Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Calb2
Description: calbindin 2
- Zimmer C, Lee J, Griveau A, Arber S, Pierani A, Garel S, et al. Role of Fgf8 signalling in the specification of rostral Cajal-Retzius cells. Development. 2010;137:293-302 pubmed publisher..Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms specifying rostral CR cells and further emphasise the crucial role of telencephalic signalling centres in the generation of distinct CR cell populations. ..
- SMITH K, Ohkubo Y, Maragnoli M, Rasin M, Schwartz M, Sestan N, et al. Midline radial glia translocation and corpus callosum formation require FGF signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:787-97 pubmed..Hence, FGFs have an important role in the transition from radial glia to astrocytes by stimulating somal translocation of radial glial cells. ..
- Borrell V, Marin O. Meninges control tangential migration of hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells via CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:1284-93 pubmed..Thus, the meningeal membranes are fundamental in the development of Cajal-Retzius cells and, hence, in the normal development of the cerebral cortex. ..
- Kim D, Ackerman S. The UNC5C netrin receptor regulates dorsal guidance of mouse hindbrain axons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2167-79 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that Unc5c plays a broad role in dorsal guidance of axons in the developing hindbrain. ..
- Vidaki M, Tivodar S, Doulgeraki K, Tybulewicz V, Kessaris N, Pachnis V, et al. Rac1-dependent cell cycle exit of MGE precursors and GABAergic interneuron migration to the cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:680-92 pubmed publisher..Rac1 is necessary for their transition from G1 to S phase, at least in part by regulating cyclin D levels and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. ..
- Lewis A, Frantz G, Carpenter D, de Sauvage F, Gao W. Distinct expression patterns of notch family receptors and ligands during development of the mammalian inner ear. Mech Dev. 1998;78:159-63 pubmed..Notch2, Notch3, Notch4, and Delta1 are excluded from the inner ear epithelia. These data support the hypothesis that Notch signaling is involved in hair cell differentiation during inner ear morphogenesis. ..
- Lai T, Jabaudon D, Molyneaux B, Azim E, Arlotta P, Menezes J, et al. SOX5 controls the sequential generation of distinct corticofugal neuron subtypes. Neuron. 2008;57:232-47 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that SOX5 controls the timing of critical fate decisions during corticofugal neuron production and thus subtype-specific differentiation and neocortical neuron diversity. ..
- Liodis P, Denaxa M, Grigoriou M, Akufo Addo C, Yanagawa Y, Pachnis V. Lhx6 activity is required for the normal migration and specification of cortical interneuron subtypes. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3078-89 pubmed..markers that have been used to classify cortical interneurons are the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin and calretinin and the neuropeptide somatostatin, which in rodents identify mostly nonoverlapping interneuron subpopulations...
- Colombo E, Collombat P, Colasante G, Bianchi M, Long J, Mansouri A, et al. Inactivation of Arx, the murine ortholog of the X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia gene, leads to severe disorganization of the ventral telencephalon with impaired neuronal migration and differentiation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4786-98 pubmed..pallidus and striatum were greatly reduced in the mutants, causing a periventricular accumulation of NPY+ or calretinin+ neurons in the MGE...
- Inoue T, Ogawa M, Mikoshiba K, Aruga J. Zic deficiency in the cortical marginal zone and meninges results in cortical lamination defects resembling those in type II lissencephaly. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4712-25 pubmed publisher..These findings indicate that the Zic genes play critical roles in cortical development through regulating the proliferation of meningeal cells and the pial BM assembly. ..
- Waclaw R, Allen Z, Bell S, Erdelyi F, Szabo G, Potter S, et al. The zinc finger transcription factor Sp8 regulates the generation and diversity of olfactory bulb interneurons. Neuron. 2006;49:503-16 pubmed..give rise to olfactory bulb interneurons at embryonic and postnatal time points and remains expressed in the calretinin-expressing and GABAergic/nondopaminergic interneurons of the glomerular layer...
- Li S, Jin Z, Koirala S, Bu L, Xu L, Hynes R, et al. GPR56 regulates pial basement membrane integrity and cortical lamination. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5817-26 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, a putative ligand of GPR56 is localized in the marginal zone or overlying extracellular matrix. These observations provide compelling evidence that GPR56 functions in regulating pial BM integrity during cortical development...
- Meyer G, Cabrera Socorro A, Perez Garcia C, Martinez Millan L, Walker N, Caput D. Developmental roles of p73 in Cajal-Retzius cells and cortical patterning. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9878-87 pubmed
- Pirvola U, Ylikoski J, Trokovic R, Hebert J, McConnell S, Partanen J. FGFR1 is required for the development of the auditory sensory epithelium. Neuron. 2002;35:671-80 pubmed..Our data also suggest that FGFR1 might have a distinct later role in intercellular signaling within the differentiating auditory sensory epithelium. ..
