Calr

Summary

Gene Symbol: Calr
Description: calreticulin
Alias: CRT, Calregulin, calreticulin, CRP55, ERp60, HACBP, endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 60
Species: mouse
Products:     Calr

Top Publications

  1. Martin V, Groenendyk J, Steiner S, Guo L, Dabrowska M, Parker J, et al. Identification by mutational analysis of amino acid residues essential in the chaperone function of calreticulin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2338-46 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin is a Ca2+ -binding chaperone that resides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and in the folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins...
  2. Obeid M, Tesniere A, Ghiringhelli F, Fimia G, Apetoh L, Perfettini J, et al. Calreticulin exposure dictates the immunogenicity of cancer cell death. Nat Med. 2007;13:54-61 pubmed
    ..Here we show that anthracyclins induce the rapid, preapoptotic translocation of calreticulin (CRT) to the cell surface...
  3. Coppolino M, Woodside M, Demaurex N, Grinstein S, St Arnaud R, Dedhar S. Calreticulin is essential for integrin-mediated calcium signalling and cell adhesion. Nature. 1997;386:843-7 pubmed
    ..It has been shown that calreticulin associates with the cytoplasmic domains of integrin alpha-subunits and that this interaction can influence ..
  4. Mesaeli N, Nakamura K, Zvaritch E, Dickie P, Dziak E, Krause K, et al. Calreticulin is essential for cardiac development. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:857-68 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin is a ubiquitous Ca2+ binding protein, located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, which has been implicated in many diverse functions including: regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, chaperone activity, steroid-..
  5. Ling S, Pi X, Holoshitz J. The rheumatoid arthritis shared epitope triggers innate immune signaling via cell surface calreticulin. J Immunol. 2007;179:6359-67 pubmed
    ..resonance, and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques, we have identified cell surface calreticulin (CRT) as the SE-binding molecule...
  6. Robertson M, Liu G, Dickie P, Nakamura K, Guo J, Duff H, et al. Complete heart block and sudden death in mice overexpressing calreticulin. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:1245-53 pubmed
    The expression of calreticulin, a Ca(2+)-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, is elevated in the embryonic heart, and because of impaired cardiac development, knockout of the Calreticulin gene is lethal during embryogenesis...
  7. Gao B, Adhikari R, Howarth M, Nakamura K, Gold M, Hill A, et al. Assembly and antigen-presenting function of MHC class I molecules in cells lacking the ER chaperone calreticulin. Immunity. 2002;16:99-109 pubmed
    MHC class I molecules expressed in a calreticulin-deficient cell line (K42) assembled with beta 2-microglobulin (beta2-m) normally, but their subsequent loading with optimal peptides was defective...
  8. Smith M, Koch G. Multiple zones in the sequence of calreticulin (CRP55, calregulin, HACBP), a major calcium binding ER/SR protein. EMBO J. 1989;8:3581-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that the protein be named calreticulin to reflect its calcium binding activity and location in the ER and SR.
  9. Molinari M, Eriksson K, Calanca V, Galli C, Cresswell P, Michalak M, et al. Contrasting functions of calreticulin and calnexin in glycoprotein folding and ER quality control. Mol Cell. 2004;13:125-35 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin and calnexin are homologous lectins that serve as molecular chaperones for glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Lynch J, Guo L, Gelebart P, Chilibeck K, Xu J, Molkentin J, et al. Calreticulin signals upstream of calcineurin and MEF2C in a critical Ca(2+)-dependent signaling cascade. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:37-47 pubmed
    We uncovered a new pathway of interplay between calreticulin and myocyte-enhancer factor (MEF) 2C, a cardiac-specific transcription factor...
  2. Afshar N, Black B, Paschal B. Retrotranslocation of the chaperone calreticulin from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen to the cytosol. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8844-53 pubmed
    ..folding and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are mediated by protein chaperones, including calreticulin (CRT)...
  3. Michalak M, Milner R, Burns K, Opas M. Calreticulin. Biochem J. 1992;285 ( Pt 3):681-92 pubmed
  4. Mohrlüder J, Stangler T, Hoffmann Y, Wiesehan K, Mataruga A, Willbold D. Identification of calreticulin as a ligand of GABARAP by phage display screening of a peptide library. FEBS J. 2007;274:5543-55 pubmed
    ..In this article, it is demonstrated that calreticulin is a high affinity ligand of GABARAP...
