Gene Symbol: Camp
Description: cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide
Alias: CAP18, Cnlp, Cramp, FALL39, MCLP, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, CLP, cathelin-like protein, cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide
Species: mouse
Products:     Camp

Top Publications

  1. Yamasaki K, Schauber J, Coda A, Lin H, Dorschner R, Schechter N, et al. Kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins in skin. FASEB J. 2006;20:2068-80 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that the balance of proteolytic activity at an epithelial interface will control innate immune defense. ..
  2. Gregorio J, Meller S, Conrad C, Di Nardo A, Homey B, Lauerma A, et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense skin injury and promote wound healing through type I interferons. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data uncover a new role of pDCs in sensing tissue damage and promoting wound repair at skin surfaces. ..
  3. Gallo R, Kim K, Bernfield M, Kozak C, Zanetti M, Merluzzi L, et al. Identification of CRAMP, a cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide expressed in the embryonic and adult mouse. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13088-93 pubmed
    ..This gene, named Cramp for cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide, was mapped to chromosome 9 at a region of conserved synteny to which ..
  4. Koon H, Shih D, Chen J, Bakirtzi K, Hing T, Law I, et al. Cathelicidin signaling via the Toll-like receptor protects against colitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1852-63.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    Cathelicidin (encoded by Camp) is an antimicrobial peptide in the innate immune system...
  5. Kin N, Chen Y, Stefanov E, Gallo R, Kearney J. Cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide differentially regulates T- and B-cell function. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:3006-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP), produced from the mouse gene Camp, is the only mouse cathelicidin identified and the ortholog of the human gene encoding the peptide LL-37...
  6. Chromek M, Slamová Z, Bergman P, Kovacs L, Podracká L, Ehren I, et al. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection. Nat Med. 2006;12:636-41 pubmed
    ..production and function of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides LL-37, its precursor hCAP-18 and its ortholog CRAMP in epithelial cells of human and mouse urinary tract, respectively...
  7. Iimura M, Gallo R, Hase K, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L, Kagnoff M. Cathelicidin mediates innate intestinal defense against colonization with epithelial adherent bacterial pathogens. J Immunol. 2005;174:4901-7 pubmed
    Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP), the sole murine cathelicidin, is encoded by the gene Cnlp. We show that mCRAMP expression in the intestinal tract is largely restricted to surface epithelial cells in the colon...
  8. Brodsky I, Ghori N, Falkow S, Monack D. Mig-14 is an inner membrane-associated protein that promotes Salmonella typhimurium resistance to CRAMP, survival within activated macrophages and persistent infection. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:954-72 pubmed publisher macrophages treated with IFN-gamma and are necessary for resistance to cathelin-related anti-microbial peptide (CRAMP), an anti-microbial peptide expressed at high levels in activated mouse macrophages...
  9. Dorschner R, Lin K, Murakami M, Gallo R. Neonatal skin in mice and humans expresses increased levels of antimicrobial peptides: innate immunity during development of the adaptive response. Pediatr Res. 2003;53:566-72 pubmed
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR showed mouse cathelicidin expression (CRAMP) is 10- to 100-fold greater in the perinatal period than adult...

More Information


  1. Nizet V, Ohtake T, Lauth X, Trowbridge J, Rudisill J, Dorschner R, et al. Innate antimicrobial peptide protects the skin from invasive bacterial infection. Nature. 2001;414:454-7 pubmed
    ..The mature human (LL-37) and mouse (CRAMP) peptides are encoded by similar genes (CAMP and Cnlp, respectively), and have similar alpha-helical structures, ..
  2. Rosenberger C, Gallo R, Finlay B. Interplay between antibacterial effectors: a macrophage antimicrobial peptide impairs intracellular Salmonella replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2422-7 pubmed
    ..Macrophage expression of the murine cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) was increased after infection by the intracellular pathogen Salmonella typhimurium, and this increase required ..
  3. Kolar S, Baidouri H, Hanlon S, McDermott A. Protective role of murine β-defensins 3 and 4 and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide in Fusarium solani keratitis. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of murine β-defensin 3 (mBD3), mBD4, and the cathelicidin cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in a murine model of Fusarium solani keratitis...
