Gene Symbol: Casp1
Description: caspase 1
Alias: ICE, Il1bc, caspase-1, CASP-1, IL-1 beta-converting enzyme, IL-1B converting enzyme, IL-1BC, interleukin-1 beta convertase, interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme, p45
Species: mouse
Products:     Casp1

Top Publications

  1. Miao E, Ernst R, Dors M, Mao D, Aderem A. Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates caspase 1 through Ipaf. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2562-7 pubmed publisher
    The innate immune system encodes cytosolic Nod-like receptors (NLRs), several of which activate caspase 1 processing and IL-1beta and IL-18 secretion...
  2. Henao Mejia J, Elinav E, Jin C, Hao L, Mehal W, Strowig T, et al. Inflammasome-mediated dysbiosis regulates progression of NAFLD and obesity. Nature. 2012;482:179-85 pubmed publisher
  3. Müller A, Hoffmann C, Galle M, Van Den Broeke A, Heikenwalder M, Falter L, et al. The S. Typhimurium effector SopE induces caspase-1 activation in stromal cells to initiate gut inflammation. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate SopE-driven Rho GTPase-mediated caspase-1 activation in stromal cells as a mechanism eliciting mucosal inflammation during S. Typhimurium infection. ..
  4. Stewart M, Cummings L, Johnson M, Berezow A, Cookson B. Regulation of phenotypic heterogeneity permits Salmonella evasion of the host caspase-1 inflammatory response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20742-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a regulatory mechanism producing bistability also impacts Salmonella virulence...
  5. Shaw P, Lukens J, Burns S, Chi H, McGargill M, Kanneganti T. Cutting edge: critical role for PYCARD/ASC in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2010;184:4610-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that CD4(+) T cells deficient in ASC exhibited impaired survival; accordingly, ASC(-/-) mice had fewer myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific T cells in the draining lymph nodes and CNS. ..
  6. Qu Y, Misaghi S, Izrael Tomasevic A, Newton K, Gilmour L, Lamkanfi M, et al. Phosphorylation of NLRC4 is critical for inflammasome activation. Nature. 2012;490:539-42 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium infection, so phosphorylation of NLRC4 S533 probably drives conformational changes necessary for NLRC4 inflammasome activity and host innate immunity. ..
  7. Vladimer G, Weng D, Paquette S, Vanaja S, Rathinam V, Aune M, et al. The NLRP12 inflammasome recognizes Yersinia pestis. Immunity. 2012;37:96-107 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal a role for NLRP12 in host resistance against pathogens. Minimizing NLRP12 inflammasome activation may have been a central factor in evolution of the high virulence of Y. pestis. ..
  8. Erener S, Petrilli V, Kassner I, Minotti R, Castillo R, Santoro R, et al. Inflammasome-activated caspase 7 cleaves PARP1 to enhance the expression of a subset of NF-?B target genes. Mol Cell. 2012;46:200-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Caspase 1 is part of the inflammasome, which is assembled upon pathogen recognition, while caspases 3 and/or 7 are mediators of apoptotic and nonapoptotic functions...
  9. Lara Tejero M, Sutterwala F, Ogura Y, Grant E, Bertin J, Coyle A, et al. Role of the caspase-1 inflammasome in Salmonella typhimurium pathogenesis. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1407-12 pubmed
    ..We show here that absence of caspase-1 or components of the inflammasome does not result in resistance to oral infection by S. typhimurium, but rather, leads to increased susceptibility to infection. ..

More Information


  1. Gross O, Poeck H, Bscheider M, Dostert C, Hannesschläger N, Endres S, et al. Syk kinase signalling couples to the Nlrp3 inflammasome for anti-fungal host defence. Nature. 2009;459:433-6 pubmed publisher
    ..member that transduces the fungal recognition signal to the inflammasome adaptor Asc (Pycard) for Caspase-1 (Casp1) activation and pro-IL-1beta processing...