- Azim E, Jabaudon D, Fame R, Macklis J. SOX6 controls dorsal progenitor identity and interneuron diversity during neocortical development. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1238-47 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that SOX6 is a central regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development. ..
- Müller Smith K, Williamson T, Schwartz M, Vaccarino F. Impaired motor coordination and disrupted cerebellar architecture in Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 double knockout mice. Brain Res. 2012;1460:12-24 pubmed publisher..The disrupted cerebellar size and laminar architecture resulting from loss of FGFR signaling impair motor learning and coordination in FGFR DKO mice. ..
- Sato Y, Hirata T, Ogawa M, Fujisawa H. Requirement for early-generated neurons recognized by monoclonal antibody lot1 in the formation of lateral olfactory tract. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7800-10 pubmed..Ablation of lot cells prevented LOT formation in organotypic culture. These results suggest that lot cells are "guidepost cells" for mitral cell axons. ..
- Xu Q, Guo L, Moore H, Waclaw R, Campbell K, Anderson S. Sonic hedgehog signaling confers ventral telencephalic progenitors with distinct cortical interneuron fates. Neuron. 2010;65:328-40 pubmed publisher..regulate cortical functions through the actions of distinct subgroups that express parvalbumin, somatostatin, or calretinin. The genesis of the first two subgroups requires the expression of NKX2...
- Mallamaci A, Mercurio S, Muzio L, Cecchi C, Pardini C, Gruss P, et al. The lack of Emx2 causes impairment of Reelin signaling and defects of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2000;20:1109-18 pubmed..In addition, restricted defects along the rostrocaudal and the mediolateral axes are present in the subplate, suggesting an Emx2-specific role in priming the proper development of this layer. ..
- Sage C, Venteo S, Jeromin A, Roder J, Dechesne C. Distribution of frequenin in the mouse inner ear during development, comparison with other calcium-binding proteins and synaptophysin. Hear Res. 2000;150:70-82 pubmed..The distribution of frequenin was compared with those of other calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin) and synaptophysin...
- Kohwi M, Petryniak M, Long J, Ekker M, Obata K, Yanagawa Y, et al. A subpopulation of olfactory bulb GABAergic interneurons is derived from Emx1- and Dlx5/6-expressing progenitors. J Neurosci. 2007;27:6878-91 pubmed..We show that calretinin+, calbindin+, and dopaminergic (TH+) periglomerular OB interneurons correspond to distinct subtypes of GABAergic ..
- Ogawa M, Miyata T, Nakajima K, Yagyu K, Seike M, Ikenaka K, et al. The reeler gene-associated antigen on Cajal-Retzius neurons is a crucial molecule for laminar organization of cortical neurons. Neuron. 1995;14:899-912 pubmed..These findings revealed that the selective expression of a distinct molecule on Cajal-Retzius neurons is critical for the normal lamination of cortical neurons in the mammalian neocortex. ..
- Rakic S, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Faux C, Parnavelas J, Nikolic M. Cortical interneurons require p35/Cdk5 for their migration and laminar organization. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:1857-69 pubmed publisher..We, therefore, propose that p35/Cdk5 plays a key role in guiding cortical interneurons to their final positions in the cortex. ..
- Cahana A, Escamez T, Nowakowski R, Hayes N, Giacobini M, von Holst A, et al. Targeted mutagenesis of Lis1 disrupts cortical development and LIS1 homodimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6429-34 pubmed..This mutation allows us to determine a hierarchy of functions that are sensitive to LIS1 dosage, thus promoting our understanding of the role of LIS1 in the developing cortex. ..
- Dyer M, Cepko C. p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 regulate proliferation in distinct retinal progenitor cell populations. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4259-71 pubmed
- Cobos I, Calcagnotto M, Vilaythong A, Thwin M, Noebels J, Baraban S, et al. Mice lacking Dlx1 show subtype-specific loss of interneurons, reduced inhibition and epilepsy. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1059-68 pubmed..This reduction preferentially affects calretinin(+) (bipolar cells) and somatostatin(+) subtypes (for example, bitufted cells), whereas parvalbumin(+) ..
- Pawlisz A, Mutch C, Wynshaw Boris A, Chenn A, Walsh C, Feng Y. Lis1-Nde1-dependent neuronal fate control determines cerebral cortical size and lamination. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2441-55 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that maintaining the shape and cell-cell interactions of radial glial neuroepithelial progenitors by the Lis1-Nde1 complex is essential for their self renewal during the early phase of corticogenesis. ..
- Wang Y, Li G, Stanco A, Long J, Crawford D, Potter G, et al. CXCR4 and CXCR7 have distinct functions in regulating interneuron migration. Neuron. 2011;69:61-76 pubmed publisher..On the other hand, CXCL12 stimulation of CXCR7, but not CXCR4, promoted MAP kinase signaling. Thus, we suggest that CXCR4 and CXCR7 have distinct roles and signal transduction in regulating interneuron movement and laminar positioning. ..