  5. Rauch F, Prud homme J, Arabian A, Dedhar S, St Arnaud R. Heart, brain, and body wall defects in mice lacking calreticulin. Exp Cell Res. 2000;256:105-11 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin is a ubiquitously expressed protein, which has been implicated in a large number of cellular functions, including calcium storage and signaling, protein folding, and cell attachment...
  6. Del Cid N, Jeffery E, Rizvi S, Stamper E, Peters L, Brown W, et al. Modes of calreticulin recruitment to the major histocompatibility complex class I assembly pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4520-35 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Calreticulin has an important role within the PLC and induces MHC class I cell surface expression, but the interactions and ..
  7. Hong C, Qiu X, Li Y, Huang Q, Zhong Z, Zhang Y, et al. Functional analysis of recombinant calreticulin fragment 39-272: implications for immunobiological activities of calreticulin in health and disease. J Immunol. 2010;185:4561-9 pubmed publisher
    Although calreticulin (CRT) is a major Ca(2+)-binding luminal resident protein, it can also appear on the surface of various types of cells and it functions as an immunopotentiating molecule...
  8. Jeffery E, Peters L, Raghavan M. The polypeptide binding conformation of calreticulin facilitates its cell-surface expression under conditions of endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2402-15 pubmed publisher
    We define two classes of calreticulin mutants that retain glycan binding activity; those that display enhanced or reduced polypeptide-specific chaperone activity, due to conformational effects...
  9. Burns K, Duggan B, Atkinson E, Famulski K, Nemer M, Bleackley R, et al. Modulation of gene expression by calreticulin binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature. 1994;367:476-80 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein that acts as a major Ca(2+)-binding (storage) protein in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. It is also found in the nucleus, suggesting that it may have a role in transcription regulation...
  10. Qiu X, Hong C, Zhong Z, Li Y, Zhang T, Bao W, et al. Modulation of cellular immunity by antibodies against calreticulin. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:2419-30 pubmed publisher
    Although caltreticulin (CRT) is mainly a residential ER protein, it is also expressed on the membrane surface of various types of cells exhibiting multiple functions...
  11. Hattori K, Nakamura K, Hisatomi Y, Matsumoto S, Suzuki M, Harvey R, et al. Arrhythmia induced by spatiotemporal overexpression of calreticulin in the heart. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;91:285-93 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein of the endoplasmic reticulum essential for cardiac development...
  12. Luo S, Mao C, Lee B, Lee A. GRP78/BiP is required for cell proliferation and protecting the inner cell mass from apoptosis during early mouse embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5688-97 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first evidence that GRP78 is essential for embryonic cell growth and pluripotent cell survival. ..
  13. Szabo E, Papp S, Opas M. Differential calreticulin expression affects focal contacts via the calmodulin/CaMK II pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:269-77 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin is an ER calcium-storage protein, which influences gene expression and cell adhesion...
  14. Berwin B, Delneste Y, Lovingood R, Post S, Pizzo S. SREC-I, a type F scavenger receptor, is an endocytic receptor for calreticulin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51250-7 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin and gp96 (GRP94) traffic associated peptides into the major histocompatibility complex class-I cross-presentation pathway of antigen-presenting cells (APCs)...
  15. Krause K, Michalak M. Calreticulin. Cell. 1997;88:439-43 pubmed
  16. Michalak M, Corbett E, Mesaeli N, Nakamura K, Opas M. Calreticulin: one protein, one gene, many functions. Biochem J. 1999;344 Pt 2:281-92 pubmed
    ..The membrane is also an important site of Ca(2+) storage and release. Calreticulin is a unique ER luminal resident protein...
  17. Li J, Puceat M, Perez Terzic C, Mery A, Nakamura K, Michalak M, et al. Calreticulin reveals a critical Ca(2+) checkpoint in cardiac myofibrillogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:103-13 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin (crt) is an ubiquitously expressed and multifunctional Ca(2+)-binding protein that regulates diverse vital cell functions, including Ca(2+) storage in the ER and protein folding...
  18. Guo L, Nakamura K, Lynch J, Opas M, Olson E, Agellon L, et al. Cardiac-specific expression of calcineurin reverses embryonic lethality in calreticulin-deficient mouse. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50776-9 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum resident Ca(2+)-binding chaperone. The importance of the protein is illustrated by embryonic lethality because of impaired cardiac development in calreticulin-deficient mice...
  19. Dupuis M, Schaerer E, Krause K, Tschopp J. The calcium-binding protein calreticulin is a major constituent of lytic granules in cytolytic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 1993;177:1-7 pubmed
    ..The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was found to be identical to calreticulin. Calreticulin is a calcium storage protein and carries a COOH-terminal KDEL sequence, known to act as a ..
  20. Mesaeli N, Phillipson C. Impaired p53 expression, function, and nuclear localization in calreticulin-deficient cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1862-70 pubmed
    ..Recently, the level of calreticulin (CRT) has been correlated with the rate of apoptosis...
  21. Gardai S, Xiao Y, Dickinson M, Nick J, Voelker D, Greene K, et al. By binding SIRPalpha or calreticulin/CD91, lung collectins act as dual function surveillance molecules to suppress or enhance inflammation. Cell. 2003;115:13-23 pubmed
    ..In contrast, their collagenous tails stimulate proinflammatory mediator production through binding to calreticulin/CD91...
  22. Guo L, Groenendyk J, Papp S, Dabrowska M, Knoblach B, Kay C, et al. Identification of an N-domain histidine essential for chaperone function in calreticulin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50645-53 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal Ca(2+)-binding chaperone involved in folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins via the "calreticulin-calnexin cycle...
  23. Wijeyesakere S, Gafni A, Raghavan M. Calreticulin is a thermostable protein with distinct structural responses to different divalent cation environments. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8771-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is a soluble calcium-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is also detected on the cell surface and in the cytosol...
  24. Porcellini S, Traggiai E, Schenk U, Ferrera D, Matteoli M, Lanzavecchia A, et al. Regulation of peripheral T cell activation by calreticulin. J Exp Med. 2006;203:461-71 pubmed
    ..b>Calreticulin (CRT) is a major Ca2+ buffering chaperone in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum...
  25. Holaska J, Black B, Rastinejad F, Paschal B. Ca2+-dependent nuclear export mediated by calreticulin. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6286-97 pubmed
    ..This pathway involves the Ca2+ -binding protein calreticulin (CRT), which directly contacts the DNA binding domain (DBD) of GR and facilitates its delivery from the nucleus ..
  26. Lozyk M, Papp S, Zhang X, Nakamura K, Michalak M, Opas M. Ultrastructural analysis of development of myocardium in calreticulin-deficient mice. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:54 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin is a Ca2+ binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum which influences gene expression and cell adhesion...
  27. Kropp L, Garg M, Binder R. Ovalbumin-derived precursor peptides are transferred sequentially from gp96 and calreticulin to MHC class I in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Immunol. 2010;184:5619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that gp96 and calreticulin are essential for chaperoning peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum...
  28. Rooke K, Briquet Laugier V, Xia Y, Lusis A, Doolittle M. Mapping of the gene for calreticulin (Calr) to mouse chromosome 8. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:870-1 pubmed
  29. Papp S, Fadel M, Opas M. Dissecting focal adhesions in cells differentially expressing calreticulin: a microscopy study. Biol Cell. 2007;99:389-402 pubmed
    Our previous studies have shown that calreticulin, a Ca2+-binding chaperone located in the endoplasmic reticulum, affects cell-substratum adhesions via the induction of vinculin and N-cadherin...
  30. Greene N, Leung K, Wait R, Begum S, Dunn M, Copp A. Differential protein expression at the stage of neural tube closure in the mouse embryo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41645-51 pubmed
    ..Additional proteins of unknown function were identified, such as Copine 1 and PICOT, whose developmental regulation was previously unsuspected. ..
  31. Ihara Y, Kageyama K, Kondo T. Overexpression of calreticulin sensitizes SERCA2a to oxidative stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:1343-9 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca(2+)-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology...
  32. Tokuhiro K, Satouh Y, Nozawa K, Isotani A, Fujihara Y, Hirashima Y, et al. Calreticulin is required for development of the cumulus oocyte complex and female fertility. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14254 pubmed publisher
    Calnexin (CANX) and calreticulin (CALR) chaperones mediate nascent glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we report that these chaperones have distinct roles in male and female fertility...
