Gene Symbol: Cacna1d
Description: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit
Alias: 8430418G19Rik, C79217, Cach3, Cacn4, Cacnl1a2, Cav1.3, Cchl1a, Cchl1a2, D-LTCC, voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D, Cav1.3alpha1, alpha 1 E, calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 polypeptide, voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha Cav1.3
Species: mouse
Products:     Cacna1d

Top Publications

  1. Xiao H, Chen X, Steele E. Abundant L-type calcium channel Ca(v)1.3 (alpha1D) subunit mRNA is detected in rod photoreceptors of the mouse retina via in situ hybridization. Mol Vis. 2007;13:764-71 pubmed
    ..3 (alpha1D) subunit or other molecules that interact with and regulate it may underlie one or more retinopathies with currently unidentified molecular etiologies. ..
  2. Chu H, Zhou X, Song H, Cui Y, Xiong H, Zhou L. [Mice lacking of voltage-gated L-type calcium channel alpha1D subunit have impaired sinoatrial node function and caused deafness]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007;21:468-72 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking of alpha1D calcium channel gene would lead to influence auditory function and sinoatrial node dysfunction subsequently. ..
  3. Singh A, Gebhart M, Fritsch R, Sinnegger Brauns M, Poggiani C, Hoda J, et al. Modulation of voltage- and Ca2+-dependent gating of CaV1.3 L-type calcium channels by alternative splicing of a C-terminal regulatory domain. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20733-44 pubmed publisher
    ..3 channel activation at lower voltages expected to favor Ca(V)1.3 activity at threshold voltages as required for modulation of neuronal firing behavior and sinoatrial node pacemaking. ..
  4. Mancarella S, Yue Y, Karnabi E, Qu Y, El Sherif N, Boutjdir M. Impaired Ca2+ homeostasis is associated with atrial fibrillation in the alpha1D L-type Ca2+ channel KO mouse. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H2017-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the mechanism leading to atrial electrical dysfunction in the alpha1D KO mice. ..
  5. Frank T, Khimich D, Neef A, Moser T. Mechanisms contributing to synaptic Ca2+ signals and their heterogeneity in hair cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that IHCs adjust the number and the gating of Ca(V)1.3 channels at their active zones to diversify their transmitter release rates. ..
  6. Namkung Y, Skrypnyk N, Jeong M, Lee T, Lee M, Kim H, et al. Requirement for the L-type Ca(2+) channel alpha(1D) subunit in postnatal pancreatic beta cell generation. J Clin Invest. 2001;108:1015-22 pubmed
  7. Brandt A, Striessnig J, Moser T. CaV1.3 channels are essential for development and presynaptic activity of cochlear inner hair cells. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10832-40 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CaV1.3 channels are essential for normal hair cell development and synaptic transmission. ..
  8. Danecek P, Nellåker C, McIntyre R, Buendia Buendia J, Bumpstead S, Ponting C, et al. High levels of RNA-editing site conservation amongst 15 laboratory mouse strains. Genome Biol. 2012;13:26 pubmed publisher
    ..We validated 24 novel RNA editing sites in coding sequence, including two non-synonymous edits in the Cacna1d gene that fell into the IQ domain portion of the Cav1...
  9. Calin Jageman I, Yu K, Hall R, Mei L, Lee A. Erbin enhances voltage-dependent facilitation of Ca(v)1.3 Ca2+ channels through relief of an autoinhibitory domain in the Ca(v)1.3 alpha1 subunit. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1374-85 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which PDZ interactions and alternative splicing of alpha1 1.3 may influence activity-dependent regulation of Ca(v)1.3 channels at the synapse. ..

More Information


  1. Tan B, Jiang F, Tan M, Yu D, Huang H, Shen Y, et al. Functional characterization of alternative splicing in the C terminus of L-type CaV1.3 channels. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, alternative splicing in the C terminus of Ca(V)1.3 channels modulates its electrophysiological properties, which could in turn alter neuronal firing properties and functions. ..
