Gene Symbol: Cacng2
Description: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2
Alias: AW060990, B230105C07Rik, B930041E13Rik, stargazer, stargazin, stg, wag, waggler, voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2 subunit, TARP gamma-2, neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel gamma-2 subunit, transmembrane AMPAR regulatory protein gamma-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Cacng2

Top Publications

  1. Nakagawa T, Sheng M. Neurobiology. A stargazer foretells the way to the synapse. Science. 2000;290:2270-1 pubmed
    ..postsynaptic membranes of dendrites? Nakagawa and Sheng, in a Perspective, suggest that the answer may lie in the stargazin protein that has now been found to interact with AMPA receptors, guiding them to the postsynaptic membrane.
  2. Deng F, Price M, Davis C, Mori M, Burgess D. Stargazin and other transmembrane AMPA receptor regulating proteins interact with synaptic scaffolding protein MAGI-2 in brain. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7875-84 pubmed
    ..The synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptors by the stargazin protein in some neurons, for example, depends on specific interactions between the C terminus of stargazin and ..
  3. Cho C, St Gelais F, Zhang W, Tomita S, Howe J. Two families of TARP isoforms that have distinct effects on the kinetic properties of AMPA receptors and synaptic currents. Neuron. 2007;55:890-904 pubmed
    ..Importantly, whereas both stargazin and gamma-4 rescued excitatory synaptic transmission in cerebellar granule cells from stargazer mice, the decay ..
  4. Payne H, Connelly W, Ives J, Lehner R, Furtmuller B, Sieghart W, et al. GABAA alpha6-containing receptors are selectively compromised in cerebellar granule cells of the ataxic mouse, stargazer. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29130-43 pubmed
    b>Stargazer mice fail to express the gamma2 isoform of transmembrane alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor regulatory proteins that has been shown to be absolutely required for the trafficking and synaptic ..
  5. Ziff E. TARPs and the AMPA receptor trafficking paradox. Neuron. 2007;53:627-33 pubmed
    ..This review considers how transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs), a novel family of AMPAR auxiliary subunits, have changed our view of AMPAR transport and raised some perplexing questions. ..
  6. Richardson C, Leitch B. Phenotype of cerebellar glutamatergic neurons is altered in stargazer mutant mice lacking brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression. J Comp Neurol. 2005;481:145-59 pubmed
    ..In the cerebellum of the spontaneous recessive mutant mouse stargazer (stg) there is a specific and pronounced deficit in BDNF mRNA expression...
  7. Chen L, Bao S, Qiao X, Thompson R. Impaired cerebellar synapse maturation in waggler, a mutant mouse with a disrupted neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:12132-7 pubmed
    The waggler, a neurological mutant mouse with a disrupted putative neuronal Ca(2+) channel gamma subunit, exhibits a cerebellar granule cell-specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor deficit, severe ataxia, and impaired eyeblink ..
  8. Bats C, Groc L, Choquet D. The interaction between Stargazin and PSD-95 regulates AMPA receptor surface trafficking. Neuron. 2007;53:719-34 pubmed
    Accumulation of AMPA receptors at synapses is a fundamental feature of glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Stargazin, a member of the TARP family, is an AMPAR auxiliary subunit allowing interaction of the receptor with scaffold proteins ..
  9. Gill M, Kato A, Roberts M, Yu H, Wang H, Tomita S, et al. Cornichon-2 modulates AMPA receptor-transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein assembly to dictate gating and pharmacology. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In concordance, stargazer Purkinje neurons, which express CNIH-2 and ?-7, display AMPA receptor kinetics/pharmacologies that can only be ..

More Information


  1. Fletcher C, Frankel W. Ataxic mouse mutants and molecular mechanisms of absence epilepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:1907-12 pubmed
    ..Then, from the new wave of genetic and functional studies of these mutants we discuss their prospects for yielding insight into the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy. ..