  33. Jungwirth M, Dear M, Brown P, Holbrook K, Goodchild R. Relative tissue expression of homologous torsinB correlates with the neuronal specific importance of DYT1 dystonia-associated torsinA. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:888-900 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, multiple cell types appear to utilize torsin AAA+ proteins and differential expression of torsinB may contribute to both the neuronal specific importance of torsinA and the symptom specificity of DYT1 dystonia. ..
  34. Marty C, Pecquet C, Nivarthi H, El Khoury M, Chachoua I, Tulliez M, et al. Calreticulin mutants in mice induce an MPL-dependent thrombocytosis with frequent progression to myelofibrosis. Blood. 2016;127:1317-24 pubmed publisher
    Frameshift mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are seen in about 30% of essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis patients...
  35. Obeid M. ERP57 membrane translocation dictates the immunogenicity of tumor cell death by controlling the membrane translocation of calreticulin. J Immunol. 2008;181:2533-43 pubmed
    ..response; and 2) the immunogenicity of cell death depends very closely on the plasma membrane quantity of calreticulin (CRT), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein exposed to the cell membrane after immunogenic treatment...
  36. Faustino R, Behfar A, Groenendyk J, Wyles S, Niederlander N, Reyes S, et al. Calreticulin secures calcium-dependent nuclear pore competency required for cardiogenesis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;92:63-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin deficiency causes myocardial developmental defects that culminate in an embryonic lethal phenotype...
  37. Takemura Y, Ouchi N, Shibata R, Aprahamian T, Kirber M, Summer R, et al. Adiponectin modulates inflammatory reactions via calreticulin receptor-dependent clearance of early apoptotic bodies. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:375-86 pubmed
    ..of opsonizing apoptotic cells, and phagocytosis of cell corpses was mediated by the binding of adiponectin to calreticulin on the macrophage cell surface...
  38. Merrick B, Patterson R, Witcher L, He C, Selkirk J. Separation and sequencing of familiar and novel murine proteins using preparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 1994;15:735-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have found that preparative 2-D PAGE serves as a powerful one-step purification method for protein isolation and characterization from an important in vitro murine model for the study of carcinogenesis. ..
  39. Zimmerman K, Graham L, Pallero M, Murphy Ullrich J. Calreticulin regulates transforming growth factor-?-stimulated extracellular matrix production. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:14584-98 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Calreticulin (CRT) is an ER chaperone and regulator of Ca(2+) signaling up-regulated by ER stress and in fibrotic tissues...
  40. Kovacs C, Chafe L, Woodland M, McDonald K, Fudge N, Wookey P. Calcitropic gene expression suggests a role for the intraplacental yolk sac in maternal-fetal calcium exchange. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E721-32 pubmed
    ..These observations indicated that the intraplacental yolk sac contains calcium transfer and calcium-sensing capability and that it is a probable route of maternal-fetal calcium exchange in the mouse. ..
  41. Pallero M, Elzie C, Chen J, Mosher D, Murphy Ullrich J. Thrombospondin 1 binding to calreticulin-LRP1 signals resistance to anoikis. FASEB J. 2008;22:3968-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-terminal domain of TSP1 binds to the calreticulin-LRP1 receptor co-complex to signal down-regulation of cell adhesion and increased cell motility through focal ..
  42. Hryciw T, MacDonald J, Phillips R, Seah C, Pasternak S, Meakin S. The fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 3 adapter is a developmentally regulated microtubule-associated protein expressed in migrating and differentiated neurons. J Neurochem. 2010;112:924-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that neuronal Frs3 functions as a novel microtubule binding protein and they provide the first biochemical evidence that neuronal Frs3 is functionally distinct from Frs2/Frs2alpha. ..
  43. Karimzadeh F, Opas M. Calreticulin Is Required for TGF-β-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition during Cardiogenesis in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports. 2017;8:1299-1311 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin, a multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum resident protein, is required for TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent cardiomyogenesis...
  44. Jung J, Michalak M. Cell surface targeting of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in the absence of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Calnexin, calreticulin, and ERp57 are essential components of the endoplasmic reticulum quality control where they assist in the ..
  45. Hatle K, Gummadidala P, Navasa N, Bernardo E, Dodge J, Silverstrim B, et al. MCJ/DnaJC15, an endogenous mitochondrial repressor of the respiratory chain that controls metabolic alterations. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2302-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired expression or loss of MCJ expression may therefore result in a "rapid" metabolism that mitigates the consequences of metabolic disorders. ..
