuri M, Schiller E, Naegele J. Elevated DNA double strand breaks and apoptosis in the CNS of scid mutant mice. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:245-55 pubmed
    ..Additional biochemical and immunocytochemical studies indicated that of several DNA repair enzymes investigated, only PARP was increased in scid mice, possibly in response to elevated DNA strand breaks. ..
  22. Li F, Huang Q, Chen J, Peng Y, Roop D, Bedford J, et al. Apoptotic cells activate the "phoenix rising" pathway to promote wound healing and tissue regeneration. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra13 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose to call the pathway by which executioner caspases in apoptotic cells promote wound healing and tissue regeneration in multicellular organisms the "phoenix rising" pathway. ..
  23. Terzian T, Wang Y, Van Pelt C, Box N, Travis E, Lozano G. Haploinsufficiency of Mdm2 and Mdm4 in tumorigenesis and development. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5479-85 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight the exquisite sensitivity of p53 to Mdm2 and Mdm4 levels and suggest that some cell types may be more sensitive to therapeutic drugs that inhibit the Mdm-p53 interaction. ..
  24. Jeong H, Jeon U, Koo B, Kim W, Im S, Shin J, et al. Inactivation of Notch signaling in the renal collecting duct causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3290-300 pubmed publisher
  25. Brown N, Patel S, Brzezinski J, Glaser T. Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. Development. 2001;128:2497-508 pubmed
    ..A small number of nascent RGCs are detected during embryogenesis, but these fail to develop further, suggesting that committed RGCs may also require Math5 function. ..
  26. Burguillos M, Deierborg T, Kavanagh E, Persson A, Hajji N, Garcia Quintanilla A, et al. Caspase signalling controls microglia activation and neurotoxicity. Nature. 2011;472:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that inhibition of these caspases could be neuroprotective by targeting the microglia rather than the neurons themselves. ..
  27. Abbas H, Maccio D, Coskun S, Jackson J, Hazen A, SILLS T, et al. Mdm2 is required for survival of hematopoietic stem cells/progenitors via dampening of ROS-induced p53 activity. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:606-17 pubmed publisher
    ..p16 was also stabilized because of ROS, and its loss increased cell cycling and partially rescued hematopoiesis and survival. Thus, Mdm2 is required to control ROS-induced p53 levels for sustainable hematopoiesis. ..
  28. Kuwako K, Hosokawa A, Nishimura I, Uetsuki T, Yamada M, Nada S, et al. Disruption of the paternal necdin gene diminishes TrkA signaling for sensory neuron survival. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7090-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that paternally expressed necdin facilitates TrkA signaling to promote the survival of NGF-dependent nociceptive neurons. ..
  29. Suzuki A, Saba R, Miyoshi K, Morita Y, Saga Y. Interaction between NANOS2 and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex is essential for male germ cell development in mouse. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33558 pubmed publisher
  30. Martins R, Zindy F, Donovan S, Zhang J, Pounds S, Wey A, et al. N-myc coordinates retinal growth with eye size during mouse development. Genes Dev. 2008;22:179-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that N-myc lies upstream of the cell cycle machinery in the developing mouse retina and thus coordinates the growth of both the retina and eye through extrinsic cues. ..
  31. Richardson R, Dixon J, Jiang R, Dixon M. Integration of IRF6 and Jagged2 signalling is essential for controlling palatal adhesion and fusion competence. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2632-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that IRF6 plays a key role in the formation and maintenance of the oral periderm, spatio-temporal regulation of which is essential for ensuring appropriate palatal adhesion. ..
  32. Pierce A, Bliesner B, Xu M, Nielsen Preiss S, Lemke G, Tobet S, et al. Axl and Tyro3 modulate female reproduction by influencing gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2481-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies using caspase 3 cleavage as a marker of apoptosis showed that Axl(-/-), Tyro3(-/-) double-knockout mice had increased cell death ..