  2. Hashimoto K, Fukaya M, Qiao X, Sakimura K, Watanabe M, Kano M. Impairment of AMPA receptor function in cerebellar granule cells of ataxic mutant mouse stargazer. J Neurosci. 1999;19:6027-36 pubmed
    The spontaneous recessive mutant mouse stargazer (stg) begins to show ataxia around postnatal day 14 and display a severe impairment in the acquisition of classical eyeblink conditioning in adulthood...
  3. Chen L, Chetkovich D, Petralia R, Sweeney N, Kawasaki Y, Wenthold R, et al. Stargazin regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms. Nature. 2000;408:936-43 pubmed
    b>Stargazer, an ataxic and epileptic mutant mouse, lacks functional AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) receptors on cerebellar granule cells...
  4. Aizawa M, Ito Y, Fukuda H. Pharmacological profiles of generalized absence seizures in lethargic, stargazer and gamma-hydroxybutyrate-treated model mice. Neurosci Res. 1997;29:17-25 pubmed
    ..absence seizures in three mouse models: two mutant strains with spontaneous absence seizures, lethargic and stargazer, and ddY mice (GHB model) in which absence seizures were induced by administering gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), a ..
  5. Milstein A, Zhou W, Karimzadegan S, Bredt D, Nicoll R. TARP subtypes differentially and dose-dependently control synaptic AMPA receptor gating. Neuron. 2007;55:905-18 pubmed
  6. Jackson A, Nicoll R. Stargazin (TARP gamma-2) is required for compartment-specific AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity in cerebellar stellate cells. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3939-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine the role of stargazin (?-2), canonical member of the transmembrane AMPAR regulatory protein (TARP) family, in the regulation of GluA2-..
  7. Shi Y, Suh Y, Milstein A, Isozaki K, Schmid S, Roche K, et al. Functional comparison of the effects of TARPs and cornichons on AMPA receptor trafficking and gating. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This neuronal role is more consistent with that of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone rather than a bona fide auxiliary subunit. ..
  8. Menuz K, O Brien J, Karmizadegan S, Bredt D, Nicoll R. TARP redundancy is critical for maintaining AMPA receptor function. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8740-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes a new role for TARPs in regulating AMPA receptor assembly and suggests that TARPs are necessary for proper AMPA receptor localization and function in most, if not all, neurons of the CNS. ..
  9. Letts V, Felix R, Biddlecome G, Arikkath J, Mahaffey C, Valenzuela A, et al. The mouse stargazer gene encodes a neuronal Ca2+-channel gamma subunit. Nat Genet. 1998;19:340-7 pubmed
    ..It encodes a 36-kD protein (stargazin) with structural similarity to the gamma subunit of skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels...
  10. Milstein A, Nicoll R. TARP modulation of synaptic AMPA receptor trafficking and gating depends on multiple intracellular domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11348-51 pubmed publisher
    Previous work has established stargazin and its related family of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) as auxiliary subunits of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) that control synaptic strength both by targeting AMPARs to ..
  11. Meng H, Walker N, Su Y, Qiao X. Stargazin mutation impairs cerebellar synaptogenesis, synaptic maturation and synaptic protein distribution. Brain Res. 2006;1124:197-207 pubmed
    Stargazin mutation results in absence epilepsy and cerebellar ataxia in stargazer (stg) mice...
  12. Priel A, Kolleker A, Ayalon G, Gillor M, Osten P, Stern Bach Y. Stargazin reduces desensitization and slows deactivation of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2682-6 pubmed
    ..b>Stargazin (also termed gamma2) is a member of a recently identified protein family termed transmembrane AMPA receptor ..
  13. Bats C, Soto D, Studniarczyk D, Farrant M, Cull Candy S. Channel properties reveal differential expression of TARPed and TARPless AMPARs in stargazer neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:853-61 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPAR-mediated currents in cerebellar stellate cells from stargazer mice, which lack the prototypical TARP stargazin (g-2)...
  14. Tomita S, Stein V, Stocker T, Nicoll R, Bredt D. Bidirectional synaptic plasticity regulated by phosphorylation of stargazin-like TARPs. Neuron. 2005;45:269-77 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the AMPA receptor-associated protein stargazin is quantitatively phosphorylated and that stargazin phosphorylation promotes synaptic trafficking of AMPA ..