  4. Richards S, Strandberg K, Conroy M, Gunn J. Cationic antimicrobial peptides serve as activation signals for the Salmonella Typhimurium PhoPQ and PmrAB regulons in vitro and in vivo. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:102 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhimurium PhoQ can sense CAMPs in vitro. In mouse macrophages, the cathelecidin CRAMP does not activate the PhoPQ regulon...
  5. Soehnlein O, Zernecke A, Eriksson E, Rothfuchs A, PHAM C, Herwald H, et al. Neutrophil secretion products pave the way for inflammatory monocytes. Blood. 2008;112:1461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This cellular cross-talk functionally results in enhanced cytokine levels and increased bacterial clearance, thus boosting the early immune response. ..
  6. Merres J, Höss J, Albrecht L, Kress E, Soehnlein O, Jansen S, et al. Role of the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide in inflammation and mortality in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis. J Innate Immun. 2014;6:205-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous work revealed upregulated gene expression of cathelicidin-related AP (CRAMP) following bacterial meningitis in primary rat glial cells as well as bactericidal activity against frequent ..
  7. Crabtree G, Sun Z, Kvajo M, Broek J, Fenelon K, McKellar H, et al. Alteration of Neuronal Excitability and Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex of a Mouse Model of Mental Illness. J Neurosci. 2017;37:4158-4180 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying dysregulation of Kv1.1 expression was attributable to cAMP elevations in the PFC secondary to reduced phosphodiesterase 4 activity present in Disc1 deficiency and was rescued ..
  8. Döring Y, Manthey H, Drechsler M, Lievens D, Megens R, Soehnlein O, et al. Auto-antigenic protein-DNA complexes stimulate plasmacytoid dendritic cells to promote atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2012;125:1673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..self-DNA released from dying cells or in neutrophil extracellular traps complexed to the antimicrobial peptide Cramp/LL37 in autoimmune disease. However, the exact role of pDCs in atherosclerosis remains elusive...
  9. Di Nardo A, Vitiello A, Gallo R. Cutting edge: mast cell antimicrobial activity is mediated by expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. J Immunol. 2003;170:2274-8 pubmed comparing MCs cultured from normal mice to MCs from littermates deficient in the cathelin-related AMP gene (Cnlp(-))...
  10. Yu F, Cornicelli M, Kovach M, Newstead M, Zeng X, Kumar A, et al. Flagellin stimulates protective lung mucosal immunity: role of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide. J Immunol. 2010;185:1142-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Braff M, Zaiou M, Fierer J, Nizet V, Gallo R. Keratinocyte production of cathelicidin provides direct activity against bacterial skin pathogens. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6771-81 pubmed
    ..Wild-type mice and those with a targeted deletion of the cathelicidin gene, Cnlp, were rendered neutropenic prior to cutaneous infection...
  12. Brandenburg L, Jansen S, Albrecht L, Merres J, Gerber J, Pufe T, et al. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce the expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in glial cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;255:18-31 pubmed publisher
    ..toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the expression of the cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) and to characterise the participating signal transduction pathways...
  13. Hayashida A, Amano S, Gallo R, Linhardt R, Liu J, Park P. 2-O-Sulfated Domains in Syndecan-1 Heparan Sulfate Inhibit Neutrophil Cathelicidin and Promote Staphylococcus aureus Corneal Infection. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:16157-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunodepletion of antimicrobial factors with staphylocidal activities demonstrated that CRAMP, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, is primarily responsible for S...
  14. Jann N, Schmaler M, Kristian S, Radek K, Gallo R, Nizet V, et al. Neutrophil antimicrobial defense against Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by phagolysosomal but not extracellular trap-associated cathelicidin. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:1159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..pathogen Staphylococcus aureus exhibits enhanced resistance to neutrophil AMPs, including the murine cathelicidin CRAMP, in part, as a result of alanylation of teichoic acids by the dlt operon...
  15. Chromek M, Arvidsson I, Karpman D. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects mice from Escherichia coli O157:H7-mediated disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46476 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse and human cathelicidin, CRAMP and LL-37, respectively, killed E. coli O157:H7 in vitro...