  2. Sokolovska A, Becker C, Ip W, Rathinam V, Brudner M, Paquette N, et al. Activation of caspase-1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome regulates the NADPH oxidase NOX2 to control phagosome function. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide insight into a mechanism by which innate immune signals can modify cellular defenses and establish a new function for the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 in host defense. ..
  3. Lamkanfi M, Kanneganti T, Van Damme P, Vanden Berghe T, Vanoverberghe I, Vandekerckhove J, et al. Targeted peptidecentric proteomics reveals caspase-7 as a substrate of the caspase-1 inflammasomes. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:2350-63 pubmed publisher
  4. Kayagaki N, Wong M, Stowe I, Ramani S, Gonzalez L, Akashi Takamura S, et al. Noncanonical inflammasome activation by intracellular LPS independent of TLR4. Science. 2013;341:1246-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli LPS. These data unveil a TLR4-independent mechanism for innate immune recognition of LPS. ..
  5. Ewald S, Chavarria Smith J, Boothroyd J. NLRP1 is an inflammasome sensor for Toxoplasma gondii. Infect Immun. 2014;82:460-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cumulatively, these data indicate that NLRP1 is an innate immune sensor for Toxoplasma infection, activated via a novel mechanism that corresponds to a host-protective innate immune response to the parasite. ..
  6. Li J, Yin H, Yuan J. Flightless-I regulates proinflammatory caspases by selectively modulating intracellular localization and caspase activity. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a new mechanism controlling the localization and activation of proinflammatory caspases. ..
  7. Elinav E, Strowig T, Kau A, Henao Mejia J, Thaiss C, Booth C, et al. NLRP6 inflammasome regulates colonic microbial ecology and risk for colitis. Cell. 2011;145:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, perturbations in this inflammasome pathway, including NLRP6, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-18, may constitute a predisposing or initiating event in some cases of human IBD. ..
  8. Kool M, Willart M, van Nimwegen M, Bergen I, Pouliot P, Virchow J, et al. An unexpected role for uric acid as an inducer of T helper 2 cell immunity to inhaled antigens and inflammatory mediator of allergic asthma. Immunity. 2011;34:527-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide further molecular insight into Th2 cell development and identify UA as an essential initiator and amplifier of allergic inflammation...
  9. Mayer Barber K, Barber D, Shenderov K, White S, Wilson M, Cheever A, et al. Caspase-1 independent IL-1beta production is critical for host resistance to mycobacterium tuberculosis and does not require TLR signaling in vivo. J Immunol. 2010;184:3326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our findings reveal a major role for IL-1beta in host resistance to M. tuberculosis and indicate that during this infection the cytokine can be generated by a mechanism that does not require TLR signaling or caspase-1. ..
  10. Drexler S, Bonsignore L, Masin M, Tardivel A, Jackstadt R, Hermeking H, et al. Tissue-specific opposing functions of the inflammasome adaptor ASC in the regulation of epithelial skin carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18384-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Zwaferink H, Stockinger S, Hazemi P, Lemmens Gruber R, Decker T. IFN-beta increases listeriolysin O-induced membrane permeabilization and death of macrophages. J Immunol. 2008;180:4116-23 pubmed
    ..IFN-beta caused cells to express increased amounts of caspase 1 and to produce a detectable caspase 1 cleavage product after LLO treatment...
  12. Kastenmüller W, Torabi Parizi P, Subramanian N, Lämmermann T, Germain R. A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread. Cell. 2012;150:1235-48 pubmed publisher
  13. Liu Z, Zaki M, Vogel P, Gurung P, Finlay B, Deng W, et al. Role of inflammasomes in host defense against Citrobacter rodentium infection. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16955-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, production of IL-1? and IL-18 downstream of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasomes plays a critical role in host defense against enteric infections caused by C. rodentium...