- Lavado A, Oliver G. Prox1 expression patterns in the developing and adult murine brain. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:518-24 pubmed..In adulthood, Prox1 expression remains only in the hippocampus and cerebellum. These complex patterns of expression suggest that Prox1 activity is differentially required during brain development and adulthood. ..
- Sussel L, Marin O, Kimura S, Rubenstein J. Loss of Nkx2.1 homeobox gene function results in a ventral to dorsal molecular respecification within the basal telencephalon: evidence for a transformation of the pallidum into the striatum. Development. 1999;126:3359-70 pubmed..We present evidence that these phenotypes result from a ventral-to-dorsal transformation of the pallidal primordium into a striatal-like anlage. ..
- Brooker R, Hozumi K, Lewis J. Notch ligands with contrasting functions: Jagged1 and Delta1 in the mouse inner ear. Development. 2006;133:1277-86 pubmed..Our findings confirm that Notch signalling in the ear has distinct prosensory and lateral-inhibitory functions, for which different ligands are primarily responsible. ..
- Hoshino M, Nakamura S, Mori K, Kawauchi T, Terao M, Nishimura Y, et al. Ptf1a, a bHLH transcriptional gene, defines GABAergic neuronal fates in cerebellum. Neuron. 2005;47:201-13 pubmed..Our results suggest that Ptf1a is involved in driving neural precursors to differentiate into GABAergic neurons in the cerebellum. ..
- Brandt M, Jessberger S, Steiner B, Kronenberg G, Reuter K, Bick Sander A, et al. Transient calretinin expression defines early postmitotic step of neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis of mice. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;24:603-13 pubmed..granule cell development during adult hippocampal neurogenesis is characterized by the transient expression of calretinin (CR)...
- Shu T, Li Y, Keller A, Richards L. The glial sling is a migratory population of developing neurons. Development. 2003;130:2929-37 pubmed..These data indicate that the sling may be a source of, or migratory pathway for, developing neurons in the rostral forebrain, suggesting additional functions for the sling independent of callosal axon guidance. ..
- Chen L, Liao G, Waclaw R, Burns K, Linquist D, Campbell K, et al. Rac1 controls the formation of midline commissures and the competency of tangential migration in ventral telencephalic neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3884-93 pubmed..Moreover, they indicate that Rac1 has a critical role in axon guidance and in acquisition of migratory competency during differentiation of the progenitors for the ventral telencephalon-derived interneurons. ..
- Bagri A, Marin O, Plump A, Mak J, Pleasure S, Rubenstein J, et al. Slit proteins prevent midline crossing and determine the dorsoventral position of major axonal pathways in the mammalian forebrain. Neuron. 2002;33:233-48 pubmed
- Abbott L, Jacobowitz D. Developmental expression of calretinin-immunoreactivity in the thalamic eminence of the fetal mouse. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1999;17:331-45 pubmedAn investigation of the developmental expression of calretinin immunoreactivity and mRNA expression was carried out in the developing mouse diencephalon...
- Corbin J, Gaiano N, Machold R, Langston A, Fishell G. The Gsh2 homeodomain gene controls multiple aspects of telencephalic development. Development. 2000;127:5007-20 pubmed..Taken together, our data support a model in which Gsh2, in response to sonic hedgehog signaling, plays a crucial role in multiple aspects of telencephalic development. ..
- Brown N, Patel S, Brzezinski J, Glaser T. Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. Development. 2001;128:2497-508 pubmed..A small number of nascent RGCs are detected during embryogenesis, but these fail to develop further, suggesting that committed RGCs may also require Math5 function. ..
- Feng L, Xie X, Joshi P, Yang Z, Shibasaki K, Chow R, et al. Requirement for Bhlhb5 in the specification of amacrine and cone bipolar subtypes in mouse retina. Development. 2006;133:4815-25 pubmed..Our results reveal that a bHLH transcription factor cascade is involved in regulating retinal cell differentiation and imply that Bhlhb5 functions downstream of retinogenic factors to specify bipolar and amacrine subtypes. ..
- Yokota Y, Kim W, Chen Y, Wang X, Stanco A, Komuro Y, et al. The adenomatous polyposis coli protein is an essential regulator of radial glial polarity and construction of the cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2009;61:42-56 pubmed publisher..Thus, APC is an essential regulator of radial glial polarity and is critical for the construction of cerebral cortex in mammals. ..