  16. Cirioni O, Ghiselli R, Tomasinsig L, Orlando F, Silvestri C, Skerlavaj B, et al. Efficacy of LL-37 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in a neutropenic murine sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Shock. 2008;30:443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination therapy between LL-37 and G-CSF is a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of severe Pseudomonas infection complicated by neutropenia. ..
  17. Morioka Y, Yamasaki K, Leung D, Gallo R. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides inhibit hyaluronan-induced cytokine release and modulate chronic allergic dermatitis. J Immunol. 2008;181:3915-22 pubmed
    ..This induced an increase in HA at the site of application and was partially CD44 dependent. Camp(-/-) mice lacking cathelicidin demonstrated a large increase in ear swelling, cell infiltration, and MIP-2 ..
  18. Chen K, Liu M, Liu Y, Wang C, Yoshimura T, Gong W, et al. Signal relay by CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and formylpeptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) in the recruitment of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in allergic airway inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:16262-73 pubmed publisher
    ..lavage liquid from mice with airway inflammation contained both the CCR2 ligand CCL2 and an Fpr2 agonist CRAMP. Furthermore, similar to Fpr2(-/-) mice, in the inflamed airway of CRAMP(-/-) mice, DC trafficking into the ..
  19. Horibe K, Nakamichi Y, Uehara S, Nakamura M, Koide M, Kobayashi Y, et al. Roles of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide in murine osteoclastogenesis. Immunology. 2013;140:344-51 pubmed publisher
    Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) not only kills bacteria but also binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to neutralize its activity...
  20. Park K, Elias P, Oda Y, Mackenzie D, Mauro T, Holleran W, et al. Regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression by an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, vitamin D receptor-independent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34121-30 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanisms regulate human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP)/LL-37 in various cell types, but CAMP expression also increases after external perturbations (such as infection, injuries, UV ..
  21. Wang Z, MacLeod D, Di Nardo A. Commensal bacteria lipoteichoic acid increases skin mast cell antimicrobial activity against vaccinia viruses. J Immunol. 2012;189:1551-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also provide new insights into the pathogenesis of skin infections and suggest potential roles for MCs and TLR2 ligands in antiviral therapy. ..
  22. Matsushima H, Geng S, Lu R, Okamoto T, Yao Y, Mayuzumi N, et al. Neutrophil differentiation into a unique hybrid population exhibiting dual phenotype and functionality of neutrophils and dendritic cells. Blood. 2013;121:1677-89 pubmed publisher
  23. Zhang L, Guerrero Juarez C, Hata T, Bapat S, Ramos R, Plikus M, et al. Innate immunity. Dermal adipocytes protect against invasive Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Science. 2015;347:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This host defense function was mediated through the production of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide from adipocytes because cathelicidin expression was decreased by inhibition of adipogenesis, and ..
  24. Li D, Liu W, Wang X, Wu J, Quan W, Yao Y, et al. Cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide produced by macrophages, promotes colon cancer by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Oncotarget. 2015;6:2939-50 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that cathelicidin, expressed by immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, promotes colon cancer growth through activation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. ..
  25. Carvalho F, Atilano M, Pombinho R, Covas G, Gallo R, Filipe S, et al. L-Rhamnosylation of Listeria monocytogenes Wall Teichoic Acids Promotes Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides by Delaying Interaction with the Membrane. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1004919 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, we reveal a key contribution of WTA L-rhamnosylation for L. monocytogenes virulence in a mouse model of infection. ..
  26. Fan D, Coughlin L, Neubauer M, Kim J, Kim M, Zhan X, et al. Activation of HIF-1α and LL-37 by commensal bacteria inhibits Candida albicans colonization. Nat Med. 2015;21:808-14 pubmed publisher
    ..a transcription factor important for activating innate immune effectors, and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 (CRAMP in mice) are key determinants of C. albicans colonization resistance. Although antibiotic treatment enables C...
  27. Deng Y, Shamoon M, He Y, Bhatia M, Sun J. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide modulates the severity of acute pancreatitis in mice. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:3881-5 pubmed publisher aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP)...