  46. Bensaid M, Fruchon S, Mazères C, Bahram S, Roth M, Coppin H. Multigenic control of hepatic iron loading in a murine model of hemochromatosis. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1400-8 pubmed
  47. Grespin M, Bonamy G, Roggero V, Cameron N, Adam L, Atchison A, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 follows a cooperative CRM1/calreticulin-mediated nuclear export pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25576-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data show that TRalpha directly interacts with calreticulin, and point to the intriguing possibility that TRalpha follows a cooperative export pathway in which both ..
  48. Kypreou K, Kavvadas P, Karamessinis P, Peroulis M, Alberti A, Sideras P, et al. Altered expression of calreticulin during the development of fibrosis. Proteomics. 2008;8:2407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Data analysis demonstrates a correlation between calreticulin up-regulation and progression of fibrosis...
  49. Wijeyesakere S, Gagnon J, Arora K, Brooks C, Raghavan M. Regulation of calreticulin-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I interactions by ATP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E5608-17 pubmed publisher
    ..able to induce MHC class I dissociation from the PLC, we investigated the interaction of ATP with the chaperone calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal, calcium-binding component of the PLC that is known to bind ATP...
  50. Barber M, Arai Y, Morishita Y, Vigier L, Causeret F, Borello U, et al. Migration Speed of Cajal-Retzius Cells Modulated by Vesicular Trafficking Controls the Size of Higher-Order Cortical Areas. Curr Biol. 2015;25:2466-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus identify novel roles for neuronal migration and VAMP3-dependent vesicular trafficking in cortical wiring. ..
  51. Stemmer N, Strekalova E, Djogo N, Plöger F, Loers G, Lutz D, et al. Generation of amyloid-β is reduced by the interaction of calreticulin with amyloid precursor protein, presenilin and nicastrin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61299 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified calreticulin as novel amyloid precursor protein interaction partner that binds to the γ-secretase cleavage site within ..
  52. Tomas Roig J, Piscitelli F, Gil V, Del Río J, Moore T, Agbemenyah H, et al. Social defeat leads to changes in the endocannabinoid system: An overexpression of calreticulin and motor impairment in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2016;303:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Calreticulin was validated as a stress candidate gene...
  53. Harada K, Okiyoneda T, Hashimoto Y, Ueno K, Nakamura K, Yamahira K, et al. Calreticulin negatively regulates the cell surface expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12841-8 pubmed
    ..Quality control of CFTR is strictly regulated by several molecular chaperones. Here we show that calreticulin (CRT), which is a lectin-like chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), negatively regulates the cell ..
  54. Ihara Y, Urata Y, Goto S, Kondo T. Role of calreticulin in the sensitivity of myocardiac H9c2 cells to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C208-21 pubmed
    b>Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology...
  55. Czarnowski A, Papp S, Száraz P, Opas M. Calreticulin affects cell adhesiveness through differential phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2014;19:77-97 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Calreticulin, as an important endoplasmic reticulum-resident, calcium-binding protein with a chaperone function, plays an ..
  56. Nakamura M, Sato K, Fukaya M, Araishi K, Aiba A, Kano M, et al. Signaling complex formation of phospholipase Cbeta4 with metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1alpha and 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor at the perisynapse and endoplasmic reticulum in the mouse brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:2929-44 pubmed
    ..This close molecular relationship might provide PLCbeta4 with a high-fidelity effector function to mediate various neuronal responses under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. ..
  57. Williams D. Beyond lectins: the calnexin/calreticulin chaperone system of the endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:615-23 pubmed
    Calnexin and calreticulin are related proteins that comprise an ER chaperone system that ensures the proper folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins...
  58. Quiel A, Jürgen B, Greinacher A, Lassen S, Wörl R, Witt S, et al. Sensitive detection of idiotypic platelet-reactive alloantibodies by an electrical protein chip. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;36:207-11 pubmed publisher
    ..With this electrical chip assay it is possible to detect antibodies against HPA-1a, HPA-5b and HLA with high sensitivity and specificity in less than half the duration of the MAIPA protocol with similar intra- and interassay variance. ..
  59. Papp S, Szabo E, Kim H, McCulloch C, Opas M. Kinase-dependent adhesion to fibronectin: regulation by calreticulin. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1313-26 pubmed publisher
    We studied the phosphorylation (activation status) of c-Src and CaMKII in MEFs either wild type for calreticulin, calreticulin-null, or rescued with full-length calreticulin...