- Batista Brito R, Rossignol E, Hjerling Leffler J, Denaxa M, Wegner M, Lefebvre V, et al. The cell-intrinsic requirement of Sox6 for cortical interneuron development. Neuron. 2009;63:466-81 pubmed publisher..It is, however, necessary for their normal positioning and maturation. As a consequence, the specific removal of Sox6 from this population results in a severe epileptic encephalopathy. ..
- Matsuoka R, Chivatakarn O, Badea T, SAMUELS I, Cahill H, Katayama K, et al. Class 5 transmembrane semaphorins control selective Mammalian retinal lamination and function. Neuron. 2011;71:460-73 pubmed publisher..These findings define a set of ligands and receptors required for the establishment of inner retinal lamination and function. ..
- Soriano E, Del Rio J, Martinez A, Super H. Organization of the embryonic and early postnatal murine hippocampus. I. Immunocytochemical characterization of neuronal populations in the subplate and marginal zone. J Comp Neurol. 1994;342:571-95 pubmed..Some cells in the later stratum displayed MAP2-, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and calretinin immunoreactivities. From E15 onwards, the hippocampal and dentate plates became visible...
- Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Ciceri G, Monari M, Zuccaro E, Tybulewicz V, et al. Essential role of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in neuronal development. FASEB J. 2009;23:1347-57 pubmed publisher..These findings show for the first time that both Rac1 and Rac3 are important for the development of the nervous system, wherein they play complementary roles during late stages of neuronal and brain development. ..
- Le T, Wroblewski E, Patel S, Riesenberg A, Brown N. Math5 is required for both early retinal neuron differentiation and cell cycle progression. Dev Biol. 2006;295:764-78 pubmed..Thus, Math5 orchestrates neurogenesis in multiple ways, regulating both intrinsic and extrinsic processes. ..
- Taniguchi H, He M, Wu P, Kim S, Paik R, Sugino K, et al. A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2011;71:995-1013 pubmed publisher..As such, this approach will accelerate the study of GABAergic circuits throughout the mammalian brain. ..
- Ding Q, Chen H, Xie X, Libby R, Tian N, Gan L. BARHL2 differentially regulates the development of retinal amacrine and ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3992-4003 pubmed publisher..Thus, BARHL2 appears to have numerous roles in retinal development, including regulating neuronal subtype specification, differentiation, and survival. ..
- Nunzi M, Shigemoto R, Mugnaini E. Differential expression of calretinin and metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1alpha defines subsets of unipolar brush cells in mouse cerebellum. J Comp Neurol. 2002;451:189-99 pubmed..the vestibulocerebellum is enriched of UBCs that are strongly immunoreactive for the calcium binding protein calretinin (CR) in both the somatodendritic and axonal compartment...
- Lopez Bendito G, Cautinat A, Sanchez J, Bielle F, Flames N, Garratt A, et al. Tangential neuronal migration controls axon guidance: a role for neuregulin-1 in thalamocortical axon navigation. Cell. 2006;125:127-42 pubmed..These results show that neuronal tangential migration constitutes a novel mechanism to control the timely arrangement of guidance cues required for axonal tract formation in the mammalian brain. ..
- Liu M, Pleasure S, Collins A, Noebels J, Naya F, Tsai M, et al. Loss of BETA2/NeuroD leads to malformation of the dentate gyrus and epilepsy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:865-70 pubmed..Furthermore, failure to express BETA2/NeuroD leads to a stereotyped pattern of pathological excitability of the adult central nervous system. ..
- Galceran J, Miyashita Lin E, Devaney E, Rubenstein J, Grosschedl R. Hippocampus development and generation of dentate gyrus granule cells is regulated by LEF1. Development. 2000;127:469-82 pubmed..Thus, LEF1 regulates the generation of dentate gyrus granule cells, and together with other LEF1/TCF proteins, the development of the hippocampus. ..
- Sessa A, Mao C, Colasante G, Nini A, Klein W, Broccoli V. Tbr2-positive intermediate (basal) neuronal progenitors safeguard cerebral cortex expansion by controlling amplification of pallial glutamatergic neurons and attraction of subpallial GABAergic interneurons. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1816-26 pubmed publisher..We thus propose that INPs are able to control simultaneously the increase of glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal pools, thereby creating a simple way to intrinsically balance their relative accumulation. ..
- Bulfone A, Wang F, Hevner R, Anderson S, Cutforth T, Chen S, et al. An olfactory sensory map develops in the absence of normal projection neurons or GABAergic interneurons. Neuron. 1998;21:1273-82 pubmed..These observations suggest that the establishment of a topographic map is not dependent upon cues provided by, or synapse formation with, the major neuronal cell types in the olfactory bulb. ..
- Dechesne C, Rabejac D, Desmadryl G. Development of calretinin immunoreactivity in the mouse inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 1994;346:517-29 pubmedb>Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein of the EF-hand family. It has been previously identified in particular cell types of adult guinea pig, rat, and chinchilla inner ear...