  28. Yoshimura T, McLean M, Dzutsev A, Yao X, Chen K, Huang J, et al. The Antimicrobial Peptide CRAMP Is Essential for Colon Homeostasis by Maintaining Microbiota Balance. J Immunol. 2018;200:2174-2185 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we report that mice deficient in cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) were defective in the development of colon mucosa and highly sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-elicited ..
  29. Kulkarni M, Barbi J, McMaster W, Gallo R, Satoskar A, McGwire B. Mammalian antimicrobial peptide influences control of cutaneous Leishmania infection. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:913-23 pubmed publisher
    Cathelicidin-type antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) are important mediators of innate immunity against microbial pathogens acting through direct interaction with and disruption of microbial membranes and indirectly through modulation of host ..
  30. Popsueva A, Zinovjeva M, Visser J, Zijlmans J, Fibbe W, Belyavsky A. A novel murine cathelin-like protein expressed in bone marrow. FEBS Lett. 1996;391:5-8 pubmed
    A novel cDNA encoding a putative secreted protein was isolated from murine bone marrow. The encoded protein named MCLP (murine cathelin-like protein) was found to be highly homologous to the pig cathelin, and to four neutrophil ..
  31. Alt J, Qin X, Pulsipher A, Orb Q, Orlandi R, Zhang J, et al. Topical cathelicidin (LL-37) an innate immune peptide induces acute olfactory epithelium inflammation in a mouse model. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015;5:1141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed inflammatory changes in the olfactory mucosa were associated with the infiltration of both neutrophils and mast cells. Our biologic model represents a new model to further investigate the role of LL-37 in OE inflammation. ..
  32. Kurosaka K, Chen Q, Yarovinsky F, Oppenheim J, Yang D. Mouse cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide chemoattracts leukocytes using formyl peptide receptor-like 1/mouse formyl peptide receptor-like 2 as the receptor and acts as an immune adjuvant. J Immunol. 2005;174:6257-65 pubmed
    ..Cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), the orthologue of human cathelicidin/LL-37, is the sole identified murine cathelicidin...
  33. Talreja D, Singh P, Kumar A. In Vivo Role of TLR2 and MyD88 Signaling in Eliciting Innate Immune Responses in Staphylococcal Endophthalmitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:1719-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Flow cytometry was used to assess neutrophil infiltration. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) expression was determined by immunostaining and dot blot...
  34. Castañeda Delgado J, Hernandez Pando R, Serrano C, Aguilar Leon D, León Contreras J, Rivas Santiago C, et al. Kinetics and cellular sources of cathelicidin during the course of experimental latent tuberculous infection and progressive pulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;161:542-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The cathelin-related anti-microbial peptide (CRAMP) is the only cathelicidin isolated from mice...
  35. Di Nardo A, Braff M, Taylor K, Na C, Granstein R, McInturff J, et al. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides block dendritic cell TLR4 activation and allergic contact sensitization. J Immunol. 2007;178:1829-34 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the murine cathelicidin gene Cnlp enhanced an allergic contact response, whereas local administration of cathelicidin before sensitization inhibited ..
  36. Mader J, Marcet Palacios M, Hancock R, Bleackley R. The human cathelicidin, LL-37, induces granzyme-mediated apoptosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells such as neutrophils, at the site of a tumor for example, could influence the effector, activity of CTL through the secretion of LL-37. ..
  37. Ta A, Thakur B, Dutta P, Sinha R, Koley H, Das S. Double-stranded RNA induces cathelicidin expression in the intestinal epithelial cells through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase C?-Sp1 pathway and ameliorates shigellosis in mice. Cell Signal. 2017;35:140-153 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide is a key component of the host innate immune system...
  38. Nakatsuji T, Chen T, Two A, Chun K, Narala S, Geha R, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Exploits Epidermal Barrier Defects in Atopic Dermatitis to Trigger Cytokine Expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:2192-2200 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus entry into the dermis and provide an explanation for how such dermal dysbiosis results in increased inflammatory cytokines and exacerbation of disease. ..
