Gene Symbol: Capn1
Description: calpain 1
Alias: Capa-1, Capa1, mu-calpin, calpain-1 catalytic subunit, CANP 1, calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1, calpain mu-type, calpain-1 large subunit, micromolar-calpain, mu-calpain, muCANP
Species: mouse
Products:     Capn1

Top Publications

  1. Letavernier B, Zafrani L, Nassar D, Perez J, Levi C, Bellocq A, et al. Calpains contribute to vascular repair in rapidly progressive form of glomerulonephritis: potential role of their externalization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, manipulation of calpain externalization may have therapeutic implications to control angiogenesis. ..
  2. Polster B, Basañez G, Etxebarria A, Hardwick J, Nicholls D. Calpain I induces cleavage and release of apoptosis-inducing factor from isolated mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6447-54 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results define a novel mechanism of AIF release involving calpain processing and identify a potential molecular checkpoint for cytoprotective interventions. ..
  3. Mazères G, Leloup L, Daury L, Cottin P, Brustis J. Myoblast attachment and spreading are regulated by different patterns by ubiquitous calpains. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:193-207 pubmed
    ..The possible role of these proteins in adhesion, spreading, and migration was discussed. ..
  4. Takano J, Mihira N, Fujioka R, Hosoki E, Chishti A, Saido T. Vital role of the calpain-calpastatin system for placental-integrity-dependent embryonic survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Triple-knockout mice exhibited early embryonic lethality, a finding consistent with the notion that this protease system is vital for embryonic survival. ..
  5. Kashiwagi A, Fein M, Shimada M. Calpain modulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27(Kip1)) in cells of the osteoblast lineage. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011;89:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, calpain is a critical modulator for regulation of p27(Kip1) in cells of the osteoblast lineage. ..
  6. Arthur J, Elce J, Hegadorn C, Williams K, Greer P. Disruption of the murine calpain small subunit gene, Capn4: calpain is essential for embryonic development but not for cell growth and division. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4474-81 pubmed and m-calpains are heterodimers, consisting of a distinct large 80-kDa catalytic subunit, encoded by the genes Capn1 and Capn2, and a common small 28-kDa regulatory subunit (Capn4)...
  7. Azam M, Andrabi S, Sahr K, Kamath L, Kuliopulos A, Chishti A. Disruption of the mouse mu-calpain gene reveals an essential role in platelet function. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2213-20 pubmed
  8. Li X, Li Y, Shan L, Shen E, Chen R, Peng T. Over-expression of calpastatin inhibits calpain activation and attenuates myocardial dysfunction during endotoxaemia. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was to investigate the roles of calpain/calpastatin system in cardiomyocyte caspase-3 activation, TNF-alpha expression, and myocardial dysfunction during LPS stimulation...
  9. Kuchay S, Kim N, Grunz E, Fay W, Chishti A. Double knockouts reveal that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a physiological target of calpain-1 in platelets. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6038-52 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that calpain-1 null (Capn1-/-) platelets accumulate protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which correlates with enhanced tyrosine ..

More Information


  1. Yamada K, Kozlowski D, Seidl S, Lance S, Wieschhaus A, Sundivakkam P, et al. Targeted gene inactivation of calpain-1 suppresses cortical degeneration due to traumatic brain injury and neuronal apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the calpain-1 knock-out mice may serve as a useful model system for neuronal protection and apoptosis in traumatic brain injury and other neurodegenerative disorders in which oxidative stress plays a role. ..
  2. Dutt P, Croall D, Arthur J, Veyra T, Williams K, Elce J, et al. m-Calpain is required for preimplantation embryonic development in mice. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:3 pubmed
    ..These heterodimeric enzymes are composed of distinct catalytic subunits, encoded by Capn1 (mu-calpain) or Capn2 (m-calpain), and a common regulatory subunit encoded by Capn4...
  3. Goñi Oliver P, Lucas J, Avila J, Hernandez F. N-terminal cleavage of GSK-3 by calpain: a new form of GSK-3 regulation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22406-13 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first direct evidence that calpain promotes GSK-3 truncation in a way that has implications in signal transduction, and probably in pathological disorders such as Alzheimer disease. ..