  2. Striessnig J, Koschak A, Sinnegger Brauns M, Hetzenauer A, Nguyen N, Busquet P, et al. Role of voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel isoforms for brain function. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:903-9 pubmed
    ..The results described here also allow predictions about the pharmacotherapeutic potential of isoform-selective LTCC modulators. ..
  3. Vandael D, Zuccotti A, Striessnig J, Carbone E. Ca(V)1.3-driven SK channel activation regulates pacemaking and spike frequency adaptation in mouse chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16345-59 pubmed publisher
    ..3 slows down MCC firing by activating SK channels that maintain Na(V) channel availability high enough to preserve stable AP waveforms, even upon high-frequency stimulation of chromaffin cells during stress responses. ..
  4. Olson P, Tkatch T, Hernandez Lopez S, Ulrich S, Ilijic E, Mugnaini E, et al. G-protein-coupled receptor modulation of striatal CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels is dependent on a Shank-binding domain. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1050-62 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that Shank promotes the assembly of a signaling complex at corticostriatal synapses that enables key GPCRs to regulate L-type Ca2+ channels and the integration of glutamatergic synaptic events...
  5. Ilijic E, Guzman J, Surmeier D. The L-type channel antagonist isradipine is neuroprotective in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;43:364-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis revealed that isradipine produced a dose-dependent sparing of DA fibers and cell bodies at concentrations achievable in humans, suggesting that isradipine is a potentially viable neuroprotective agent for PD. ..
  6. Michna M, Knirsch M, Hoda J, Muenkner S, Langer P, Platzer J, et al. Cav1.3 (alpha1D) Ca2+ currents in neonatal outer hair cells of mice. J Physiol. 2003;553:747-58 pubmed
    ..Single cell RT-PCR revealed expression of Cav1.3 in OHCs. In OHCs from Cav1.3-/- mice, Ba2+ current density was reduced to 0.6 +/- 0.5 pA pF-1 (n = 9) indicating that > 97 % of the Ca2+ channel current in OHCs flows through Cav1.3. ..
  7. Clark N, Nagano N, Kuenzi F, Jarolimek W, Huber I, Walter D, et al. Neurological phenotype and synaptic function in mice lacking the CaV1.3 alpha subunit of neuronal L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Neuroscience. 2003;120:435-42 pubmed
    ..3 alpha 1 subunit expression there is sufficient residual activity of other Ca2+ channel subtypes to support NMDA receptor-independent long-term potentiation and some forms of sensory behavior/function. ..
  8. Mangoni M, Couette B, Bourinet E, Platzer J, Reimer D, Striessnig J, et al. Functional role of L-type Cav1.3 Ca2+ channels in cardiac pacemaker activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5543-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that Ca(v)1.3 channels play a major role in the generation of cardiac pacemaker activity by contributing to diastolic depolarization in SAN pacemaker cells. ..
  9. Mahapatra S, Marcantoni A, Vandael D, Striessnig J, Carbone E. Are Ca(v)1.3 pacemaker channels in chromaffin cells? Possible bias from resting cell conditions and DHP blockers usage. Channels (Austin). 2011;5:219-24 pubmed
    ..3 and Ca(v)1.2 as pacemaker channels in MCCs. ..
  10. Lieb A, Scharinger A, Sartori S, Sinnegger Brauns M, Striessnig J. Structural determinants of CaV1.3 L-type calcium channel gating. Channels (Austin). 2012;6:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..3(scg) mutations in rat superior cervical ganglion preparations. However, the rCa(v)1.3(scg) variant provided interesting insight into the structural machinery involved in Ca(v)1.3 gating. ..
  11. Williams M, Marubio L, Deal C, Hans M, Brust P, Philipson L, et al. Structure and functional characterization of neuronal alpha 1E calcium channel subtypes. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:22347-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, alpha 1E-mediated Ca2+ channels appear to be a pharmacologically distinct class of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. ..
  12. Koschak A, Obermair G, Pivotto F, Sinnegger Brauns M, Striessnig J, Pietrobon D. Molecular nature of anomalous L-type calcium channels in mouse cerebellar granule cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3855-63 pubmed
    ..2005), we discuss the hypothesis that anomalous rather than cardiac-type Ca(v)1.2 channels are specifically involved in LTCC-dependent and gene transcription-dependent LTP. ..