  60. Mao C, Wang M, Luo B, Wey S, Dong D, Wesselschmidt R, et al. Targeted mutation of the mouse Grp94 gene disrupts development and perturbs endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10852 pubmed publisher
    ..complete knockout of GRP94 leads to compensatory upregulation of the ER chaperones GRP78, calnexin and calreticulin but not protein disulphide isomerase...
  61. Ryu S, Hong G, Kim D, Ro J. Enolase 1 and calreticulin regulate the differentiation and function of mouse mast cells. Cell Signal. 2012;24:60-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Enolase 1 is a glycolytic enzyme expressed in most tissues and calreticulin, known as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperon, has multifunctional responses...
  62. Fu H, Liu C, Flutter B, Tao H, Gao B. Calreticulin maintains the low threshold of peptide required for efficient antigen presentation. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:3198-206 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (CRT) plays a critical role in MHC class I antigen processing and elicits peptide-specific CD8(+) T cell responses against tumours when administered with peptides...
  63. Bak S, Amiel E, Walters J, Berwin B. Calreticulin requires an ancillary adjuvant for the induction of efficient cytotoxic T cell responses. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1414-23 pubmed
    ..A variety of chaperones, including calreticulin, hsp70 and grp94, function as vehicles to efficiently traffic associated peptides into professional antigen ..
  64. Ling S, Cline E, Haug T, Fox D, Holoshitz J. Citrullinated calreticulin potentiates rheumatoid arthritis shared epitope signaling. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously identified the SE as a ligand that interacts with cell surface calreticulin (CRT) and activates immune dysregulation...
  65. Casati A, Frascoli M, Traggiai E, Proietti M, Schenk U, Grassi F. Cell-autonomous regulation of hematopoietic stem cell cycling activity by ATP. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ATP acts as an autocrine stimulus in regulating HSCs pool size. ..
  66. Traggiai E, Casati A, Frascoli M, Porcellini S, Ponzoni M, Sanvito F, et al. Selective preservation of bone marrow mature recirculating but not marginal zone B cells in murine models of chronic inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11262 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied B cell homeostasis in two murine models of T cell mediated chronic inflammation, namely calreticulin-deficient fetal liver chimeras (FLC), which develop severe blepharitis and alopecia due to T cell hyper ..
  67. Lum R, Ahmad S, Hong S, Chapman D, Kozlov G, Williams D. Contributions of the Lectin and Polypeptide Binding Sites of Calreticulin to Its Chaperone Functions in Vitro and in Cells. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:19631-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is a lectin chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum that interacts with newly synthesized glycoproteins by binding to Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharides as well as to the polypeptide chain...
  68. Rardin M, Wiley S, Murphy A, Pagliarini D, Dixon J. Dual specificity phosphatases 18 and 21 target to opposing sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15440-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This work rigorously demonstrates the unique location of two highly similar DSPs on opposing sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane...
  69. Popescu C, Paduraru C, Dwek R, Petrescu S. Soluble tyrosinase is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation substrate retained in the ER by calreticulin and BiP/GRP78 and not calnexin. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13833-40 pubmed
    ..Co-immmunoprecipitation experiments showed that soluble tyrosinase interacts with calreticulin and BiP/GRP78 (and not calnexin) during its ER transit...
  70. Riera L, Osella Abate S, Benevolo G, Beggiato E, Ferrero S, Pich A, et al. Novel CALR somatic mutations in essential thrombocythaemia. Br J Haematol. 2016;173:797-801 pubmed publisher
  71. Qiu Y, Lynch J, Guo L, Yatsula B, Perkins A, Michalak M. Regulation of the calreticulin gene by GATA6 and Evi-1 transcription factors. Biochemistry. 2008;47:3697-704 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is a Ca (2+)-buffering chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum...
  72. Uvarov A, Mesaeli N. Enhanced ubiquitin-proteasome activity in calreticulin deficient cells: a compensatory mechanism for cell survival. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:1237-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is a lectin chaperone essential for intracellular calcium homeostasis...
  73. Papp S, Dziak E, Kabir G, Backx P, Clement S, Opas M. Evidence for calreticulin attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and soluble agonists. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1113-21 pubmed publisher
    While calreticulin has been shown to be critical for cardiac development, its role in cardiac pathology is unclear...
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