  4. Hegde S, Kesterson R, Srivastava O. CRYβA3/A1-Crystallin Knockout Develops Nuclear Cataract and Causes Impaired Lysosomal Cargo Clearance and Calpain Activation. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149027 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects are responsible for the development of nuclear cataract in KO lenses. ..
  5. Stifanese R, Averna M, De Tullio R, Pedrazzi M, Beccaria F, Salamino F, et al. Adaptive modifications in the calpain/calpastatin system in brain cells after persistent alteration in Ca2+ homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:631-43 pubmed publisher
  6. Villalpando Rodriguez G, Torriglia A. Calpain 1 induce lysosomal permeabilization by cleavage of lysosomal associated membrane protein 2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:2244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data shed new light on understanding the mechanisms of lysosomal and caspase-independent cell death and point to the original targets for development of the new therapeutic protocols. ..
  7. Rao S, Mu Q, Zeng Y, Cai P, Liu F, Yang J, et al. Calpain-activated mTORC2/Akt pathway mediates airway smooth muscle remodelling in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2017;47:176-189 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that calpain mediates cytokine-induced collagen-I synthesis and proliferation of ASMCs via the mTORC2/Akt signalling pathway, thereby regulating airway smooth muscle remodelling in asthma. ..
  8. Calle Y, Carragher N, Thrasher A, Jones G. Inhibition of calpain stabilises podosomes and impairs dendritic cell motility. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2375-85 pubmed
    ..In summary, our results provide evidence that calpain regulates podosome composition and turnover and that this process is required for efficient migration of dendritic cells. ..
  9. Kulkarni S, Jackson S. Platelet factor XIII and calpain negatively regulate integrin alphaIIbbeta3 adhesive function and thrombus growth. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30697-706 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they demonstrate the existence of an autoregulatory feedback mechanism that serves to limit excessive platelet accumulation on highly reactive thrombogenic surfaces. ..
  10. Arnandis T, Ferrer Vicens I, García Trevijano E, Miralles V, Garcia C, Torres L, et al. Calpains mediate epithelial-cell death during mammary gland involution: mitochondria and lysosomal destabilization. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1536-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, in vivo inhibition of CAPN1 in 72-h-weaned mice decreased LAMP2a cleavage...
  11. Wang X, Ding Z, Lin J, Guo Z, Mehta J. LOX-1 in macrophage migration in response to ox-LDL and the involvement of calpains. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;467:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that LOX-1 is, at least in part, responsible for the inhibitory effect of ox-LDL on macrophage migration and this process involves calpain-1 and -2. ..
  12. Zadran S, Qin Q, Bi X, Zadran H, Kim Y, Foy M, et al. 17-Beta-estradiol increases neuronal excitability through MAP kinase-induced calpain activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21936-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects could be responsible for E2-mediated increase in neuronal excitability and facilitation of cognitive processes. ..
  13. Wang Y, Briz V, Chishti A, Bi X, Baudry M. Distinct roles for ?-calpain and m-calpain in synaptic NMDAR-mediated neuroprotection and extrasynaptic NMDAR-mediated neurodegeneration. J Neurosci. 2013;33:18880-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results help to reconcile a number of contradictory results in the literature and have critical implications for the understanding and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  14. Liu Y, Sun J, Wang Y, López D, Tran J, Bi X, et al. Deleting both PHLPP1 and CANP1 rescues impairments in long-term potentiation and learning in both single knockout mice. Learn Mem. 2016;23:399-404 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further strengthen the roles of both CANP1 and PHLPP1 in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, and illustrate the complexities of the interactions between multiple pathways participating in synaptic plasticity. ..
  15. Xu J, Kurup P, Zhang Y, Goebel Goody S, Wu P, Hawasli A, et al. Extrasynaptic NMDA receptors couple preferentially to excitotoxicity via calpain-mediated cleavage of STEP. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9330-43 pubmed publisher
  16. Marzia M, Chiusaroli R, Neff L, Kim N, Chishti A, Baron R, et al. Calpain is required for normal osteoclast function and is down-regulated by calcitonin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9745-54 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that calpain activity is required for normal osteoclast activity and suggest that calcitonin inhibits osteoclast bone resorbing activity in part by down-regulating calpain activity. ..