  13. Platzer J, Engel J, Schrott Fischer A, Stephan K, Bova S, Chen H, et al. Congenital deafness and sinoatrial node dysfunction in mice lacking class D L-type Ca2+ channels. Cell. 2000;102:89-97 pubmed
    ..We conclude that alpha1D can form LTCCs with negative activation thresholds essential for normal auditory function and control of cardiac pacemaker activity. ..
  14. Chan C, Guzman J, Ilijic E, Mercer J, Rick C, Tkatch T, et al. 'Rejuvenation' protects neurons in mouse models of Parkinson's disease. Nature. 2007;447:1081-6 pubmed
    ..Such blocking ('rejuvenation') protects these neurons in both in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease, pointing to a new strategy that could slow or stop the progression of the disease. ..
  15. Zhang H, Fu Y, Altier C, Platzer J, Surmeier D, Bezprozvanny I. Ca1.2 and CaV1.3 neuronal L-type calcium channels: differential targeting and signaling to pCREB. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:2297-310 pubmed
    ..3 channels play a more important role in pCREB signaling in striatal medium spiny neurons than in hippocampal neurons. Our results provide novel insights into the function of CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels in the brain. ..
  16. Helton T, Xu W, Lipscombe D. Neuronal L-type calcium channels open quickly and are inhibited slowly. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10247-51 pubmed
  17. McKinney B, Sze W, Lee B, Murphy G. Impaired long-term potentiation and enhanced neuronal excitability in the amygdala of Ca(V)1.3 knockout mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;92:519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate altered neuronal function in the BLA of Ca(V)1.3 knockout mice which may account for the impaired ability of these mice to consolidate contextually-conditioned fear. ..
  18. Marcantoni A, Vandael D, Mahapatra S, Carabelli V, Sinnegger Brauns M, Striessnig J, et al. Loss of Cav1.3 channels reveals the critical role of L-type and BK channel coupling in pacemaking mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 2010;30:491-504 pubmed publisher
    ..2, as subthreshold pacemaker channels in MCCs and open new interesting features about their role in the control of firing and catecholamine secretion at rest and during sustained stimulations matching acute stress. ..
  19. Koschak A. Impact of gating modulation in CaV1.3 L-type calcium channels. Channels (Austin). 2010;4:523-5 pubmed
    ..This mechanism was elicited during analysis of human C-terminal splice variants that differ in the length of their C-terminus and that modulates the channel's negative activation range and slows calcium-dependent inactivation. ..
  20. Murakami M, Nakagawasai O, Suzuki T, Mobarakeh I, Sakurada Y, Murata A, et al. Antinociceptive effect of different types of calcium channel inhibitors and the distribution of various calcium channel alpha 1 subunits in the dorsal horn of spinal cord in mice. Brain Res. 2004;1024:122-9 pubmed
    ..The results of this study revealed the localization and functions of several calcium channels that are involved in nociceptive neurotransmission within the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. ..
  21. Pérez Alvarez A, Hernández Vivanco A, Caba González J, Albillos A. Different roles attributed to Cav1 channel subtypes in spontaneous action potential firing and fine tuning of exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 2011;116:105-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal the key yet differential roles of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels in mediating action potential firing and exocytotic events in the neuroendocrine chromaffin cell. ..
  22. Marshall M, Clark J, Westenbroek R, Yu F, Scheuer T, Catterall W. Functional roles of a C-terminal signaling complex of CaV1 channels and A-kinase anchoring protein 15 in brain neurons. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12627-39 pubmed publisher
    ..2 channels in vivo: increased functional expression, anchoring of AKAP15 and PKA, and initiation of excitation-transcription coupling. ..
  23. McKinney B, Murphy G. The L-Type voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.3 mediates consolidation, but not extinction, of contextually conditioned fear in mice. Learn Mem. 2006;13:584-9 pubmed
    ..3 knockout mice is not likely the result of an inability to encode the context, but may reflect an inability to make the association between the context and the unconditioned stimulus. ..