  39. Zhang L, Yu J, Wong C, Ling T, Li Z, Chan K, et al. Cathelicidin protects against Helicobacter pylori colonization and the associated gastritis in mice. Gene Ther. 2013;20:751-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to elucidate the role of endogenous and exogenous mouse cathelicidin (CRAMP) in the protection against H. pylori infection and the associated gastritis in mice...
  40. Wang Z, Lai Y, Bernard J, MacLeod D, Cogen A, Moss B, et al. Skin mast cells protect mice against vaccinia virus by triggering mast cell receptor S1PR2 and releasing antimicrobial peptides. J Immunol. 2012;188:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Using MCs derived from mice deficient in cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, we showed that antimicrobial peptides are one important antiviral granule component in in vivo skin ..
  41. Yamasaki K, Di Nardo A, Bardan A, Murakami M, Ohtake T, Coda A, et al. Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea. Nat Med. 2007;13:975-80 pubmed
    ..The role of cathelicidin in enabling SCTE-mediated inflammation is verified in mice with a targeted deletion of Camp, the gene encoding cathelicidin...
  42. Di Nardo A, Yamasaki K, Dorschner R, Lai Y, Gallo R. Mast cell cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide prevents invasive group A Streptococcus infection of the skin. J Immunol. 2008;180:7565-73 pubmed
    ..cathelicidin, MC-deficient mice were reconstituted with MC derived from either wild-type or cathelicidin-deficient (Camp(-/-)) mice and challenged with GAS...
  43. Kahlenberg J, Carmona Rivera C, Smith C, Kaplan M. Neutrophil extracellular trap-associated protein activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is enhanced in lupus macrophages. J Immunol. 2013;190:1217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to release of inflammatory cytokines that further stimulate NETosis, resulting in a feed-forward inflammatory loop that could potentially lead to disease flares and/or organ damage. ..
  44. Strandberg K, Richards S, Tamayo R, Reeves L, Gunn J. An altered immune response, but not individual cationic antimicrobial peptides, is associated with the oral attenuation of Ara4N-deficient Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49588 pubmed publisher
    ..However, CRAMP and active cryptdins alone are not responsible for elimination of Ara4N-deficient bacteria in vivo...
  45. Ren S, Cheng A, To K, Tong J, Li M, Shen J, et al. Host immune defense peptide LL-37 activates caspase-independent apoptosis and suppresses colon cancer. Cancer Res. 2012;72:6512-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings show that LL-37 activates a GPCR-p53-Bax/Bak/Bcl-2 signaling cascade that triggers AIF/EndoG-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells. ..
  46. Kovach M, Ballinger M, Newstead M, Zeng X, Bhan U, Yu F, et al. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide is required for effective lung mucosal immunity in Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia. J Immunol. 2012;189:304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, we examined the contribution of the murine cathelicidin, cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), to innate mucosal immunity in a mouse model of Gram-negative pneumonia...
  47. Soehnlein O, Wantha S, Simsekyilmaz S, Döring Y, Megens R, Mause S, et al. Neutrophil-derived cathelicidin protects from neointimal hyperplasia. Sci Transl Med. 2011;3:103ra98 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that neutrophil-borne cathelicidin (mouse CRAMP, human LL-37) promoted reendothelization and thereby limited neointima formation after stent implantation...
  48. Augustin D, Heimer S, Tam C, Li W, Le Due J, Evans D, et al. Role of defensins in corneal epithelial barrier function against Pseudomonas aeruginosa traversal. Infect Immun. 2011;79:595-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these in vitro and in vivo data show functional roles for AMPs in normal corneal epithelial cell barrier function against P. aeruginosa. ..
  49. Sun J, Furio L, Mecheri R, van der Does A, Lundeberg E, Saveanu L, et al. Pancreatic β-Cells Limit Autoimmune Diabetes via an Immunoregulatory Antimicrobial Peptide Expressed under the Influence of the Gut Microbiota. Immunity. 2015;43:304-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that insulin-secreting β-cells produced the cathelicidin related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) and that this production was defective in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice...