  17. Matsunaga T, Yamamoto G, Tachikawa T. Expression of typical calpains in mouse molar. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:885-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Calpains have been detected in several studies during the embryonic and foetal stages. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal transition of typical calpains and their inhibitor calpastatin during odontogenesis...
  18. Cowan C, Fan M, Fan J, Shehadeh J, Zhang L, Graham R, et al. Polyglutamine-modulated striatal calpain activity in YAC transgenic huntington disease mouse model: impact on NMDA receptor function and toxicity. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the cumulative effect of increasing huntingtin polyglutamine length is to enhance MSN sensitivity to excitotoxicity at least in part by calpain-mediated cell death signaling. ..
  19. Zhang W, Guan D, Zhao R, Zhang J. [Expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2 during the skin incised wound healing in mice]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;23:81-3 pubmed
    ..The changes of calpain1 and calpain2 expressions appear to be bimodal after incised wound of skin in mice. ..
  20. Zhu G, Liu Y, Wang Y, Bi X, Baudry M. Different patterns of electrical activity lead to long-term potentiation by activating different intracellular pathways. J Neurosci. 2015;35:621-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, different patterns of rhythmic activities trigger potentiation by activating different pathways, and cross talks between these can be used to restore LTP and learning when elements of the pathways are impaired. ..
  21. Galvez A, Diwan A, Odley A, Hahn H, Osinska H, Melendez J, et al. Cardiomyocyte degeneration with calpain deficiency reveals a critical role in protein homeostasis. Circ Res. 2007;100:1071-8 pubmed
  22. Choi H, Myung K. Calcitriol enhances fat synthesis factors and calpain activity in co-cultured cells. Cell Biol Int. 2014;38:910-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Calpain protein was also augmented in differentiated C2C12 cells with calcitriol. These findings suggest that calcitriol can be used as not only fat synthesizer, but meat tenderizer, in meat-producing animals. ..
  23. Momeni H, Kanje M. Calpain inhibitors delay injury-induced apoptosis in adult mouse spinal cord motor neurons. Neuroreport. 2006;17:761-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the involvement of calpain I in the induction of apoptosis in motor neurons of adult spinal cord and that apoptosis can be triggered independent of caspase activation. ..
  24. Hata S, Doi N, Kitamura F, Sorimachi H. Stomach-specific calpain, nCL-2/calpain 8, is active without calpain regulatory subunit and oligomerizes through C2-like domains. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27847-56 pubmed
  25. Reed N, Castellini M, Ma H, Shearer T, Duncan M. Protein expression patterns for ubiquitous and tissue specific calpains in the developing mouse lens. Exp Eye Res. 2003;76:433-43 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that Lp82 in rodent lens has an important role in crystallin proteolysis during normal lens maturation. In contrast, calpain 2, Lp85, and calpain 10 may have roles in cell signaling pathways. ..
  26. Li J, Nixon R, Messer A, Berman S, Bursztajn S. Altered gene expression for calpain/calpastatin system in motor neuron degeneration (Mnd) mutant mouse brain and spinal cord. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;53:174-86 pubmed
    ..Such altered gene expression in specific cell types of brain and spinal cord suggests the involvement of the calpain/calpastatin system. ..
  27. Howatt D, Balakrishnan A, Moorleghen J, Muniappan L, Rateri D, Uchida H, et al. Leukocyte Calpain Deficiency Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Inflammation and Atherosclerosis But Not Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:835-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates a pivotal role for BM-derived calpains in mediating AngII-induced atherosclerosis by influencing macrophage function. ..
  28. Seinfeld J, Baudry N, Xu X, Bi X, Baudry M. Differential Activation of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2 following Kainate-Induced Seizure Activity in Rats and Mice. Eneuro. 2016;3: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, calpain-1 knock-out mice exhibit increased long-term neurodegeneration in CA1, reinforcing the notion that calpain-1 activation is neuroprotective. ..
  29. Grammer M, Kuchay S, Chishti A, Baudry M. Lack of phenotype for LTP and fear conditioning learning in calpain 1 knock-out mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2005;84:222-7 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, it is conceivable that some as yet unknown compensatory mechanisms take effect, and that calpain 2 or another calpain isoform substitutes for the missing calpain 1. ..
  30. Piatkov K, Oh J, Liu Y, Varshavsky A. Calpain-generated natural protein fragments as short-lived substrates of the N-end rule pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this capability of the Arg/N-end rule pathway underlies a multitude of its previously known but mechanistically unclear functions. ..
  31. Mattheij N, Gilio K, van Kruchten R, Jobe S, Wieschhaus A, Chishti A, et al. Dual mechanism of integrin ?IIb?3 closure in procoagulant platelets. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:13325-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of integrin ?IIb?3 reverses platelet aggregate formation upon coagulation...
  32. Sánchez Gómez M, Alberdi E, Pérez Navarro E, Alberch J, Matute C. Bax and calpain mediate excitotoxic oligodendrocyte death induced by activation of both AMPA and kainate receptors. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2996-3006 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that Bax and calpain are essential intermediaries of the mitochondria-dependent death pathway, triggered by AMPA and kainate receptor activation in oligodendrocytes. ..
  33. Shan L, Li J, Wei M, Ma J, Wan L, Zhu W, et al. Disruption of Rac1 signaling reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in the diabetic heart by inhibiting calpain. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:1804-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Rac1 activation increases I/R injury in diabetic hearts and the role of Rac1 signaling is mediated, at least in part, through calpain activation. ..
  34. Wan F, Letavernier E, Abid S, Houssaini A, Czibik G, Marcos E, et al. Extracellular Calpain/Calpastatin Balance Is Involved in the Progression of Pulmonary Hypertension. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016;55:337-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that calpastatin limits PH severity via extracellular mechanisms. They suggest a new approach to the development of treatments for PH. ..
  35. Hawasli A, Benavides D, Nguyen C, Kansy J, Hayashi K, Chambon P, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 governs learning and synaptic plasticity via control of NMDAR degradation. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:880-886 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which Cdk5 facilitates calpain-mediated proteolysis of NR2B and may control synaptic plasticity and learning. ..
  36. Chen Q, Paillard M, Gomez L, Ross T, Hu Y, Xu A, et al. Activation of mitochondrial ?-calpain increases AIF cleavage in cardiac mitochondria during ischemia-reperfusion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:533-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of calpains using MDL-28170 decreases cardiac injury by inhibiting both cytosolic calpains and mito-?-calpain during ischemia-reperfusion. ..
  37. Hanspal M, Goel V, Oh S, Chishti A. Erythrocyte calpain is dispensable for malaria parasite invasion and growth. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;122:227-9 pubmed
  38. Nwankwo J, Lei J, Xu J, Rivera A, Gupta K, Chishti A. Genetic inactivation of calpain-1 attenuates pain sensitivity in a humanized mouse model of sickle cell disease. Haematologica. 2016;101:e397-e400 pubmed
  39. Li Y, Li Y, Feng Q, Arnold M, Peng T. Calpain activation contributes to hyperglycaemia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:100-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that calpain activation may be important in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and thus may represent a potential therapeutic target for diabetic heart diseases. ..
  40. Arnandis T, Ferrer Vicens I, Torres L, García C, García Trevijano E, Zaragoza R, et al. Differential functions of calpain 1 during epithelial cell death and adipocyte differentiation in mammary gland involution. Biochem J. 2014;459:355-68 pubmed publisher
  41. Sorimachi H, Ishiura S, Suzuki K. Structure and physiological function of calpains. Biochem J. 1997;328 ( Pt 3):721-32 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate various important functional roles for intracellular proteases belonging to the calpain superfamily. ..
  42. Diepenbroek M, Casadei N, Esmer H, Saido T, Takano J, Kahle P, et al. Overexpression of the calpain-specific inhibitor calpastatin reduces human alpha-Synuclein processing, aggregation and synaptic impairment in [A30P]?Syn transgenic mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:3975-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data further support a crucial role of calpains, particularly of calpain 1, in the pathogenesis of PD and in disease-associated aggregation of ?Syn, indicating a therapeutic potential of calpain inhibition in PD. ..
  43. Kindler S, Dieterich D, Schütt J, Sahin J, Karpova A, Mikhaylova M, et al. Dendritic mRNA targeting of Jacob and N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced nuclear translocation after calpain-mediated proteolysis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25431-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that local synthesis in dendrites may be necessary to replenish dendritic Jacob pools after truncation of the N-terminal membrane anchor and concomitant translocation of Jacob to the nucleus. ..
  44. Wang Y, López D, Davey P, Cameron D, Nguyen K, Tran J, et al. Calpain-1 and calpain-2 play opposite roles in retinal ganglion cell degeneration induced by retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Neurobiol Dis. 2016;93:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that calpain-1 and calpain-2 play opposite roles in high IOP-induced ischemic injury and that a selective calpain-2 inhibitor could prevent acute glaucoma-induced RGC death and blindness. ..
  45. Leloup L, Mazères G, Daury L, Cottin P, Brustis J. Involvement of calpains in growth factor-mediated migration. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:2049-63 pubmed
    ..The increase in migration was totally inhibited by adding calpeptin, a calpain-specific inhibitor. These findings suggest that milli-calpain is involved in growth factor-mediated migration. ..
  46. Gafni J, Hermel E, Young J, Wellington C, Hayden M, Ellerby L. Inhibition of calpain cleavage of huntingtin reduces toxicity: accumulation of calpain/caspase fragments in the nucleus. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20211-20 pubmed
    ..These results support the role of calpain-derived Htt fragmentation in HD and suggest that aberrant activation of calpains may play a role in HD pathogenesis. ..
  47. Chen S, Yan J, Deng H, Long L, Hu Y, Wang M, et al. Inhibition of calpain on oxygen glucose deprivation-induced RGC-5 necroptosis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2016;36:639-645 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, calpain was involved in OGD-induced RGC-5 necroptosis with the increased expression of its downstream molecule tAIF. ..
  48. Zhang S, Kim T, Dong Y, Kanazawa S, Kawaguchi M, Gao N, et al. AT motif binding factor 1 (ATBF1) is highly phosphorylated in embryonic brain and protected from cleavage by calpain-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:537-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that these phosphorylation sites on ATBF1 function as a defensive shield to calpain-1. ..
  49. Amini M, Ma C, Farazifard R, Zhu G, Zhang Y, Vanderluit J, et al. Conditional disruption of calpain in the CNS alters dendrite morphology, impairs LTP, and promotes neuronal survival following injury. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5773-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings unequivocally establish two central roles of calpain-1/calpain-2 in CNS function in plasticity and neuronal death. ..
  50. Berkholz J, Zakrzewicz A, Munz B. skNAC depletion stimulates myoblast migration and perturbs sarcomerogenesis by enhancing calpain 1 and 3 activity. Biochem J. 2013;453:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that skNAC controls myoblast migration and sarcomere architecture in a calpain-dependent manner. ..
  51. Fang R, Wu R, Du H, Jin M, Liu Y, Lei G, et al. Pneumolysin-Dependent Calpain Activation and Interleukin-1α Secretion in Macrophages Infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that PLY induces the influx of calcium in S. pneumoniae-infected macrophages, followed by calpain activation and subsequent IL-1α maturation and secretion. ..
  52. Hagen N, Hans M, Hartmann D, Swandulla D, van Echten Deckert G. Sphingosine-1-phosphate links glycosphingolipid metabolism to neurodegeneration via a calpain-mediated mechanism. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:1356-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that an impaired metabolism of glycosphingolipids, which are prevalent in the central nervous system, might be linked via S1P, their common catabolic intermediate, to neuronal death. ..
  53. Zheng L, Ishii Y, Zhao Q, Kondo T, Sasahara M. PDGF suppresses oxidative stress induced Ca2+ overload and calpain activation in neurons. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:367206 pubmed publisher
  54. Kemp C, Oliver W, Wheeler T, Chishti A, Koohmaraie M. The effects of Capn1 gene inactivation on skeletal muscle growth, development, and atrophy, and the compensatory role of other proteolytic systems. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:3155-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that there are opportunities to target the calpain system to promote the growth and/or restoration of skeletal muscle mass. ..
  55. Sorimachi H, Forsberg N, Lee H, Joeng S, Richard I, Beckmann J, et al. Highly conserved structure in the promoter region of the gene for muscle-specific calpain, p94. Biol Chem. 1996;377:859-64 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mouse and rat upstream regions of p94 are conserved over 3 kb suggesting that expression of p94 in skeletal muscle of both rodents is similarly regulated. ..
  56. Gladding C, Sepers M, Xu J, Zhang L, Milnerwood A, Lombroso P, et al. Calpain and STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) activation contribute to extrasynaptic NMDA receptor localization in a Huntington's disease mouse model. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:3739-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that increased STEP and calpain activation contribute to altered NMDAR localization in an HD mouse model, suggesting new therapeutic targets for HD. ..
  57. Li H, Nepal R, Martin A, Berger S. Induction of apoptosis in E?-myc lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo through calpain inhibition. Exp Hematol. 2012;40:548-563.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple daily treatments resulted in reduced tumor load, particularly in combination with etoposide. In conclusion, calpain is highly elevated in the E?-myc lymphoma and calpain inhibition has therapeutic potential. ..
  58. Miyazaki T, Taketomi Y, Takimoto M, Lei X, Arita S, Kim Kaneyama J, et al. m-Calpain induction in vascular endothelial cells on human and mouse atheromas and its roles in VE-cadherin disorganization and atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2011;124:2522-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a strategy to selectively inhibit m-calpain may be useful for the therapeutic treatment of patients with atherosclerosis. ..
  59. ElAli A, Doeppner T, Zechariah A, Hermann D. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability and brain edema after focal cerebral ischemia induced by hyperlipidemia: role of lipid peroxidation and calpain-1/2, matrix metalloproteinase-2/9, and RhoA overactivation. Stroke. 2011;42:3238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperlipidemia is a highly prevalent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Its impact on brain injury and blood-brain barrier permeability, so far, has not been assessed in animal models of ischemic stroke...
  60. Moens P, Pearlman R. In situ DNA sequence mapping with surface-spread mouse pachytene chromosomes. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1990;53:219-20 pubmed
    ..1985) and which map 5.5 cM apart (Disteche et al., 1989), hybridize to two distinct chromatin regions 3 to 5 microns apart on a 25 microns long pachytene X chromosome core. ..
  61. Salazar J, Michele D, Brooks S. Inhibition of calpain prevents muscle weakness and disruption of sarcomere structure during hindlimb suspension. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:120-7 pubmed publisher
  62. Li X, Li L, Chen R, Liu T, Wu W, Shen E, et al. [Association between myocardial calpain activation and apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced septic mouse model]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2010;38:834-8 pubmed
  63. Glass J, Nash N, Dry I, Culver D, Levey A, Wesselingh S. Cloning of m-calpain 80 kD subunit from the axonal degeneration-resistant WLD(S) mouse mutant. J Neurosci Res. 1998;52:653-60 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a defect in m-calpain 80 kD subunit does not likely underlie the WLD(S) phenotype, but raise questions about other subunits of calpain and possibly other proteases. ..
  64. Lee F, Kim D, Karmin J, Hong D, Chang S, Fujisawa M, et al. mu-Calpain regulates receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-supported osteoclastogenesis via NF-kappaB activation in RAW 264.7 cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29929-36 pubmed
    ..7 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that mu-calpain is essential to the regulation of RANKL-supported osteoclastogenesis via NF-kappaB activation. ..
  65. Zhang Z, Biesiadecki B, Jin J. Selective deletion of the NH2-terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T in ischemia reperfusion by myofibril-associated mu-calpain cleavage. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11681-94 pubmed
    ..With the functional consequences of removing the NH2-terminal variable region of TnT, the mu-calpain-mediated proteolytic modification of TnT may act as an acute mechanism to adjust muscle contractility under stress conditions. ..