  33. Cubelos B, Sebastián Serrano A, Kim S, Moreno Ortiz C, Redondo J, Walsh C, et al. Cux-2 controls the proliferation of neuronal intermediate precursors of the cortical subventricular zone. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:1758-70 pubmed
    ..Our results point to Cux-2 as a key element in the control of the proliferation rates of the SVZ precursors and the number of upper cortical neurons, without altering the number of deep cortical layers. ..
  34. Barnes A, Lilley B, Pan Y, Plummer L, Powell A, Raines A, et al. LKB1 and SAD kinases define a pathway required for the polarization of cortical neurons. Cell. 2007;129:549-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, we provide evidence in vivo and in vitro for a multikinase pathway that links extracellular signals to the intracellular machinery required for axon specification. ..
  35. Takahashi S, Leiss M, Moser M, Ohashi T, Kitao T, Heckmann D, et al. The RGD motif in fibronectin is essential for development but dispensable for fibril assembly. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:167-78 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that FN contains a novel motif for integrin binding and fibril formation whose activity is controlled by amino acid modification. ..
  36. Yokota Y, Kim W, Chen Y, Wang X, Stanco A, Komuro Y, et al. The adenomatous polyposis coli protein is an essential regulator of radial glial polarity and construction of the cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2009;61:42-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, APC is an essential regulator of radial glial polarity and is critical for the construction of cerebral cortex in mammals. ..
  37. Lin W, Metzakopian E, Mavromatakis Y, Gao N, Balaskas N, Sasaki H, et al. Foxa1 and Foxa2 function both upstream of and cooperatively with Lmx1a and Lmx1b in a feedforward loop promoting mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neuron development. Dev Biol. 2009;333:386-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore provide new insights into the specification and differentiation of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons and identifies Foxa1 and Foxa2 as essential regulators in these processes. ..
  38. Adrain C, Murphy B, Martin S. Molecular ordering of the caspase activation cascade initiated by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte/natural killer (CTL/NK) protease granzyme B. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4663-73 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that granzyme B targets a highly restricted range of substrates and orchestrates cellular demolition largely through activation of caspase-3. ..
  39. Ohsawa S, Hamada S, Asou H, Kuida K, Uchiyama Y, Yoshida H, et al. Caspase-9 activation revealed by semaphorin 7A cleavage is independent of apoptosis in the aged olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a survival strategy for aged OB neurons, which can no longer regenerate, in which the central apoptotic machinery downstream of caspase-9 is inactivated. ..
  40. Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Ciceri G, Monari M, Zuccaro E, Tybulewicz V, et al. Essential role of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in neuronal development. FASEB J. 2009;23:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show for the first time that both Rac1 and Rac3 are important for the development of the nervous system, wherein they play complementary roles during late stages of neuronal and brain development. ..
  41. SAMUELS I, Karlo J, Faruzzi A, Pickering K, Herrup K, Sweatt J, et al. Deletion of ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase identifies its key roles in cortical neurogenesis and cognitive function. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6983-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate an important role for ERK2 in cellular proliferation and differentiation during neural development as well as in cognition and memory formation. ..
  42. Williams T, Courchet J, Viollet B, Brenman J, Polleux F. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity is not required for neuronal development but regulates axogenesis during metabolic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5849-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that AMPK catalytic activity is not required for early neural development in vivo but its overactivation during metabolic stress impairs neuronal polarization in a mTOR-dependent manner. ..
  43. Ma L, Cantrup R, Varrault A, Colak D, Klenin N, Gotz M, et al. Zac1 functions through TGFbetaII to negatively regulate cell number in the developing retina. Neural Dev. 2007;2:11 pubmed
    ..This raises the intriguing possibility that tumorigenicity may also be associated with the loss of feedback inhibition in mature tissues. ..
  44. Yates L, Schnatwinkel C, Murdoch J, Bogani D, Formstone C, Townsend S, et al. The PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for normal lung branching morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2251-67 pubmed publisher
  45. Stevens H, Smith K, Maragnoli M, Fagel D, Borok E, Shanabrough M, et al. Fgfr2 is required for the development of the medial prefrontal cortex and its connections with limbic circuits. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5590-602 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that FGFR2 signaling expands the number of excitatory neurons in the mPFC and secondarily influences target neurons in subcortical stations of the limbic system. ..
  46. Machold R, Hayashi S, Rutlin M, Muzumdar M, Nery S, Corbin J, et al. Sonic hedgehog is required for progenitor cell maintenance in telencephalic stem cell niches. Neuron. 2003;39:937-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required to maintain progenitor cells in the postnatal telencephalon. ..
  47. Srinivasan A, Roth K, Sayers R, Shindler K, Wong A, Fritz L, et al. In situ immunodetection of activated caspase-3 in apoptotic neurons in the developing nervous system. Cell Death Differ. 1998;5:1004-16 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that caspase-3 is activated during apoptosis in the developing nervous system in vivo and that CM1 is a useful reagent for its in situ detection. ..
  48. D Amelio M, Cavallucci V, Middei S, Marchetti C, Pacioni S, Ferri A, et al. Caspase-3 triggers early synaptic dysfunction in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that caspase-3 is a potential target for pharmacological therapy during early disease stages. ..
  49. Dixon J, Jones N, Sandell L, Jayasinghe S, Crane J, Rey J, et al. Tcof1/Treacle is required for neural crest cell formation and proliferation deficiencies that cause craniofacial abnormalities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13403-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Tcof1/Treacle is a unique spatiotemporal regulator of ribosome biogenesis, a deficiency that disrupts neural crest cell formation and proliferation, causing the hypoplasia characteristic of TCS craniofacial anomalies. ..
  50. Le Bouffant R, Souquet B, Duval N, Duquenne C, Hervé R, Frydman N, et al. Msx1 and Msx2 promote meiosis initiation. Development. 2011;138:5393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrate for the first time that some homeobox genes are required for meiosis initiation in the female germ line. ..
  51. Massa V, Savery D, Ybot Gonzalez P, Ferraro E, Rongvaux A, Cecconi F, et al. Apoptosis is not required for mammalian neural tube closure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Casp3 and Apaf1 null embryos exhibit severely reduced apoptosis, yet neurulation proceeds normally in the forebrain and ..
  52. Chen L, Mupo A, Huynh T, Cioffi S, Woods M, Jin C, et al. Tbx1 regulates Vegfr3 and is required for lymphatic vessel development. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel pathway for the development of the lymphatic vessel network. ..
  53. Zhou W, Lin L, Majumdar A, Li X, Zhang X, Liu W, et al. Modulation of morphogenesis by noncanonical Wnt signaling requires ATF/CREB family-mediated transcriptional activation of TGFbeta2. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1225-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that transcriptional readout mediated at least in part by a Wnt11 --> ATF/CREB --> TGFbeta2 pathway is critical in regulating morphogenesis in response to noncanonical Wnt signaling. ..
  54. Kamimoto Y, Sugiyama T, Kihira T, Zhang L, Murabayashi N, Umekawa T, et al. Transgenic mice overproducing human thioredoxin-1, an antioxidative and anti-apoptotic protein, prevents diabetic embryopathy. Diabetologia. 2010;53:2046-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Using transgenic mice that overproduce human TRX-1 (TRX-Tg mice), we examined whether oxidative stress is involved in fetal dysmorphogenesis in diabetic pregnancies...
  55. Tsao P, Vasconcelos M, Izvolsky K, Qian J, LU J, Cardoso W. Notch signaling controls the balance of ciliated and secretory cell fates in developing airways. Development. 2009;136:2297-307 pubmed publisher
    ..It might also be relevant to mediate the metaplastic changes in the respiratory epithelium that occur in pathological conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ..
  56. Shaham O, Smith A, Robinson M, Taketo M, Lang R, Ashery Padan R. Pax6 is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Development. 2009;136:2567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that Pax6 is pivotal for initiation of the lens fiber differentiation program in the mammalian eye...
  57. Enomoto H, Crawford P, Gorodinsky A, Heuckeroth R, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. RET signaling is essential for migration, axonal growth and axon guidance of developing sympathetic neurons. Development. 2001;128:3963-74 pubmed
    ..This analysis identifies RET and artemin as central regulators of early sympathetic innervation. ..
  58. Andrieu D, Meziane H, Marly F, Angelats C, Fernandez P, Muscatelli F. Sensory defects in Necdin deficient mice result from a loss of sensory neurons correlated within an increase of developmental programmed cell death. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:56 pubmed
    ..Finally we also exclude an anti-proliferative role of Necdin in developing sensory neurons. Overall, our data show clearly that, in early development of the nervous system, Necdin is an anti-apoptotic or survival factor. ..
  59. Ohkubo Y, Uchida A, Shin D, Partanen J, Vaccarino F. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is required for the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells and for hippocampal growth in mouse. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6057-69 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Fgfr1 is necessary for hippocampal growth, because it promotes the proliferation of hippocampal progenitors and stem cells during development. ..
  60. Lossie A, Lo C, Baumgarner K, Cramer M, Garner J, Justice M. ENU mutagenesis reveals that Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila) affects Cdkn1a and several members of the Wnt pathway during murine pre-implantation development. BMC Genet. 2012;13:106 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results uncover potential novel functions for NLE1 in the WNT and CDKN1A pathways during embryonic development in mammals. ..
  61. Xu H, Viola A, Zhang Z, Gerken C, Lindsay Illingworth E, Baldini A. Tbx1 regulates population, proliferation and cell fate determination of otic epithelial cells. Dev Biol. 2007;302:670-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the main functions of Tbx1 in the inner ear are to control, cell-autonomously, contribution, size and fate of a large population of otic epithelial cells, and, cell non-autonomously, cochlear morphogenesis. ..
  62. Qu Y, Glasco D, Zhou L, Sawant A, Ravni A, Fritzsch B, et al. Atypical cadherins Celsr1-3 differentially regulate migration of facial branchiomotor neurons in mice. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Celsr1-3 differentially regulate FBM neuron migration. Celsr1 helps to specify the direction of FBM neuron migration, whereas Celsr2 and 3 control its ability to migrate. ..
  63. Hirota J, Mombaerts P. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx2 is required for complete development of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8751-5 pubmed
    ..OSN development appears to be arrested between the terminal differentiation into neurons and the transition to immature neurons. Thus, Lhx2 is required for complete development of OSNs in mice. ..
  64. Zhou J, Pashmforoush M, Sucov H. Endothelial neuropilin disruption in mice causes DiGeorge syndrome-like malformations via mechanisms distinct to those caused by loss of Tbx1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32429 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that impairment of VEGF-dependent endothelial pathways leads to a spectrum of DiGeorge syndrome-type malformations, through processes that are distinguishable from those controlled by Tbx1. ..
  65. Mailleux A, Overholtzer M, Schmelzle T, Bouillet P, Strasser A, Brugge J. BIM regulates apoptosis during mammary ductal morphogenesis, and its absence reveals alternative cell death mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2007;12:221-34 pubmed
    ..These data provide important mechanistic information on the processes involved in sculpting the mammary gland and demonstrate that BIM is a critical regulator of apoptosis in vivo. ..
  66. Cullen S, Adrain C, Lüthi A, Duriez P, Martin S. Human and murine granzyme B exhibit divergent substrate preferences. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:435-44 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that human and murine GzmB are distinct enzymes with different substrate preferences. Our observations also illustrate how subtle differences in enzyme structure can radically affect substrate selection. ..
  67. Okano T, Xuan S, Kelley M. Insulin-like growth factor signaling regulates the timing of sensory cell differentiation in the mouse cochlea. J Neurosci. 2011;31:18104-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also provide new insights regarding the pathological processes that underlie auditory defects in the absence of IGF signaling in both humans and mice. ..
  68. Pawlisz A, Feng Y. Three-dimensional regulation of radial glial functions by Lis1-Nde1 and dystrophin glycoprotein complexes. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001172 pubmed publisher
  69. Feng L, Xie Z, Ding Q, Xie X, Libby R, Gan L. MATH5 controls the acquisition of multiple retinal cell fates. Mol Brain. 2010;3:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that Math5 regulates the generation of multiple retinal cell types via different mechanisms during retinogenesis. ..
  70. Walsh J, Cullen S, Sheridan C, Lüthi A, Gerner C, Martin S. Executioner caspase-3 and caspase-7 are functionally distinct proteases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12815-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations provide a molecular basis for the different phenotypes seen in mice lacking either caspase and indicate that these proteases occupy nonredundant roles within the cell death machinery. ..
  71. McComb S, Mulligan R, Sad S. Caspase-3 is transiently activated without cell death during early antigen driven expansion of CD8(+) T cells in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15328 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the contraction of CD8(+) T cell response following expansion is likely not mediated by the key downstream apoptosis inducer, caspase-3. ..
  72. Zamboni D, Kobayashi K, Kohlsdorf T, Ogura Y, Long E, Vance R, et al. The Birc1e cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor contributes to the detection and control of Legionella pneumophila infection. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:318-25 pubmed
    ..These results establish Birc1e as a nucleotide-binding oligomerization-leucine-rich repeat protein involved in the detection and control of intracellular L. pneumophila. ..
  73. Woo M, Hakem R, Soengas M, Duncan G, Shahinian A, Kagi D, et al. Essential contribution of caspase 3/CPP32 to apoptosis and its associated nuclear changes. Genes Dev. 1998;12:806-19 pubmed
    ..CPP32 (caspase 3) is a prototypical caspase that becomes activated during apoptosis...
  74. Morishita H, Makishima T, Kaneko C, Lee Y, Segil N, Takahashi K, et al. Deafness due to degeneration of cochlear neurons in caspase-3-deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:142-9 pubmed
  75. Woo M, Hakem R, Furlonger C, Hakem A, Duncan G, Sasaki T, et al. Caspase-3 regulates cell cycle in B cells: a consequence of substrate specificity. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1016-22 pubmed
    ..Here we report that caspase-3 is a negative regulator of B cell cycling. Mice deficient in caspase-3 (Casp3-/- mice) have increased numbers of splenic B cells that show normal apoptosis but enhanced proliferation in vivo ..
  76. Bramblett D, Pennesi M, Wu S, Tsai M. The transcription factor Bhlhb4 is required for rod bipolar cell maturation. Neuron. 2004;43:779-93 pubmed
    ..Other retinal cell populations including photoreceptors were unaltered. The timing of RB cell depletion in the Bhlhb4(-/-) mouse suggests that Bhlhb4 is essential for RB cell maturation. ..
  77. Katsuno T, Umeda K, Matsui T, Hata M, Tamura A, Itoh M, et al. Deficiency of zonula occludens-1 causes embryonic lethal phenotype associated with defected yolk sac angiogenesis and apoptosis of embryonic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ZO-1 may be functionally important for cell remodeling and tissue organization in both the embryonic and extraembryonic regions, thus playing an essential role in embryonic development...
  78. Chen L, Melendez J, Campbell K, Kuan C, Zheng Y. Rac1 deficiency in the forebrain results in neural progenitor reduction and microcephaly. Dev Biol. 2009;325:162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that Rac1 regulates self-renewal, survival, and differentiation of telencephalic neural progenitors, and that dysfunctions of Rac1 may lead to primary microcephaly. ..
  79. Wakabayashi J, Zhang Z, Wakabayashi N, Tamura Y, Fukaya M, Kensler T, et al. The dynamin-related GTPase Drp1 is required for embryonic and brain development in mice. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:805-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings clearly demonstrate the physiological importance of Drp1-mediated organelle division in mice. ..
  80. Hilton M, Tu X, Wu X, Bai S, Zhao H, Kobayashi T, et al. Notch signaling maintains bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors by suppressing osteoblast differentiation. Nat Med. 2008;14:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mesenchymal progenitors may be expanded in vitro by activating the Notch pathway, whereas bone formation in vivo may be enhanced by transiently suppressing this pathway. ..
  81. Peng C, Aron L, Klein R, Li M, Wurst W, Prakash N, et al. Pitx3 is a critical mediator of GDNF-induced BDNF expression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12802-15 pubmed publisher
  82. Lin L, Bu L, Cai C, Zhang X, Evans S. Isl1 is upstream of sonic hedgehog in a pathway required for cardiac morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2006;295:756-63 pubmed
    ..We find that expression of npn2 is downregulated in isl1-cre;smo mutants, suggesting an isl1/Shh/npn pathway required to affect morphogenesis at the anterior pole of the heart. ..
  83. Yang L, Cai C, Lin L, Qyang Y, Chung C, Monteiro R, et al. Isl1Cre reveals a common Bmp pathway in heart and limb development. Development. 2006;133:1575-85 pubmed
    ..Tbx3 is required for heart and limb formation, and is mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome. We provide evidence that the Tbx3 promoter is directly regulated by Bmp Smads in vivo. ..
  84. Wang W, Li Q, Xu J, Cvekl A. Lens fiber cell differentiation and denucleation are disrupted through expression of the N-terminal nuclear receptor box of NCOA6 and result in p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2453-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate a cell-autonomous role of Ncoa6 in lens fiber cell differentiation and suggest novel insights into the process of lens fiber cell denucleation and apoptosis. ..
  85. Moon A, Guris D, Seo J, Li L, Hammond J, Talbot A, et al. Crkl deficiency disrupts Fgf8 signaling in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndromes. Dev Cell. 2006;10:71-80 pubmed
    ..These findings provide mechanistic insight into disrupted intercellular interactions in the pathogenesis of malformations seen in del22q11 syndrome. ..
  86. Miura M, Chen X, Allen M, Bi Y, Gronthos S, Seo B, et al. A crucial role of caspase-3 in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1704-13 pubmed
    ..Here we report delayed ossification and decreased bone mineral density in caspase-3-deficient (Casp3(-/-) and Casp3(+/-)) mice due to an attenuated osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells (..
  87. Roy K, Kuznicki K, Wu Q, Sun Z, Bock D, Schutz G, et al. The Tlx gene regulates the timing of neurogenesis in the cortex. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8333-45 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that tlx is an essential intrinsic regulator in the decision to proliferate or differentiate in the developing forebrain. ..
  88. Farkas L, Haffner C, Giger T, Khaitovich P, Nowick K, Birchmeier C, et al. Insulinoma-associated 1 has a panneurogenic role and promotes the generation and expansion of basal progenitors in the developing mouse neocortex. Neuron. 2008;60:40-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data imply that Insm1 is involved in the generation and expansion of basal progenitors, a hallmark of neocortex evolution. ..
  89. Liu Y, Jiang H, Crawford H, Hogan B. Role for ETS domain transcription factors Pea3/Erm in mouse lung development. Dev Biol. 2003;261:10-24 pubmed
    ..Our results provide the first functional evidence that Pea3 subfamily members play a role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during lung organogenesis. ..
  90. Matikainen T, Perez G, Zheng T, Kluzak T, Rueda B, Flavell R, et al. Caspase-3 gene knockout defines cell lineage specificity for programmed cell death signaling in the ovary. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2468-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that caspase-3 is functionally required for granulosa cell apoptosis during follicular atresia, but that the enzyme is dispensable for germ cell apoptosis in the female. ..
  91. Tissir F, Ravni A, Achouri Y, Riethmacher D, Meyer G, Goffinet A. DeltaNp73 regulates neuronal survival in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16871-6 pubmed publisher