  50. Lee P, Ohtake T, Zaiou M, Murakami M, Rudisill J, Lin K, et al. Expression of an additional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide protects against bacterial skin infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3750-5 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that targeted gene transfer of a xenobiotic cathelicidin confers resistance against infection and suggests the benefit of duplication and divergence in the evolution of antimicrobial peptides. ..
  51. Nijnik A, Pistolic J, Cho P, Filewod N, Falsafi R, Ramin A, et al. The role of the Src family kinase Lyn in the immunomodulatory activities of cathelicidin peptide LL-37 on monocytic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91:599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidate the common molecular mechanisms mediating the chemokine induction activity of natural and synthetic cationic peptides in monocytic cells and identify SFKs as a potential target for modulating peptide responses. ..
  52. Li D, Beisswenger C, Herr C, Schmid R, Gallo R, Han G, et al. Expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in myeloid cells is required for lung tumor growth. Oncogene. 2014;33:2709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..peptides, such as the cathelicidin LL-37/hCAP-18 and its mouse homolog cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), are important effectors of the innate immune system with direct anti-bacterial activity...
  53. Li G, Domenico J, Jia Y, Lucas J, Gelfand E. NF-kappaB-dependent induction of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide in murine mast cells by lipopolysaccharide. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;150:122-32 pubmed publisher pathogens is the production of anti-microbial peptides such as cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), the murine homologue of human cathelicidin LL-37...
  54. Döring Y, Drechsler M, Wantha S, Kemmerich K, Lievens D, Vijayan S, et al. Lack of neutrophil-derived CRAMP reduces atherosclerosis in mice. Circ Res. 2012;110:1052-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigation of the role of the neutrophil granule protein cathelicidin (CRAMP in mouse, LL37 in human) in atherosclerosis...
  55. Chen K, Xiang Y, Huang J, Gong W, Yoshimura T, Jiang Q, et al. The formylpeptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) and its endogenous ligand cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) promote dendritic cell maturation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:17553-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The capacity of Fpr2 to sustain normal DC maturation was dependent on its interaction with an endogenous ligand CRAMP expressed by DCs, because neutralization of either Fpr2 or CRAMP inhibited DC maturation in response to LPS...
  56. Seil M, Kabré E, Nagant C, Vandenbranden M, Fontanils U, Marino A, et al. Regulation by CRAMP of the responses of murine peritoneal macrophages to extracellular ATP. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:569-78 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CRAMP, the unique antimicrobial peptide derived from cathelin in mouse inhibited all the responses coupled to P2X(7) ..
  57. Zhang Z, Zhong W, Hinrichs D, Wu X, Weinberg A, Hall M, et al. Activation of OX40 augments Th17 cytokine expression and antigen-specific uveitis. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2912-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus enhances our knowledge of costimulatory molecule-mediated immunopathological mechanisms of uveitis and suggests a future therapeutic strategy to treat uveitis by the targeting of OX40. ..
  58. Bergman P, Johansson L, Wan H, Jones A, Gallo R, Gudmundsson G, et al. Induction of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP in the blood-brain barrier and meninges after meningococcal infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6982-91 pubmed
    ..Brains were analyzed for expression of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP by immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy...
  59. Peyssonnaux C, Boutin A, Zinkernagel A, Datta V, Nizet V, Johnson R. Critical role of HIF-1alpha in keratinocyte defense against bacterial infection. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:1964-8 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA interference studies reveal that HIF-1alpha regulation of keratinocyte cathelicidin production is critical to their antibacterial function. ..
  60. Lisanby M, Swiecki M, Dizon B, Pflughoeft K, Koehler T, Kearney J. Cathelicidin administration protects mice from Bacillus anthracis spore challenge. J Immunol. 2008;181:4989-5000 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that cathelicidins might be utilized to augment the initial innate immune response to B. anthracis spore exposure and prevent the development of anthrax. ..
  61. Currie S, Gwyer Findlay E, McFarlane A, Fitch P, Böttcher B, Colegrave N, et al. Cathelicidins Have Direct Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Vitro and Protective Function In Vivo in Mice and Humans. J Immunol. 2016;196:2699-710 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, cathelicidins represent an inducible target for preventative strategies against RSV infection and may inform the design of novel therapeutic analogs for use in established infection. ..