  66. Kuchay S, Chishti A. Calpain-mediated regulation of platelet signaling pathways. Curr Opin Hematol. 2007;14:249-54 pubmed
    ..Since the combined deletion of calpain-1 and calpain-2 genes results in embryonic lethality, the calpain-1 null mouse remains the only experimental model available to study the physiological role of calpains in mammalian cells. ..
  67. Kang M, Zhang Y, Matkovich S, Diwan A, Chishti A, Dorn G. Receptor-independent cardiac protein kinase Calpha activation by calpain-mediated truncation of regulatory domains. Circ Res. 2010;107:903-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of the PKC? C-terminal fragment in ischemic hearts occurs via a receptor-independent mechanism. ..
  68. Zhu H, Bhattacharyya B, Lin H, Gomez C. Skeletal muscle calpain acts through nitric oxide and neural miRNAs to regulate acetylcholine release in motor nerve terminals. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7308-7324 pubmed publisher
    ..The control of presynaptic miRNA levels by postsynaptic activity represents a novel mechanism for the modulation of synaptic activity in normal or pathological conditions. ..
  69. Guo A, Hall D, Zhang C, Peng T, Miller J, Kutschke W, et al. Molecular Determinants of Calpain-dependent Cleavage of Junctophilin-2 Protein in Cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:17946-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide new molecular insights into the posttranslational regulatory mechanisms of JP2 in cardiac diseases. ..
  70. Wu Z, Chen X, Liu F, Chen W, Wu P, Wieschhaus A, et al. Calpain-1 contributes to IgE-mediated mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2014;192:5130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, calpain-1 is identified as a novel regulator in IgE-mediated mast cell activation and could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the management of allergic inflammation. ..
  71. Zhang G, Thomas A, Marshall A, Kernan K, Su Y, Zheng Y, et al. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?1 promotes calpain-1 activation and macrophage inflammation in hypercholesterolemic nephropathy. Lab Invest. 2011;91:106-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This new proinflammatory pathway may also be relevant to other disorders beyond hyperlipidemic nephropathy. ..
  72. Yoneyama M, Seko K, Kawada K, Sugiyama C, Ogita K. High susceptibility of cortical neural progenitor cells to trimethyltin toxicity: involvement of both caspases and calpain in cell death. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that neural progenitor cells are highly susceptible to TMT in undergoing cell death via the activation of 2 parallel pathways, ones involving calpain and the other, caspase-3. ..
  73. Darnell G, Schroder W, Antalis T, Lambley E, Major L, Gardner J, et al. Human papillomavirus E7 requires the protease calpain to degrade the retinoblastoma protein. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Calpain, thus, emerges as a central player in E7-mediated degradation of Rb and represents a potential new drug target for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions...
  74. Fettucciari K, Quotadamo F, Noce R, Palumbo C, Modesti A, Rosati E, et al. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disrupts by calpain activation the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton of macrophages. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:859-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests a new GBS strategy to evade macrophage antimicrobial responses based on cytoskeleton disruption by an unusual mechanism mediated by calcium influx and calpain activation. ..
  75. Wang Y, Minshall R, Schwartz D, Hu G. Cyclic stretch induces alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction via calpain-mediated degradation of p120-catenin. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301:L197-206 pubmed publisher
  76. Yin M, Liu Q, Yu L, Yang Y, Lü M, Wang H, et al. Downregulations of CD36 and Calpain-1, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis by Simvastatin in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice. J Vasc Res. 2017;54:123-130 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that the attenuation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE KO mice by simvastatin might be associated with the downregulations of CD36 and calpain-1 and with inflammation. ..
  77. Subramanian V, Moorleghen J, Balakrishnan A, Howatt D, Chishti A, Uchida H. Calpain-2 compensation promotes angiotensin II-induced ascending and abdominal aortic aneurysms in calpain-1 deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72214 pubmed publisher
    ..Calpain-2 compensates for loss of calpain-1, and both calpain isoforms are involved in AngII-induced aortic aneurysm formation in mice. ..