  14. Sarkar A, Hall M, Exline M, Hart J, Knatz N, Gatson N, et al. Caspase-1 regulates Escherichia coli sepsis and splenic B cell apoptosis independently of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-18. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:1003-10 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that caspase-1 is important in the host response to sepsis at least in part via its ability to regulate sepsis-induced splenic cell apoptosis. ..
  15. Gomes M, Campos P, Oliveira F, Corsetti P, Bortoluci K, Cunha L, et al. Critical role of ASC inflammasomes and bacterial type IV secretion system in caspase-1 activation and host innate resistance to Brucella abortus infection. J Immunol. 2013;190:3629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response. ..
  16. Mezzaroma E, Toldo S, Farkas D, Seropian I, Van Tassell B, Salloum F, et al. The inflammasome promotes adverse cardiac remodeling following acute myocardial infarction in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of the inflammasome may therefore represent a unique therapeutic strategy to limit cell death and prevent heart failure after AMI. ..
  17. Case C, Kohler L, Lima J, Strowig T, de Zoete M, Flavell R, et al. Caspase-11 stimulates rapid flagellin-independent pyroptosis in response to Legionella pneumophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1851-6 pubmed publisher
  18. Shao W, Yeretssian G, Doiron K, Hussain S, Saleh M. The caspase-1 digestome identifies the glycolysis pathway as a target during infection and septic shock. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36321-9 pubmed
    ..The systematic characterization of caspase-1 substrates identifies the glycolysis pathway as a caspase-1 target and provides new insights into its function during pyroptosis and septic shock. ..
  19. Qu Y, Franchi L, Nunez G, Dubyak G. Nonclassical IL-1 beta secretion stimulated by P2X7 receptors is dependent on inflammasome activation and correlated with exosome release in murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2007;179:1913-25 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest an alternative model of IL-1 beta release that may involve the P2X7R-induced formation of multivesicular bodies that contain exosomes with entrapped IL-1 beta, caspase-1, and other inflammasome components. ..
  20. Feldmeyer L, Keller M, Niklaus G, Hohl D, Werner S, Beer H. The inflammasome mediates UVB-induced activation and secretion of interleukin-1beta by keratinocytes. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1140-5 pubmed
    ..This supports the concept that keratinocytes are important immuno-competent cells under physiological and pathological conditions [5]. ..
  21. Amer A, Franchi L, Kanneganti T, Body Malapel M, Ozören N, Brady G, et al. Regulation of Legionella phagosome maturation and infection through flagellin and host Ipaf. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35217-23 pubmed
    ..These results reveal that Ipaf restricts Legionella replication through the regulation of phagosome maturation, providing a novel function for NLR proteins in host defense against an intracellular bacterium. ..
  22. Hsu L, Ali S, McGillivray S, Tseng P, Mariathasan S, Humke E, et al. A NOD2-NALP1 complex mediates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta secretion in response to Bacillus anthracis infection and muramyl dipeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7803-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NOD2 plays a key role in the B. anthracis-induced inflammatory response by being a critical mediator of IL-1beta secretion. ..
  23. LaRock C, Cookson B. The Yersinia virulence effector YopM binds caspase-1 to arrest inflammasome assembly and processing. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:799-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a bacterium obstructs pyroptosis utilizing a direct mechanism of caspase-1 inhibition that is distinct from known viral or host inhibitors. ..
  24. Shi C, Shenderov K, Huang N, Kabat J, Abu Asab M, Fitzgerald K, et al. Activation of autophagy by inflammatory signals limits IL-1β production by targeting ubiquitinated inflammasomes for destruction. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that autophagy accompanies inflammasome activation to temper inflammation by eliminating active inflammasomes. ..
  25. Stienstra R, van Diepen J, Tack C, Zaki M, van de Veerdonk F, Perera D, et al. Inflammasome is a central player in the induction of obesity and insulin resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15324-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a critical function of the inflammasome in obesity and insulin resistance, and suggest inhibition of the inflammasome as a potential therapeutic strategy. ..
  26. Aachoui Y, Leaf I, Hagar J, Fontana M, Campos C, Zak D, et al. Caspase-11 protects against bacteria that escape the vacuole. Science. 2013;339:975-8 pubmed publisher
    ..thailandensis and B. pseudomallei. Thus, caspase-11 is critical for surviving exposure to ubiquitous environmental pathogens...
  27. Broz P, von Moltke J, Jones J, Vance R, Monack D. Differential requirement for Caspase-1 autoproteolysis in pathogen-induced cell death and cytokine processing. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:471-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest the formation of spatially and functionally distinct inflammasomes complexes in response to bacterial pathogens. ..
  28. Gross O, Yazdi A, Thomas C, Masin M, Heinz L, Guarda G, et al. Inflammasome activators induce interleukin-1? secretion via distinct pathways with differential requirement for the protease function of caspase-1. Immunity. 2012;36:388-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Because inflammasomes contribute to the pathology of numerous chronic inflammatory diseases such as gout and diabetes, IL-1? antagonists may be beneficial in the treatment of these disorders. ..
  29. Labbe K, Miu J, Yeretssian G, Serghides L, Tam M, Finney C, et al. Caspase-12 dampens the immune response to malaria independently of the inflammasome by targeting NF-kappaB signaling. J Immunol. 2010;185:5495-502 pubmed publisher
    ..This response was independent of the caspase-1 inflammasome, as casp1(-/-) mice were indistinguishable from wild-type animals in response to malaria, but dependent on enhanced NF-?B ..
  30. Bauer C, Loher F, Dauer M, Mayer C, Lehr H, Schönharting M, et al. The ICE inhibitor pralnacasan prevents DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice and suppresses IP-10 mRNA but not TNF-alpha mRNA expression. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:1642-52 pubmed
    Previously we demonstrated an ameliorating effect of the interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE) inhibitor pralnacasan on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
  31. Lightfield K, Persson J, Brubaker S, Witte C, von Moltke J, Dunipace E, et al. Critical function for Naip5 in inflammasome activation by a conserved carboxy-terminal domain of flagellin. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice failed to activate the inflammasome in response to the 35 amino acids of flagellin or in response to Legionella pneumophila infection. Our data clarify the molecular basis for the cytosolic response to flagellin. ..
  32. Harder J, Franchi L, Muñoz Planillo R, Park J, Reimer T, Nunez G. Activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome by Streptococcus pyogenes requires streptolysin O and NF-kappa B activation but proceeds independently of TLR signaling and P2X7 receptor. J Immunol. 2009;183:5823-9 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes peritoneal infection. These results indicate that caspase-1 activation in response to S. pyogenes infection requires NF-kappaB and the virulence factor streptolysin O, but proceeds independently of P2X7R and TLR signaling. ..
  33. Miggin S, Palsson McDermott E, Dunne A, Jefferies C, Pinteaux E, Banahan K, et al. NF-kappaB activation by the Toll-IL-1 receptor domain protein MyD88 adapter-like is regulated by caspase-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3372-7 pubmed
    ..This functional interaction reveals an important aspect of the coordination between TLRs and caspase-1 during the innate response to pathogens. ..
  34. Franchi L, Kanneganti T, Dubyak G, Nunez G. Differential requirement of P2X7 receptor and intracellular K+ for caspase-1 activation induced by intracellular and extracellular bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18810-8 pubmed
  35. Usui F, Shirasuna K, Kimura H, Tatsumi K, Kawashima A, Karasawa T, et al. Critical role of caspase-1 in vascular inflammation and development of atherosclerosis in Western diet-fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;425:162-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We produced double-deficient mice for apolipoprotien E (Apoe) and caspase-1 (Casp1), a key component molecule of the inflammasome, and investigated the effect of caspase-1 deficiency on vascular ..
  36. Eisenbarth S, Colegio O, O Connor W, Sutterwala F, Flavell R. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants. Nature. 2008;453:1122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely to affect how we design effective, but safe, adjuvants in the future...
  37. Roberts T, Idris A, Dunn J, Kelly G, Burnton C, Hodgson S, et al. HIN-200 proteins regulate caspase activation in response to foreign cytoplasmic DNA. Science. 2009;323:1057-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytoplasmic dsDNA rapidly activated caspase 3 and caspase 1 in bone marrow-derived macrophages...
  38. Allen I, Scull M, Moore C, Holl E, McElvania TeKippe E, Taxman D, et al. The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates in vivo innate immunity to influenza A virus through recognition of viral RNA. Immunity. 2009;30:556-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data place the NLRP3 inflammasome as an essential component in host defense against influenza infection through the sensing of viral RNA. ..
  39. Dupaul Chicoine J, Yeretssian G, Doiron K, Bergstrom K, McIntire C, LeBlanc P, et al. Control of intestinal homeostasis, colitis, and colitis-associated colorectal cancer by the inflammatory caspases. Immunity. 2010;32:367-78 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Casp1(-/-) mice exhibited defects in mucosal tissue repair and succumbed rapidly after dextran sulfate sodium ..
  40. Yazdi A, Guarda G, Riteau N, Drexler S, Tardivel A, Couillin I, et al. Nanoparticles activate the NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome and cause pulmonary inflammation through release of IL-1? and IL-1?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The current use of nano-TiO(2) may present a health hazard due to its capacity to induce IL-1R signaling, a situation reminiscent of inflammation provoked by asbestos exposure. ..
  41. Moayeri M, Crown D, Newman Z, Okugawa S, Eckhaus M, Cataisson C, et al. Inflammasome sensor Nlrp1b-dependent resistance to anthrax is mediated by caspase-1, IL-1 signaling and neutrophil recruitment. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001222 pubmed publisher
    ..These data confirm an inverse relationship between murine macrophage sensitivity to lethal toxin and mouse susceptibility to spore infection, and establish roles for Nlrp1b(S), caspase-1, and IL-1? in countering anthrax infection. ..
  42. Kayagaki N, Warming S, Lamkanfi M, Vande Walle L, Louie S, Dong J, et al. Non-canonical inflammasome activation targets caspase-11. Nature. 2011;479:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is important because published targeting of the Casp1 gene was done using strain 129 embryonic stem cells...
  43. Hornung V, Ablasser A, Charrel Dennis M, Bauernfeind F, Horvath G, Caffrey D, et al. AIM2 recognizes cytosolic dsDNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with ASC. Nature. 2009;458:514-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations identify AIM2 as a new receptor for cytoplasmic DNA, which forms an inflammasome with the ligand and ASC to activate caspase-1. ..
  44. Pan Q, Mathison J, Fearns C, Kravchenko V, da Silva Correia J, Hoffman H, et al. MDP-induced interleukin-1beta processing requires Nod2 and CIAS1/NALP3. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:177-83 pubmed
    ..Together, our data provide a new understanding of this important pathway of IL-1beta production and allow for further studies of the role of these proteins within the broader context of inflammatory disease. ..
  45. Karmakar M, Sun Y, Hise A, Rietsch A, Pearlman E. Cutting edge: IL-1? processing during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is mediated by neutrophil serine proteases and is independent of NLRC4 and caspase-1. J Immunol. 2012;189:4231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that during P. aeruginosa infection, neutrophils are the primary source of mature IL-1? and that IL-1? processing is dependent on serine proteases and not NLRC4 or caspase-1...
  46. von Moltke J, Trinidad N, Moayeri M, Kintzer A, Wang S, Van Rooijen N, et al. Rapid induction of inflammatory lipid mediators by the inflammasome in vivo. Nature. 2012;490:107-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammasomes activate the caspase-1 (CASP1) protease, which processes the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18, and initiates a lytic host cell death ..
  47. Fink S, Bergsbaken T, Cookson B. Anthrax lethal toxin and Salmonella elicit the common cell death pathway of caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis via distinct mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4312-7 pubmed publisher
  48. Xu J, Jiang Y, Wang J, Shi X, Liu Q, Liu Z, et al. Macrophage endocytosis of high-mobility group box 1 triggers pyroptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:1229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed light on the regulatory role of ligand-receptor internalization in directing cell fate, which may have an important role in the progress of inflammation following infection and injury. ..
  49. Silva G, Costa R, Silveira T, Caetano B, Horta C, Gutierrez F, et al. Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain inflammasomes mediate IL-1? response and host resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. J Immunol. 2013;191:3373-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ASC inflammasomes are critical determinants of host resistance to infection with T. cruzi...
  50. Dixon L, Flask C, Papouchado B, Feldstein A, Nagy L. Caspase-1 as a central regulator of high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aims were to examine the role of caspase-1 in high fat-induced NASH. C57BL/6 wild-type and caspase 1-knockout (Casp1(-/-)) mice were placed on a 12-week high fat diet...
  51. Squires R, Muehlbauer S, BROJATSCH J. Proteasomes control caspase-1 activation in anthrax lethal toxin-mediated cell killing. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34260-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, caspase-1-mediated necrosis appears to be tightly controlled and differentially regulated by proteasomes depending on the source of caspase-1 induction. ..
  52. Heneka M, Kummer M, Stutz A, Delekate A, Schwartz S, Vieira Saecker A, et al. NLRP3 is activated in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to pathology in APP/PS1 mice. Nature. 2013;493:674-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Nlrp3(-/-) or Casp1(-/-) mice carrying mutations associated with familial Alzheimer's disease were largely protected from loss of ..
  53. McElvania TeKippe E, Allen I, Hulseberg P, Sullivan J, McCann J, Sandor M, et al. Granuloma formation and host defense in chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection requires PYCARD/ASC but not NLRP3 or caspase-1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12320 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that PYCARD exerts a novel inflammasome-independent role during chronic Mtb infection by containing the bacteria in granulomas. ..
  54. Shimada K, Crother T, Karlin J, Dagvadorj J, Chiba N, Chen S, et al. Oxidized mitochondrial DNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome during apoptosis. Immunity. 2012;36:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a missing link between apoptosis and inflammasome activation, via binding of cytosolic oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome. ..
  55. Griffith J, Sun T, McIntosh M, Bucala R. Pure Hemozoin is inflammatory in vivo and activates the NALP3 inflammasome via release of uric acid. J Immunol. 2009;183:5208-20 pubmed publisher
    ..and the increase in circulating IL-6 require MyD88 signaling, the IL-1R pathway, and the inflammasome components ICE (IL-1beta-converting enzyme), ASC (apoptosis-associated, speck-like protein containing CARD), and NALP3...
  56. Gage J, Hasu M, Thabet M, Whitman S. Caspase-1 deficiency decreases atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. Can J Cardiol. 2012;28:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..E-null (Apoe(-/-)) mice from atherosclerosis, gender-matched, paired-littermate Apoe(-/-) mice with (Casp1(+/+)Apoe(-/-)) or without (Casp1(-/-)Apoe(-/-)) a functional caspase-1 (Casp1) gene were fed either a low fat diet ..
  57. Akhter A, Gavrilin M, Frantz L, Washington S, Ditty C, Limoli D, et al. Caspase-7 activation by the Nlrc4/Ipaf inflammasome restricts Legionella pneumophila infection. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000361 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a new mechanism for caspase-7 activation downstream of the Nlrc4 inflammasome and present a novel biological role for caspase-7 in host defense against an intracellular bacterium. ..
  58. Pierini R, Juruj C, Perret M, Jones C, Mangeot P, Weiss D, et al. AIM2/ASC triggers caspase-8-dependent apoptosis in Francisella-infected caspase-1-deficient macrophages. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1709-21 pubmed publisher an innate immune mechanism able to restrict bacterial replication in vitro and control IFN-? levels in vivo in Casp1(KO) mice...
  59. Warren S, Mao D, Rodriguez A, Miao E, Aderem A. Multiple Nod-like receptors activate caspase 1 during Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:7558-64 pubmed
    ..Cytosolic L. monocytogenes activates caspase 1, resulting in post-translational processing of the cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 as well as caspase 1-dependent ..
  60. Muruve D, Petrilli V, Zaiss A, White L, Clark S, Ross P, et al. The inflammasome recognizes cytosolic microbial and host DNA and triggers an innate immune response. Nature. 2008;452:103-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to viral and bacterial components or danger signals in general, inflammasomes sense potentially dangerous cytoplasmic DNA, strengthening their central role in innate immunity. ..
  61. RAMOS H, Lanteri M, Blahnik G, Negash A, Suthar M, Brassil M, et al. IL-1? signaling promotes CNS-intrinsic immune control of West Nile virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003039 pubmed publisher
  62. Mankan A, Dau T, Jenne D, Hornung V. The NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 axis regulates IL-1? processing in neutrophils. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:710-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish the NLRP3 inflammasome as a key step in the secretion of matured IL-1? by neutrophils. ..
  63. Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner K, Sirois C, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind F, et al. NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature. 2010;464:1357-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and indicate new potential molecular targets for the therapy of this disease. ..
  64. Thomas P, Dash P, Aldridge J, Ellebedy A, Reynolds C, Funk A, et al. The intracellular sensor NLRP3 mediates key innate and healing responses to influenza A virus via the regulation of caspase-1. Immunity. 2009;30:566-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrated that Nlrp3(-/-) and Casp1(-/-) mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice after infection with a pathogenic influenza A virus...
  65. Hagar J, Powell D, Aachoui Y, Ernst R, Miao E. Cytoplasmic LPS activates caspase-11: implications in TLR4-independent endotoxic shock. Science. 2013;341:1250-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal a new pathway for detecting cytoplasmic LPS. ..
  66. Allen I, Tekippe E, Woodford R, Uronis J, Holl E, Rogers A, et al. The NLRP3 inflammasome functions as a negative regulator of tumorigenesis during colitis-associated cancer. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1045-56 pubmed publisher
    ..recurring colitis and CAC, although the disease outcome was less severe in Nlrp3(-/-) mice than in Pycard(-/-) or Casp1(-/-) animals...
  67. Ichinohe T, Lee H, Ogura Y, Flavell R, Iwasaki A. Inflammasome recognition of influenza virus is essential for adaptive immune responses. J Exp Med. 2009;206:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that in addition to the TLR pathways, ASC inflammasomes play a central role in adaptive immunity to influenza virus. ..
  68. Henry T, Brotcke A, Weiss D, Thompson L, Monack D. Type I interferon signaling is required for activation of the inflammasome during Francisella infection. J Exp Med. 2007;204:987-94 pubmed
    ..This connection underscores the importance of the cytosolic recognition of pathogens and highlights how multiple innate immunity pathways interact before commitment to critical host responses...
  69. Vince J, Wong W, Gentle I, Lawlor K, Allam R, O Reilly L, et al. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins limit RIP3 kinase-dependent interleukin-1 activation. Immunity. 2012;36:215-27 pubmed publisher
  70. Dixon L, Berk M, Thapaliya S, Papouchado B, Feldstein A. Caspase-1-mediated regulation of fibrogenesis in diet-induced steatohepatitis. Lab Invest. 2012;92:713-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Caspase-1-knockout (Casp1(-/-)) mice on the MCD diet showed marked reduction in mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation and ..
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