  24. Zhang Q, Timofeyev V, Qiu H, Lu L, Li N, Singapuri A, et al. Expression and roles of Cav1.3 (?1D) L-type Ca²+ channel in atrioventricular node automaticity. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;50:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..3 isoform in the AV node of Ca(v)1.3 null mutant mice. Thus, our study demonstrates that the distinct biophysical properties of Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) channel play critical roles in the firing frequency of AV node tissues. ..
  25. Lu L, Zhang Q, Timofeyev V, Zhang Z, Young J, Shin H, et al. Molecular coupling of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel to L-type Ca2+ channels via alpha-actinin2. Circ Res. 2007;100:112-20 pubmed
  26. Jing Z, Rutherford M, Takago H, Frank T, Fejtova A, Khimich D, et al. Disruption of the presynaptic cytomatrix protein bassoon degrades ribbon anchorage, multiquantal release, and sound encoding at the hair cell afferent synapse. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4456-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the remaining loosely anchored ribbons in Bsn(gt) IHCs were functionally inadequate or that ribbon independent mechanisms dominated the coding deficit. ..
  27. Gregory F, Pangrsic T, Calin Jageman I, Moser T, Lee A. Harmonin enhances voltage-dependent facilitation of Cav1.3 channels and synchronous exocytosis in mouse inner hair cells. J Physiol. 2013;591:3253-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results indicate a multifaceted presynaptic role of harmonin in IHCs in regulating Cav1.3 Ca(2+) channels and exocytosis. ..
  28. Reynolds J, Chiang D, Wang W, Beavers D, Dixit S, Skapura D, et al. Junctophilin-2 is necessary for T-tubule maturation during mouse heart development. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, JPH2 may be critical in anchoring the invaginating sarcolemma to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby enabling the maturation of the TT network. ..
  29. Strauß O, Reichhart N, Gómez N, Müller C. Contribution of Ion Channels in Calcium Signaling Regulating Phagocytosis: MaxiK, Cav1.3 and Bestrophin-1. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;854:739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we suggest that mutant bestrophin-1 leads to an impaired regulation of the POS phagocytosis by the RPE which would explain the fast lipofuscin accumulation in Best patients. ..
  30. Meza U, Beqollari D, Romberg C, Papadopoulos S, Bannister R. Potent inhibition of L-type Ca2+ currents by a Rad variant associated with congestive heart failure. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;439:270-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our results do not rule out the possibility that decreased expression, mistargeting or altered regulation of Rad Q66P may reduce the RGK protein's efficacy in vivo. ..
  31. Sun X, Yuan J, Jin T, Cheng X, Wang Q, Guo J, et al. Physical and functional interaction of Snapin with Cav1.3 calcium channel impacts channel protein trafficking in atrial myocytes. Cell Signal. 2017;30:118-129 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the evidence of a direct regulatory role of Snapin on Cav1.3 channels in atrial myocytes, and highlight a potential role of Snapin in the regulation of Cav1.3 in atrial arrhythmogenesis. ..
  32. Yamasaki S, Hasegawa A, Hojyo S, Ohashi W, Fukada T, Nishida K, et al. A novel role of the L-type calcium channel ?1D subunit as a gatekeeper for intracellular zinc signaling: zinc wave. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39654 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that the LTCC ?(1D) subunit located on the ER membrane has a novel function as a gatekeeper for the Zn wave, which is involved in regulating NF-?B signaling and the delayed-type allergic reaction. ..
  33. Christel C, Cardona N, Mesirca P, Herrmann S, Hofmann F, Striessnig J, et al. Distinct localization and modulation of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels in mouse sinoatrial node. J Physiol. 2012;590:6327-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that strong VDF and colocalization with ryanodine receptors in mouse SAN cells are unique properties that may underlie a specific role for Ca(v)1.3 in opposing abnormal slowing of heart rate. ..
  34. Adamson M, Dennis C, Delaney S, Christiansen J, Monkley S, Kozak C, et al. Isolation and genetic mapping of two novel members of the murine Wnt gene family, Wnt11 and Wnt12, and the mapping of Wnt5a and Wnt7a. Genomics. 1994;24:9-13 pubmed
    ..Interspecific crosses were used to demonstrate close linkage between Wnt12 and Wnt1 on Chromosome (Chr) 15. Wnt7a was mapped to mouse Chr 6, Wnt5a to the centromeric region of Chr 14, and Wnt11 to Chr7. ..