  15. Vandenberghe W, Nicoll R, Bredt D. Stargazin is an AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:485-90 pubmed
    ..two receptor populations: a functional form that contains the transmembrane AMPA receptor-regulatory protein stargazin and an apo-form that lacks stargazin...
  16. Yamazaki M, Fukaya M, Hashimoto K, Yamasaki M, Tsujita M, Itakura M, et al. TARPs gamma-2 and gamma-7 are essential for AMPA receptor expression in the cerebellum. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:2204-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, gamma-2 and gamma-7 cooperatively promote synaptic expression of cerebellar AMPA receptors, and the latter also promotes glial expression. ..
  17. Meisler M, Kearney J, Ottman R, Escayg A. Identification of epilepsy genes in human and mouse. Annu Rev Genet. 2001;35:567-88 pubmed
    ..The development of pharmaceuticals directed towards specific epilepsy genotypes can be anticipated, and the introduction of patient mutations into the mouse genome will provide models for testing these targeted therapies. ..
  18. Matsuda S, Miura E, Matsuda K, Kakegawa W, Kohda K, Watanabe M, et al. Accumulation of AMPA receptors in autophagosomes in neuronal axons lacking adaptor protein AP-4. Neuron. 2008;57:730-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that AP-4 may regulate proper somatodendritic-specific distribution of its cargo proteins, including AMPA receptor-TARP complexes and the autophagic pathway in neurons. ..
  19. Barclay J, Rees M. Mouse models of spike-wave epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1999;40 Suppl 3:17-22 pubmed
    ..The question this raises as to the validity of these models for human spike-wave epilepsy is considered. Finally, the effect these discoveries will have on the understanding and treatment of human spike-wave epilepsy are discussed. ..
  20. Menuz K, Nicoll R. Loss of inhibitory neuron AMPA receptors contributes to ataxia and epilepsy in stargazer mice. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10599-603 pubmed publisher
    Stargazer mice are characterized by ataxia and seizures, which resemble the human disorder absence epilepsy. Stargazin, the protein mutated in stargazer mice, promotes the expression and function of neuronal AMPA receptors (AMPARs)...
  21. Qiao X, Noebels J. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of inherited spike-wave epilepsy: two mutant gene loci with independent cerebral excitability defects. Brain Res. 1991;555:43-50 pubmed
    Two recessive gene loci controlling cerebral excitability in the mouse (tg, chr 8 and stg, chr 15) share generalized neocortical spike-wave seizures as a common mutant phenotype...
  22. Yamasaki M, Fukaya M, Yamazaki M, Azechi H, Natsume R, Abe M, et al. TARP ?-2 and ?-8 Differentially Control AMPAR Density Across Schaffer Collateral/Commissural Synapses in the Hippocampal CA1 Area. J Neurosci. 2016;36:4296-312 pubmed publisher
    ..In comparison, TARP ?-8 is the only TARP expressed at nonperforated type of pyramidal cell synapses, playing an essential role in low-density or basal AMPAR expression. ..
  23. Frankel W. Detecting genes in new and old mouse models for epilepsy: a prospectus through the magnifying glass. Epilepsy Res. 1999;36:97-110 pubmed be intimately involved: slow-wave epilepsy (common gene symbol: swe, Chr 4); tottering (tg, Chr 8); and stargazer (stg, Chr 15)...
  24. Seo S, Leitch B. Synaptic changes in GABAA receptor expression in the thalamus of the stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy. Neuroscience. 2015;306:28-38 pubmed publisher
    ..the tissue expression level of GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) α1 and β2 subunits within the thalamus of the stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy...
  25. Yan D, Yamasaki M, Straub C, Watanabe M, Tomita S. Homeostatic control of synaptic transmission by distinct glutamate receptors. Neuron. 2013;78:687-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal mechanisms mediated by distinct classes of postsynaptic glutamate receptors for the homeostatic maintenance of the neuronal activity. ..
