Gene Symbol: Cartpt
Description: CART prepropeptide
Alias: Cart, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Cartpt

Top Publications

  1. Keller P, Compan V, Bockaert J, Giacobino J, Charnay Y, Bouras C, et al. Characterization and localization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) binding sites. Peptides. 2006;27:1328-34 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely expressed in the brain and various endocrine tissues. CART is implicated in many physiological functions including food intake, drug reward, stress and nociception...
  2. Kristensen P, Judge M, Thim L, Ribel U, Christjansen K, Wulff B, et al. Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin. Nature. 1998;393:72-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely ..
  3. Asnicar M, Smith D, Yang D, Heiman M, Fox N, Chen Y, et al. Absence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript results in obesity in mice fed a high caloric diet. Endocrinology. 2001;142:4394-400 pubmed
    b>Cart (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) was first identified to be a major brain mRNA up-regulated by cocaine and amphetamine...
  4. Bartell S, Isales C, Baile C, Kuhar M, Hamrick M. CART deficiency increases body weight but does not alter bone strength. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2008;8:146-53 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that CART (cocaine-amphetamine related transcript) is a significant neuronal co-factor when combined with leptin...
  5. Mao P, Ardeshiri A, Jacks R, Yang S, Hurn P, Alkayed N. Mitochondrial mechanism of neuroprotection by CART. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:624-32 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is protective against focal cerebral ischemia in vivo and against neuronal cell death in culture induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (..
  6. Wierup N, Richards W, Bannon A, Kuhar M, Ahren B, Sundler F. CART knock out mice have impaired insulin secretion and glucose intolerance, altered beta cell morphology and increased body weight. Regul Pept. 2005;129:203-11 pubmed
    b>CART peptides are anorexigenic and are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in endocrine cells in the pituitary, adrenal medulla and the pancreatic islets...
  7. Lovett Barron M, Andalman A, Allen W, Vesuna S, Kauvar I, Burns V, et al. Ancestral Circuits for the Coordinated Modulation of Brain State. Cell. 2017;171:1411-1423.e17 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments establish a method for unbiased discovery of cellular elements underlying behavior and reveal an evolutionarily conserved set of diverse neuromodulatory systems that collectively govern internal state. ..
  8. Couceyro P, Evans C, McKinzie A, Mitchell D, Dube M, Hagshenas L, et al. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides modulate the locomotor and motivational properties of psychostimulants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315:1091-100 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides modulate the locomotor and motivational properties of psychostimulants...
  9. Tomás Roca L, Corral San Miguel R, Aroca P, Puelles L, Marín F. Crypto-rhombomeres of the mouse medulla oblongata, defined by molecular and morphological features. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:815-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, our analysis identified an internal molecular organization of the migrated pontine nuclei that reflects a differential segmental origin of their neurons as assessed by Hox gene expression. ..

More Information


  1. Sokolowski K, Tran T, Esumi S, Kamal Y, Oboti L, Lischinsky J, et al. Molecular and behavioral profiling of Dbx1-derived neurons in the arcuate, lateral and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei. Neural Dev. 2016;11:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Within these nuclei, Dbx1 (+) progenitors generate a large proportion of the Pmch-, Nesfatin-, Cart-, Hcrt-, Agrp- and ER?-expressing neuronal populations, and to a lesser extent the Pomc-, TH- and Aromatase-..
  2. Okere B, Xu L, Roubos E, Sonetti D, Kozicz T. Restraint stress alters the secretory activity of neurons co-expressing urocortin-1, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and nesfatin-1 in the mouse Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Brain Res. 2010;1317:92-9 pubmed publisher
    ..various neuropeptides, such as urocortin-1 (Ucn1) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART). Ucn1 is most abundantly expressed in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW)...
  3. Elefteriou F, Ahn J, Takeda S, Starbuck M, Yang X, Liu X, et al. Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART. Nature. 2005;434:514-20 pubmed
    ..This discrepancy is explained, in part, by the fact that CART ('cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript'), a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin and nearly ..
  4. Dey A, Xhu X, Carroll R, Turck C, Stein J, Steiner D. Biological processing of the cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript precursors by prohormone convertases, PC2 and PC1/3. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15007-14 pubmed
    Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), a neuroendocrine peptide influencing reward, feeding/appetite, and stress responses is derived from two peptide precursors of 129 and 116 amino acid (aa) residues that arise via ..
  5. Jia J, Chen X, Zhu W, Luo Y, Hua Z, Xu Y. CART protects brain from damage through ERK activation in ischemic stroke. Neuropeptides. 2008;42:653-61 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide that protects brains against ischemic injury in vivo and in vitro...
  6. Abels M, Riva M, Bennet H, Ahlqvist E, Dyachok O, Nagaraj V, et al. CART is overexpressed in human type 2 diabetic islets and inhibits glucagon secretion and increases insulin secretion. Diabetologia. 2016;59:1928-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, encoded by Cartpt) affects islet hormone secretion and beta cell survival in vitro in rats, and Cart (-/-) mice have diminished ..
  7. Gerrits H, Bakker N, van de Ven de Laat C, Bourgondien F, Peddemors C, Litjens R, et al. Gender-specific increase of bone mass by CART peptide treatment is ovary-dependent. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:2886-98 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has emerged as a neurotransmitter and hormone that has been implicated in many processes including food intake, maintenance of body weight, and reward, but also in the regulation of ..
  8. Caqueret A, Boucher F, Michaud J. Laminar organization of the early developing anterior hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2006;298:95-106 pubmed
    ..We examined the expression pattern of 10 of the identified genes--Cart, Cbln1, Alcam, Unc-13c, Rgs4, Lnx4, Irx3, Sax1, Ldb2 and Neurod6--by in situ hybridization in E12.5 embryos...
  9. Chaar L, Coelho A, Silva N, Festuccia W, Antunes V. High-fat diet-induced hypertension and autonomic imbalance are associated with an upregulation of CART in the dorsomedial hypothalamus of mice. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..ratio, HFD-H mice presented increased hypothalamic mRNA levels of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and increased CART-positive neurones in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) by high-fat diet when compared to C ..
  10. Ahn J, Dubern B, Lubrano Berthelier C, Clement K, Karsenty G. Cart overexpression is the only identifiable cause of high bone mass in melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3196-202 pubmed inhibit osteoclast differentiation and thereby bone resorption is cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). CART expression in the hypothalamus is increased in mice lacking melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4r(-/-) mice)...
  11. Yuan X, Huang Y, Shah S, Wu H, Gautron L. Levels of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript in Vagal Afferents in the Mouse Are Unaltered in Response to Metabolic Challenges. Eneuro. 2016;3: pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in vagal afferents, including those involved in regulating feeding...
  12. Maletinska L, Maixnerová J, Matysková R, Haugvicova R, Pirnik Z, Kiss A, et al. Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:101 pubmed publisher
    b>CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior...
  13. Stein J, Steiner D, Dey A. Processing of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) precursor proteins by prohormone convertases (PCs) and its implications. Peptides. 2006;27:1919-25 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are expressed in several neuroendocrine tissues, including hypothalamus, pituitary, gut, adrenal and pancreas, and are involved in regulating important biological processes ..
  14. Sun L, Brady C, Cahill H, Al Khindi T, Sakuta H, Dhande O, et al. Functional assembly of accessory optic system circuitry critical for compensatory eye movements. Neuron. 2015;86:971-984 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Sema6A/Plexin-A2/A4 signaling is required for the functional output of the AOS. These data reveal molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly of AOS circuits critical for moving image perception. ..
  15. Sokolowski K, Esumi S, Hirata T, Kamal Y, Tran T, Lam A, et al. Specification of select hypothalamic circuits and innate behaviors by the embryonic patterning gene dbx1. Neuron. 2015;86:403-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, activity of a single developmentally regulated gene, Dbx1, is a shared requirement for the specification of hypothalamic nuclei governing a subset of innate behaviors. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  16. Cho J, Cho Y, Kim H, Cha S, Ryu H, Jang W, et al. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration. Neuropeptides. 2015;50:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine...
  17. Lakatos A, Prinster S, Vicentic A, Hall R, Kuhar M. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in AtT20 cells via putative G-protein coupled receptors. Neurosci Lett. 2005;384:198-202 pubmed
    b>CART peptides are important neurotransmitters, but little is known about their receptors or signaling pathways in cells...
  18. Reeber S, Sillitoe R. Patterned expression of a cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide reveals complex circuit topography in the rodent cerebellar cortex. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1781-96 pubmed publisher
    ..immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate in adult mice and rats that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression can be used to partition sensory-motor projections into complex topographic maps...
  19. Adams L, Gong W, Vechia S, Hunter R, Kuhar M. CART: from gene to function. Brain Res. 1999;848:137-40 pubmed
    b>CART was identified as a novel mRNA regulated by psychostimulant drugs. CART peptides appear to be neurotransmitters involved in a variety of functions such as feeding. The mouse gene has been characterized and localized to Chromosome 13...
  20. Singh M, Elefteriou F, Karsenty G. Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript may regulate bone remodeling as a circulating molecule. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3933-41 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of the two known mediators of the leptin regulation of bone mass. Cart is expressed in both the brain and peripheral tissues such as the pituitary gland and the pancreatic islets...
  21. Steiner R, Hsiung H, Picciotto M. Cocaine self-administration and locomotor sensitization are not altered in CART knockout mice. Behav Brain Res. 2006;171:56-62 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide found throughout the brain, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and hypothalamus...
  22. Jacobs F, van der Linden A, Wang Y, von Oerthel L, Sul H, Burbach J, et al. Identification of Dlk1, Ptpru and Klhl1 as novel Nurr1 target genes in meso-diencephalic dopamine neurons. Development. 2009;136:2363-73 pubmed publisher
  23. Bharne A, Upadhya M, Shelkar G, Singru P, Subhedar N, Kokare D. Neuroprotective effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in spinal cord injury in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2013;67:126-35 pubmed publisher
    We explored the effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), alone and in combination with methylprednisolone (MP), on the cellular pathology and locomotor recovery of mice following spinal cord injury (SCI)...
  24. Tsuruta Y, Yoshimatsu H, Hidaka S, Kondou S, Okamoto K, Sakata T. Hyperleptinemia in A(y)/a mice upregulates arcuate cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript expression. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E967-73 pubmed
    The effects of leptin on cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of obese A(y)/a mice were investigated...
  25. Dominguez G, Lakatos A, Kuhar M. Characterization of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide gene promoter and its activation by a cyclic AMP-dependent signaling pathway in GH3 cells. J Neurochem. 2002;80:885-93 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are regulated neuropeptides that play a role in a variety of physiological processes...
  26. Osei Hyiaman D, DePetrillo M, Harvey White J, Bannon A, Cravatt B, Kuhar M, et al. Cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript is involved in the orexigenic effect of endogenous anandamide. Neuroendocrinology. 2005;81:273-82 pubmed anorexigenic mediator, such as the peptide product of the cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART)...
  27. Mao P, Meshul C, Thuillier P, Goldberg N, Reddy P. CART peptide is a potential endogenous antioxidant and preferentially localized in mitochondria. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29343 pubmed publisher
    The multifunctional neuropeptide Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) is secreted from hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal gland and pancreas. It also can be found in circulatory system...
  28. Cservenka A, Spangler E, Cote D, Ryabinin A. Postnatal developmental profile of urocortin 1 and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the perioculomotor region of C57BL/6J mice. Brain Res. 2010;1319:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), which co-localizes with Ucn 1 in the perioculomotor area (pIII) has been examined prenatally, but not postnatally...
  29. Salinas A, Nguyen C, Ahmadi Tehrani D, Morrisett R. Reduced ethanol consumption and preference in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) knockout mice. Addict Biol. 2014;19:175-84 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse...
  30. Anthwal N, Pelling M, Claxton S, Mellitzer G, Collin C, Kessaris N, et al. Conditional deletion of neurogenin-3 using Nkx2.1iCre results in a mouse model for the central control of feeding, activity and obesity. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This obesity is caused by loss of expression of Pomc in Pomc- and Cart-expressing (Pomc/Cart) neurons in the arcuate nucleus, indicating an incomplete specification of anorexigenic first ..
  31. Yu Y, South T, Wang Q, Huang X. Differential expression of hypothalamic CART mRNA in response to body weight change following different dietary interventions. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:1422-30 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is widely expressed in the hypothalamus and is involved in the central regulation of energy balance...
  32. Ma X, Hayes E, Prizant H, Srivastava R, Hammes S, Sen A. Leptin-Induced CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) Is a Novel Intraovarian Mediator of Obesity-Related Infertility in Females. Endocrinology. 2016;157:1248-57 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that leptin induces expression of the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the granulosa cells (GCs) of ovarian follicles both in vitro and in vivo...
  33. Murphy K. Dissecting the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the control of appetite. Brief Funct Genomic Proteomic. 2005;4:95-111 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a neuropeptide system with a number of biological roles. The high conservation of CART across species suggests that it has an important role in mammalian physiology...
  34. Kuhar M, Adams S, Dominguez G, Jaworski J, Balkan B. CART peptides. Neuropeptides. 2002;36:1-8 pubmed
  35. Robson A, Rousseau K, Loudon A, Ebling F. Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA regulation in the hypothalamus in lean and obese rodents. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:697-709 pubmed
    Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and immunoreactivity are expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus. Central administration of various fragments of this neuropeptide decreases food intake in rodents...
  36. Dominguez G, Kuhar M. Transcriptional regulation of the CART promoter in CATH.a cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;126:22-9 pubmed
    Changes in Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) mRNA levels have been observed in brain as a result of various physiologic stimuli including feeding, drugs of abuse, stress and glucocorticoids, and activators of the cyclic ..
  37. Lau J, Shi Y, Herzog H. Temperature dependence of the control of energy homeostasis requires CART signaling. Neuropeptides. 2016;59:97-109 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a key neuropeptide with predominant expression in the hypothalamus central to the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake and energy expenditure...