  35. Replogle R, Li Q, Wang L, Zhang M, Fleet J. Gene-by-diet interactions influence calcium absorption and bone density in mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29:657-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations lay the groundwork for discovery-focused initiatives to identify novel genetic factors controlling gene-by-diet interactions affecting Ca/bone metabolism. ..
  36. Berkowitz B, Murphy G, CRAFT C, Surmeier D, Roberts R. Genetic dissection of horizontal cell inhibitory signaling in mice in complete darkness in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:3132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dark-adapted wild-type (wt), CACNA1F (Ca(v)1.4(-/-)), arrestin-1 (Arr1(-/-)), and CACNA1D (Ca(v)1.3(-/-)) C57Bl/6 mice were studied...
  37. Jung S, Oshima Takago T, Chakrabarti R, Wong A, Jing Z, Yamanbaeva G, et al. Rab3-interacting molecules 2α and 2β promote the abundance of voltage-gated CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels at hair cell active zones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E3141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that RIM2α and RIM2β promote a large complement of synaptic Ca(2+) channels at IHC AZs and are required for normal hearing. ..
  38. Dou H, Vazquez A, Namkung Y, Chu H, Cardell E, Nie L, et al. Null mutation of alpha1D Ca2+ channel gene results in deafness but no vestibular defect in mice. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2004;5:215-26 pubmed
  39. Mesirca P, Bidaud I, Briec F, Evain S, Torrente A, Le Quang K, et al. G protein-gated IKACh channels as therapeutic targets for treatment of sick sinus syndrome and heart block. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E932-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that patients affected by SSS and heart block may benefit from IKACh suppression achieved by gene therapy or selective pharmacological inhibition. ..
  40. Bernardi R, Uhrig S, Spanagel R, Hansson A. Transcriptional regulation of L-type calcium channel subtypes Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 by nicotine and their potential role in nicotine sensitization. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014;16:774-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Nifedipine may counteract those nicotine-induced alterations in LTCC activity to impair nicotine sensitization. ..
  41. Tchekalarova J, Albrecht D. Angiotensin II suppresses long-term depression in the lateral amygdala of mice via L-type calcium channels. Neurosci Lett. 2007;415:68-72 pubmed
    ..The results support the view that angiotensins are involved in mechanisms of learning and memory including the plasticity changes in the LA. ..
  42. Moha Ou Maati H, Widmann C, Sedjelmaci D, Gallois B, Gallois D, Heurteaux C, et al. Mapacalcine protects mouse neurons against hypoxia by blocking cell calcium overload. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66194 pubmed publisher
    ..The protective effect was confirmed by measuring the cell survival rate after Oxygen Glucose Deprivation condition. Our data indicate that mapacalcine is a promising molecule for stroke treatment. ..
  43. Engel J, Braig C, Ruttiger L, Kuhn S, Zimmermann U, Blin N, et al. Two classes of outer hair cells along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea. Neuroscience. 2006;143:837-49 pubmed
    ..Our findings propose new mechanisms and candidate genes for explaining high and low frequency hearing loss. ..
  44. Ino M, Yoshinaga T, Wakamori M, Miyamoto N, Takahashi E, Sonoda J, et al. Functional disorders of the sympathetic nervous system in mice lacking the alpha 1B subunit (Cav 2.2) of N-type calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:5323-8 pubmed
  45. Yang G, Shi Y, Yu J, Li Y, Yu L, Welling A, et al. CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 channel hyperactivation in mouse islet β cells exposed to type 1 diabetic serum. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015;72:1197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that T1D serum hyperactivates both CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 channels by increasing their conductivity and number. These findings suggest CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 channels as potential targets for anti-diabetes therapy. ..