  26. Yamazaki M, Le Pichon C, Jackson A, Cerpas M, Sakimura K, Scearce Levie K, et al. Relative contribution of TARPs γ-2 and γ-7 to cerebellar excitatory synaptic transmission and motor behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..been determined through work on canonical type I TARPs such as stargazin (TARP γ-2), absent in the ataxic stargazer mouse...
  27. Price M, Davis C, Deng F, Burgess D. The alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor trafficking regulator "stargazin" is related to the claudin family of proteins by Its ability to mediate cell-cell adhesion. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19711-20 pubmed
    ..the neuronal transmembrane protein stargazin result in recessively inherited epilepsy and ataxia in "stargazer" mice...
  28. Ives J, Fung S, Tiwari P, Payne H, Thompson C. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 2 is a stargazin-AMPA receptor complex-interacting protein in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31002-9 pubmed
    The ataxic mutant mouse stargazer is a null mutant for stargazin, a protein involved in the regulation of cell surface trafficking and synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors...
  29. Qiao X, Noebels J. Developmental analysis of hippocampal mossy fiber outgrowth in a mutant mouse with inherited spike-wave seizures. J Neurosci. 1993;13:4622-35 pubmed
    ..hippocampal network discharges and mossy fiber innervation patterns at sequential stages of development in the stargazer (stg) mutant, a single-locus mouse mutation expressing generalized spike-wave epilepsy...
  30. Burgess D, Matsuura T, Ashizawa T, Noebels J. Genetic localization of the Ca2+ channel gene CACNG2 near SCA10 on chromosome 22q13. Epilepsia. 2000;41:24-7 pubmed
    ..SCA6) and with ataxia, progressive cerebellar degeneration, and epilepsy in mice (tottering, lethargic, and stargazer)...
  31. Matsuda S, Kakegawa W, Budisantoso T, Nomura T, Kohda K, Yuzaki M. Stargazin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through adaptor protein complexes during long-term depression. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2759 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that stargazin, a transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein, forms a ternary complex with adaptor proteins AP-2 and AP-3A ..
  32. Nomura T, Kakegawa W, Matsuda S, Kohda K, Nishiyama J, Takahashi T, et al. Cerebellar long-term depression requires dephosphorylation of TARP in Purkinje cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity-dependent dephosphorylation of stargazin (an AMPA receptor auxiliary protein) by calcineurin regulates hippocampal LTD, but whether and how stargazin is ..
  33. Shevtsova O, Leitch B. Selective loss of AMPA receptor subunits at inhibitory neuron synapses in the cerebellum of the ataxic stargazer mouse. Brain Res. 2012;1427:54-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In the stargazer mutant mouse, expression of TARP-?2 (stargazin) is severely reduced, resulting in cerebellar ataxia...
  34. Sharp A, Black J, Dubel S, Sundarraj S, Shen J, Yunker A, et al. Biochemical and anatomical evidence for specialized voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma isoform expression in the epileptic and ataxic mouse, stargazer. Neuroscience. 2001;105:599-617 pubmed
    ..For example, the mutation in stargazer mice has pleiotropic consequences including synaptic alterations in cerebellar granule cells, hippocampal CA3/..
  35. Puranam R, McNamara J. Seizure disorders in mutant mice: relevance to human epilepsies. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999;9:281-7 pubmed
  36. Rigby M, Cull Candy S, Farrant M. Transmembrane AMPAR regulatory protein γ-2 is required for the modulation of GABA release by presynaptic AMPARs. J Neurosci. 2015;35:4203-14 pubmed publisher
    ..a partial agonist at TARP-associated AMPARs, enhanced spontaneous GABA release in wild-type mice but not in stargazer mice that lack the prototypical TARP stargazin (γ-2)...
  37. Chen L, El Husseini A, Tomita S, Bredt D, Nicoll R. Stargazin differentially controls the trafficking of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate and kainate receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;64:703-6 pubmed
    ..b>Stargazin, a membrane protein that interacts with AMPA receptors, is believed to play a pivotal role in trafficking AMPA ..
  38. Bao S, Chen L, Qiao X, Knusel B, Thompson R. Impaired eye-blink conditioning in waggler, a mutant mouse with cerebellar BDNF deficiency. Learn Mem. 1998;5:355-64 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we found that in a spontaneous mutant mouse, waggler, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was selectively absent in the cerebellar granule ..
  39. Qiao X, Chen L, Gao H, Bao S, Hefti F, Thompson R, et al. Cerebellar brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB defect associated with impairment of eyeblink conditioning in Stargazer mutant mice. J Neurosci. 1998;18:6990-9 pubmed
    In the spontaneous ataxic mutant mouse stargazer, there is a selective reduction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the cerebellum. BDNF protein levels in the cerebellum are reduced by 70%...
  40. Song I, Kim D, Choi S, Sun M, Kim Y, Shin H. Role of the alpha1G T-type calcium channel in spontaneous absence seizures in mutant mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5249-57 pubmed
    ..e., lethargic (beta4(lh/lh)), tottering (alpha1A(tg/tg)), or stargazer (gamma2(stg/stg))...
  41. Cope D, Di Giovanni G, Fyson S, Orbán G, Errington A, Lorincz M, et al. Enhanced tonic GABAA inhibition in typical absence epilepsy. Nat Med. 2009;15:1392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify an apparently common cellular pathology in typical absence seizures that may have epileptogenic importance and highlight potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of absence epilepsy. ..
  42. Joiner M, Lise M, Yuen E, Kam A, Zhang M, Hall D, et al. Assembly of a beta2-adrenergic receptor--GluR1 signalling complex for localized cAMP signalling. EMBO J. 2010;29:482-95 pubmed publisher
    ..signalling complex with the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluR1, which is linked to the beta(2)AR through stargazin and PSD-95 and their homologues...
  43. Buchhalter J. Animal models of inherited epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1993;34 Suppl 3:S31-41 pubmed
    ..Hippocampal network hyperexcitability has been found with normal neuronal intrinsic properties. Stargazer is a mouse mutant with almost identical clinical and electrographic features as found in tottering...
  44. Nahm W, Noebels J. Nonobligate role of early or sustained expression of immediate-early gene proteins c-fos, c-jun, and Zif/268 in hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9245-55 pubmed
    ..The mutant mouse stargazer offers an important opportunity to test the specific role of IEGs, because it displays generalized nonconvulsive ..
  45. Ayata C, Shimizu Sasamata M, Lo E, Noebels J, Moskowitz M. Impaired neurotransmitter release and elevated threshold for cortical spreading depression in mice with mutations in the alpha1A subunit of P/Q type calcium channels. Neuroscience. 2000;95:639-45 pubmed the developmental history of repeated cortical spike-wave discharges, since neither were observed in the stargazer mouse, a Ca2+ channel gamma2 subunit mutant with a similar seizure phenotype...
  46. Payne H, Donoghue P, Connelly W, Hinterreiter S, Tiwari P, Ives J, et al. Aberrant GABA(A) receptor expression in the dentate gyrus of the epileptic mutant mouse stargazer. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8600-8 pubmed
    b>Stargazer (stg) mutant mice fail to express stargazin [transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein gamma2 (TARPgamma2)] and consequently experience absence seizure-like thalamocortical spike-wave discharges that pervade the ..
  47. Sumioka A, Brown T, Kato A, Bredt D, Kauer J, Tomita S. PDZ binding of TARP?-8 controls synaptic transmission but not synaptic plasticity. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1410-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that there are distinct TARP-dependent mechanisms for synaptic transmission and LTP. ..
  48. Adotevi N, Leitch B. Alterations in AMPA receptor subunit expression in cortical inhibitory interneurons in the epileptic stargazer mutant mouse. Neuroscience. 2016;339:124-138 pubmed publisher
    ..The stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy presents with a genetic deficit in stargazin, which is predominantly expressed ..
  49. Lee A, Capanzana R, Brockhurst J, Cheng M, Buckmaster C, Absher D, et al. Learning to cope with stress modulates anterior cingulate cortex stargazin expression in monkeys and mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2016;131:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The CACNG2 gene that encodes stargazin (also called TARP gamma-2) was increased by coping in monkeys as well as mice randomized to coping with or ..
  50. Noebels J, Qiao X, Bronson R, Spencer C, Davisson M. Stargazer: a new neurological mutant on chromosome 15 in the mouse with prolonged cortical seizures. Epilepsy Res. 1990;7:129-35 pubmed
    ..pattern, linkage mapping, and electroclinical phenotype of a recessive mutation on mouse Chromosome 15, stargazer (stg), that produces epilepsy...
  51. von Engelhardt J, Mack V, Sprengel R, Kavenstock N, Li K, Stern Bach Y, et al. CKAMP44: a brain-specific protein attenuating short-term synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Science. 2010;327:1518-22 pubmed publisher
    ..CKAMP44 thus modulates short-term plasticity at specific excitatory synapses. ..
  52. Thompson C, Tehrani M, Barnes E, Stephenson F. Decreased expression of GABAA receptor alpha6 and beta3 subunits in stargazer mutant mice: a possible role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the regulation of cerebellar GABAA receptor expression?. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;60:282-90 pubmed
    The cerebellar granule cells of the spontaneous recessive mutant mouse strain, stargazer (stg/stg), fail to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA...
  53. Khan Z, Carey J, Park H, Lehar M, Lasker D, Jinnah H. Abnormal motor behavior and vestibular dysfunction in the stargazer mouse mutant. Neuroscience. 2004;127:785-96 pubmed
    In stargazer mutant mice, a mutation in the gene encoding stargazin results in absence epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, and a characteristic abnormal motor syndrome...
  54. Sumioka A, Yan D, Tomita S. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers. Neuron. 2010;66:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we mutated the prototypical TARP, stargazin, and found that TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptor activity in vivo...
  55. Seltzer Z, Wu T, Max M, Diehl S. Mapping a gene for neuropathic pain-related behavior following peripheral neurectomy in the mouse. Pain. 2001;93:101-6 pubmed
    ..Several genes located in this chromosomal region encode for neural functions related to neuropathic pain and may indicate targets for development of novel analgesics. ..
  56. Louros S, Hooks B, Litvina L, Carvalho A, Chen C. A role for stargazin in experience-dependent plasticity. Cell Rep. 2014;7:1614-1625 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a critical role for the AMPAR auxiliary subunit stargazin in this plasticity...
  57. Seo S, Leitch B. Altered thalamic GABAA-receptor subunit expression in the stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2014;55:224-32 pubmed publisher
    ..differences in GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit expression occur in the VP and RTN thalamic regions in the stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy where the primary deficit is in ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic ..
  58. Letts V, Kang M, Mahaffey C, Beyer B, Tenbrink H, Campbell K, et al. Phenotypic heterogeneity in the stargazin allelic series. Mamm Genome. 2003;14:506-13 pubmed
    The stargazer mutant mouse is characterized by its ataxic gait, head tossing, and absence seizures. The mutation was identified in the gamma 2 subunit gene of the high voltage-dependent calcium channel, Cacng2...
  59. Schwenk J, Harmel N, Brechet A, Zolles G, Berkefeld H, Müller C, et al. High-resolution proteomics unravel architecture and molecular diversity of native AMPA receptor complexes. Neuron. 2012;74:621-33 pubmed publisher
    ..6 and 1 MDa. The additional constituents change the gating properties of AMPARs and provide links to the protein dynamics fundamental for the complex role of AMPARs in formation and operation of glutamatergic synapses. ..
  60. Letts V, Mahaffey C, Beyer B, Frankel W. A targeted mutation in Cacng4 exacerbates spike-wave seizures in stargazer (Cacng2) mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2123-8 pubmed
    ..The Cacng2 gene is disrupted in the stargazer mouse, with its distinctive phenotype including ataxia, frequent absence seizure episodes, and head elevation...
  61. Fukata Y, Tzingounis A, Trinidad J, Fukata M, Burlingame A, Nicoll R, et al. Molecular constituents of neuronal AMPA receptors. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:399-404 pubmed
    ..We found that stargazin-like transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) copurified with neuronal AMPARs, but we found negligible ..
  62. Vandenberghe W, Nicoll R, Bredt D. Interaction with the unfolded protein response reveals a role for stargazin in biosynthetic AMPA receptor transport. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1095-102 pubmed
    The transmembrane protein stargazin enhances levels of functional AMPA receptors at the neuronal plasma membrane and at synapses...
  63. Sandoval A, Andrade A, Beedle A, Campbell K, Felix R. Inhibition of recombinant N-type Ca(V) channels by the gamma 2 subunit involves unfolded protein response (UPR)-dependent and UPR-independent mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3317-27 pubmed
  64. Ma T, Paul B, Fu C, Hu S, Zhu H, Blackshaw S, et al. Serine racemase regulated by binding to stargazin and PSD-95: potential N-methyl-D-aspartate-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (NMDA-AMPA) glutamate neurotransmission cross-talk. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:29631-41 pubmed publisher, we demonstrate that SR interacts with the synaptic proteins, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and stargazin, forming a ternary complex...
  65. Richardson C, Leitch B. Cerebellar Golgi, Purkinje, and basket cells have reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity in stargazer mutant mice. J Comp Neurol. 2002;453:85-99 pubmed
    The stargazer mutant mouse has characteristic ataxia and head-tossing traits coupled with a severe impairment in the acquisition of classical eye-blink conditioning (Qiao et al. [1996] J. Neurosci. 16:640-648; Qiao et al. [ 1998] J...
  66. Meng H, Gao R, Dai Q, Qiao X. Differential regulation of glutamate receptor-mediated BDNF mRNA expression in the cerebellum and its defects in stargazer mice. Neuropharmacology. 2007;53:81-91 pubmed
    ..It indicates that the BDNF expression defect in the stg cerebellum is attributable to the AMPA receptor defect caused by the stargazin mutation.
  67. Selvakumar B, Huganir R, Snyder S. S-nitrosylation of stargazin regulates surface expression of AMPA-glutamate neurotransmitter receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16440-5 pubmed publisher
    Synaptic plasticity is mediated by changes in the surface expression of AMPA receptors (AMPARs). Stargazin and related transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins have emerged as the principal regulators of AMPAR surface expression...
  68. Burgess D, Noebels J. Single gene defects in mice: the role of voltage-dependent calcium channels in absence models. Epilepsy Res. 1999;36:111-22 pubmed
    ..the calcium channel alpha1 subunit gene Cacna1a, lethargic (lh) encodes the beta subunit gene Cacnb4, and stargazer (stg) encodes the gamma subunit gene Cacng2...
  69. Nissenbaum J, Devor M, SELTZER Z, Gebauer M, Michaelis M, Tal M, et al. Susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury is genetically affected by CACNG2. Genome Res. 2010;20:1180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of stargazer mice, a Cacng2 hypomorphic mutant, provided electrophysiological and behavioral evidence for the gene's ..
  70. Qiao X, Hefti F, Knusel B, Noebels J. Selective failure of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the cerebellum of stargazer, a mutant mouse with ataxia. J Neurosci. 1996;16:640-8 pubmed
    ..BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNA expression patterns in the ataxic mutant mouse stargazer (stg)...
  71. Sullivan S, Farrant M, Cull Candy S. TARP ?-2 Is Required for Inflammation-Associated AMPA Receptor Plasticity within Lamina II of the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn. J Neurosci. 2017;37:6007-6020 pubmed publisher
    ..evoked whole-cell currents in lamina II neurons, but such currents were severely attenuated in ?-2-lacking stargazer (stg/stg) mice...
  72. Lu H, Balmer T, Romero G, Trussell L. Slow AMPAR Synaptic Transmission Is Determined by Stargazin and Glutamate Transporters. Neuron. 2017;96:73-80.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..levels subsequently fell, recovery of transmission occurred due to the presence of the AMPAR accessory protein stargazin that enhances the AMPAR response to low levels of transmitter...
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