  62. Wantha S, Alard J, Megens R, van der Does A, Döring Y, Drechsler M, et al. Neutrophil-derived cathelicidin promotes adhesion of classical monocytes. Circ Res. 2013;112:792-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that neutrophil-derived cathelicidins (human: LL37, mouse: CRAMP) induce adhesion of classical monocytes but not of nonclassical monocytes in the mouse cremaster muscle and in in ..
  63. Büchau A, Morizane S, Trowbridge J, Schauber J, Kotol P, Bui J, et al. The host defense peptide cathelicidin is required for NK cell-mediated suppression of tumor growth. J Immunol. 2010;184:369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..1(+) cells in mice. The importance of this finding was demonstrated by the fact that cathelicidin knockout mice (Camp(-/-)) permitted faster tumor growth than wild type controls in two different xenograft tumor mouse models (B16...
  64. Manils J, Casas E, Vina Vilaseca A, López Cano M, Díez Villanueva A, Gómez D, et al. The Exonuclease Trex2 Shapes Psoriatic Phenotype. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:2345-2355 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our data indicate that Trex2 acts as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by promoting keratinocyte apoptosis and enucleation and thereby influencing skin immune responses. ..
  65. Braster Q, Silvestre Roig C, Hartwig H, Kusters P, Aarts S, den Toom M, et al. Cathelicidin regulates myeloid cell accumulation in adipose tissue and promotes insulin resistance during obesity. Thromb Haemost. 2016;115:1237-9 pubmed publisher
  66. Cha H, Lee J, Hensel J, Sawant A, Davis B, Lee C, et al. Prostate cancer-derived cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide facilitates macrophage differentiation and polarization of immature myeloid progenitors to protumorigenic macrophages. Prostate. 2016;76:624-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate protumorigenic role(s) of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), a murine orthologue of LL-37, the present study compared tumor growth kinetics between mouse PCa cell lines with ..
  67. Aberg K, Man M, Gallo R, Ganz T, Crumrine D, Brown B, et al. Co-regulation and interdependence of the mammalian epidermal permeability and antimicrobial barriers. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:917-25 pubmed
    ..mRNA and immunostainable protein levels for mBD3 and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) (murine homologues of hBD2 and LL-37, respectively) increase 1-8 hours after acute permeability barrier ..
  68. Menard S, Förster V, Lotz M, Gütle D, Duerr C, Gallo R, et al. Developmental switch of intestinal antimicrobial peptide expression. J Exp Med. 2008;205:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, constitutive expression of the cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) was observed, and the processed, antimicrobially active form was identified in neonatal epithelium...
  69. Kienhöfer D, Hahn J, Schubert I, Reinwald C, Ipseiz N, Lang S, et al. No evidence of pathogenic involvement of cathelicidins in patient cohorts and mouse models of lupus and arthritis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115474 pubmed publisher
    ..was to examine the functional impact of the human cathelicidin LL-37 and the mouse cathelicidin-related AMP (CRAMP) on the pathogenesis of lupus and arthritis...
  70. Koziel J, Bryzek D, Sroka A, Maresz K, Glowczyk I, Bielecka E, et al. Citrullination alters immunomodulatory function of LL-37 essential for prevention of endotoxin-induced sepsis. J Immunol. 2014;192:5363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Because LL-37 is a potential treatment for sepsis, its administration should be preceded by a careful analysis to ensure that the citrullinated peptide is not generated in treated patients. ..
  71. Huang L, Reins R, Gallo R, McDermott A. Cathelicidin-deficient (Cnlp -/- ) mice show increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4498-508 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrates direct in vivo evidence that endogenous expression of cathelicidin provides defense against corneal PA infection indicating its importance in host innate immunity at the ocular surface. ..
  72. Yu K, Park K, Kang S, Shin S, Hahm K, Kim Y. Solution structure of a cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide, CRAMP as determined by NMR spectroscopy. J Pept Res. 2002;60:1-9 pubmed
    b>CRAMP was identified from a cDNA clone derived from mouse femoral marrow cells as a member of cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides...