Gene Symbol: Car9
Description: carbonic anhydrase 9
Alias: CAIX, Ca9, MN/CA9, carbonic anhydrase 9, CA-IX, carbonate dehydratase IX, carbonic anhydrase IX, membrane antigen MN homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Car9

Top Publications

  1. Gut M, Parkkila S, Vernerová Z, Rohde E, Zavada J, Hocker M, et al. Gastric hyperplasia in mice with targeted disruption of the carbonic anhydrase gene Car9. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:1889-903 pubmed
    ..To show its physiologic relevance, we have cloned the Car9 gene and generated CA IX-deficient mice. The mice with null mutation of the Car9 gene were obtained by targeted gene disruption...
  2. Leppilampi M, Karttunen T, Kivela J, Gut M, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J, et al. Gastric pit cell hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in carbonic anhydrase IX knockout mice: studies on two strains C57/BL6 and BALB/C. Transgenic Res. 2005;14:655-63 pubmed gastric morphogenesis, since a recent study has shown gastric pit cell hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in CA IX-knockout mice...
  3. Scheibe R, Gros G, Parkkila S, Waheed A, Grubb J, Shah G, et al. Expression of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases IV, IX, and XIV in the mouse heart. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:1379-91 pubmed
    Expression of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases (CAs) of CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, and CA XIV has been investigated in the mouse heart...
  4. Scheibe R, Mundhenk K, Becker T, Hallerdei J, Waheed A, Shah G, et al. Carbonic anhydrases IV and IX: subcellular localization and functional role in mouse skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C402-12 pubmed
    The subcellular localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV and CA IX in mouse skeletal muscle fibers has been studied immunohistochemically by confocal laser scanning microscopy...
  5. Wang Y, Wang X, Subjeck J, Kim H. Carbonic anhydrase IX has chaperone-like functions and is an immunoadjuvant. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:3867-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is a hypoxia-regulated, transmembrane protein associated with neoplastic growth in a large spectrum of human tumors...
  6. Pan P, Parkkila A, Autio S, Hilvo M, Sormunen R, Pastorekova S, et al. Brain phenotype of carbonic anhydrase IX-deficient mice. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..5-year-old carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX)-deficient (Car9 (-/-)) mice...
  7. Hilvo M, Rafajová M, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J, Parkkila S. Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX in mouse tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:1313-22 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a unique member of the CA gene family. In contrast to the other isozymes, it has been implicated in regulation of cell proliferation, adhesion, and malignant cell invasion...
  8. Leppilampi M, Parkkila S, Karttunen T, Gut M, Gros G, Sjöblom M. Carbonic anhydrase isozyme-II-deficient mice lack the duodenal bicarbonate secretory response to prostaglandin E2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15247-52 pubmed
    ..0001. The DBS response to PGE2 was completely absent in Car2-/- mice, whereas basal DBS was normal. The CA IX-deficient mice with normal Car2 alleles showed a slight increase in DBS...
  9. Pan P, Leppilampi M, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J, Waheed A, Sly W, et al. Carbonic anhydrase gene expression in CA II-deficient (Car2-/-) and CA IX-deficient (Car9-/-) mice. J Physiol. 2006;571:319-27 pubmed
    ..IV, IX, XII, XIII and XIV in the brain, kidney, stomach and colon of the wild-type, CA II-deficient (Car2-/-), and CA IX deficient (Car9-/-) mice...

More Information


  1. Zat ovicová M, Tarábková K, Svastova E, Gibadulinova A, Mucha V, Jakubickova L, et al. Monoclonal antibodies generated in carbonic anhydrase IX-deficient mice recognize different domains of tumour-associated hypoxia-induced carbonic anhydrase IX. J Immunol Methods. 2003;282:117-34 pubmed
    Transmembrane carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is frequently expressed in human tumours in response to hypoxia and may serve as a tumour marker and therapeutic target...
  2. Reibring C, El Shahawy M, Hallberg K, Kannius Janson M, Nilsson J, Parkkila S, et al. Expression patterns and subcellular localization of carbonic anhydrases are developmentally regulated during tooth formation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96007 pubmed publisher
    ..All CAs studied were produced by MA, however CAIV, CAIX and CARPXI proteins were distinctly enriched in the ruffled membrane of the ruffled MA but exhibited a homogeneous ..
  3. Cioffi S, Martucciello S, Fulcoli F, Bilio M, Ferrentino R, Nusco E, et al. Tbx1 regulates brain vascularization. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:78-89 pubmed publisher
    ..2DS patients and to evaluate whether some of the anatomical and functional brain anomalies in patients may have a microvascular origin. ..
  4. Maruyama T, Miyamoto Y, Yamamoto G, Yamada A, Yoshimura K, Suzawa T, et al. Downregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX promotes Col10a1 expression in chondrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56984 pubmed publisher
    ..While it is known that CA IX is distributed in human embryonic chondrocytes, its role in chondrocyte differentiation has not been reported...
  5. Zhang N, Fu Z, Linke S, Chicher J, Gorman J, Visk D, et al. The asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF-1alpha is an essential regulator of metabolism. Cell Metab. 2010;11:364-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that FIH acts to a significant degree through the nervous system to regulate metabolism. ..
  6. Kallio H, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J, Waheed A, Sly W, Mannisto S, et al. Expression of carbonic anhydrases IX and XII during mouse embryonic development. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:22 pubmed
    Of the thirteen active carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes, CA IX and XII have been linked to carcinogenesis...
  7. Hallerdei J, Scheibe R, Parkkila S, Waheed A, Sly W, Gros G, et al. T tubules and surface membranes provide equally effective pathways of carbonic anhydrase-facilitated lactic acid transport in skeletal muscle. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15137 pubmed publisher
    ..CA) of EDL in lactic acid transport was investigated by measuring lactate flux in muscles from wildtype, CAIV-, CAIX- and CAXIV-single ko, CAIV-CAXIV double ko and CAIV-CAIX-CAXIV-triple ko mice...
  8. Pan P, Rodriguez A, Parkkila S. A systematic quantification of carbonic anhydrase transcripts in the mouse digestive system. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:22 pubmed
    ..It contributes to a deeper understanding of the distribution of CA isozymes and their potential roles in the mouse digestive system. ..
  9. Swayampakula M, McDonald P, Vallejo M, Coyaud E, Chafe S, Westerback A, et al. The interactome of metabolic enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX reveals novel roles in tumor cell migration and invadopodia/MMP14-mediated invasion. Oncogene. 2017;36:6244-6261 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia inducible factor 1-induced, cell surface pH regulating enzyme with an established role in tumor progression and clinical outcome...
  10. Busk M, Toustrup K, Sørensen B, Alsner J, Horsman M, Jakobsen S, et al. In vivo identification and specificity assessment of mRNA markers of hypoxia in human and mouse tumors. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:63 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis comparing FAZA retention with patterns of gene expression in individual tissue fragments revealed that CA9, GLUT1 and LOX mRNA levels were equally and strongly correlated to hypoxic extent in FaDudd...
  11. Wu L, Sagong B, Choi J, Kim U, Bok J. A systematic survey of carbonic anhydrase mRNA expression during mammalian inner ear development. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:269-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal and spatial expression patterns of each CA isozyme suggest unique and differential roles in inner ear development and function. ..
  12. Chafe S, Lou Y, Sceneay J, Vallejo M, Hamilton M, McDonald P, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX promotes myeloid-derived suppressor cell mobilization and establishment of a metastatic niche by stimulating G-CSF production. Cancer Res. 2015;75:996-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX, CA9) expression is highly upregulated in hypoxic breast cancer cells through the action of hypoxia-..
  13. Pore N, Jalla S, Liu Z, Higgs B, Sorio C, Scarpa A, et al. In Vivo Loss of Function Screening Reveals Carbonic Anhydrase IX as a Key Modulator of Tumor Initiating Potential in Primary Pancreatic Tumors. Neoplasia. 2015;17:473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Several targets including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 4, and anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system (xCT) ..
  14. Himmels P, Paredes I, Adler H, Karakatsani A, Luck R, Marti H, et al. Motor neurons control blood vessel patterning in the developing spinal cord. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14583 pubmed publisher
  15. Kallio H, Hilvo M, Rodriguez A, Lappalainen E, Lappalainen A, Parkkila S. Global transcriptional response to carbonic anhydrase IX deficiency in the mouse stomach. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:397 pubmed publisher
    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of enzymes that regulate pH homeostasis in various tissues. CA IX is an exceptional member of this family because in addition to the basic CA function, it has been implicated in several other ..
  16. van den Beucken T, Koritzinsky M, Niessen H, Dubois L, Savelkouls K, Mujcic H, et al. Hypoxia-induced expression of carbonic anhydrase 9 is dependent on the unfolded protein response. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Through gene expression profiling we discovered that induction of the HIF-1 target gene CA9 was defective in mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from mice harboring an eIF2alpha S51A knock-in mutation...
  17. Pollard P, Spencer Dene B, Shukla D, Howarth K, Nye E, El Bahrawy M, et al. Targeted inactivation of fh1 causes proliferative renal cyst development and activation of the hypoxia pathway. Cancer Cell. 2007;11:311-9 pubmed
    ..Our mouse may be useful for testing therapeutic interventions that target angiogenesis and HIF-prolyl hydroxylation. ..