  46. Lu D, Li Y, Bathgate R, Day M, O Neill C. Ligand-activated signal transduction in the 2-cell embryo. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:106-16 pubmed
    ..The activation of a voltage-gated L-type calcium channel in the 2-cell embryo is required for normal signal transduction to an embryonic trophic factor. ..
  47. Zhang Z, Xu Y, Song H, Rodriguez J, Tuteja D, Namkung Y, et al. Functional Roles of Ca(v)1.3 (alpha(1D)) calcium channel in sinoatrial nodes: insight gained using gene-targeted null mutant mice. Circ Res. 2002;90:981-7 pubmed
    ..3 Ca(2+) channel. In summary, using gene-targeted deletion of the Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) channel, we were able to establish a role for Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) channels in the generation of the spontaneous action potential in SA node cells. ..
  48. Vincent P, Bouleau Y, Petit C, Dulon D. A synaptic F-actin network controls otoferlin-dependent exocytosis in auditory inner hair cells. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
  49. Rose R, Sellan M, Simpson J, Izaddoustdar F, Cifelli C, Panama B, et al. Iron overload decreases CaV1.3-dependent L-type Ca2+ currents leading to bradycardia, altered electrical conduction, and atrial fibrillation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011;4:733-42 pubmed publisher
    ..3 knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that CIO selectively reduces Ca(V)1.3-mediated I(Ca,L), leading to bradycardia, slowing of electrical conduction, and atrial fibrillation as seen in patients with iron overload. ..
  50. Perez Reyes E, Wei X, Castellano A, Birnbaumer L. Molecular diversity of L-type calcium channels. Evidence for alternative splicing of the transcripts of three non-allelic genes. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:20430-6 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that calcium channel diversity is created by both the expression of distinct genes and the alternate splicing of these genes...
  51. Sagala F, Harnack D, Bobrov E, Sohr R, Gertler C, James Surmeier D, et al. Neurochemical characterization of the striatum and the nucleus accumbens in L-type Ca(v)1.3 channels knockout mice. Neurochem Int. 2012;60:229-32 pubmed publisher
    ..3 channel subunit (CACNA1D) and compared to those in wild-type mice. Striatal DA level did not differ between the two groups...
  52. Du T, Liang C, Li B, Hertz L, Peng L. Chronic fluoxetine administration increases expression of the L-channel gene Cav1.2 in astrocytes from the brain of treated mice and in culture and augments K(+)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Cell Calcium. 2014;55:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown a similar effect after fluoxetine treatment, but it becomes overridden by the Cav1.2 up-regulation. ..
  53. Glueckert R, Wietzorrek G, Kammen Jolly K, Scholtz A, Stephan K, Striessnig J, et al. Role of class D L-type Ca2+ channels for cochlear morphology. Hear Res. 2003;178:95-105 pubmed
    ..The observed pattern of degeneration involves afferent nerve fibres (P7) followed by cell bodies in the spiral ganglion (P15), OHCs (P15) and IHCs (after P15). ..
  54. Chu H, McIver E, Kovaleski R, Atherton J, Bevan M. Loss of Hyperdirect Pathway Cortico-Subthalamic Inputs Following Degeneration of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. Neuron. 2017;95:1306-1318.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data suggest that loss of dopamine triggers a maladaptive shift in the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition in the STN, which contributes to parkinsonian activity and motor dysfunction. ..
  55. Maddala R, Nagendran T, de Ridder G, Schey K, Rao P. L-type calcium channels play a critical role in maintaining lens transparency by regulating phosphorylation of aquaporin-0 and myosin light chain and expression of connexins. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64676 pubmed publisher
  56. Sato T, Qin Y, Kozak C, Audus K. Tie-1 and tie-2 define another class of putative receptor tyrosine kinase genes expressed in early embryonic vascular system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:9355-8 pubmed
  57. Müller C, Más Gómez N, Ruth P, Strauss O. CaV1.3 L-type channels, maxiK Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels and bestrophin-1 regulate rhythmic photoreceptor outer segment phagocytosis by retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cell Signal. 2014;26:968-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate further the importance of BK and CaV1.3 for rhythmic phagocytic activity synchronized with photoreceptor shedding. ..
  58. Xu J, Yang Z, Wang H, Tang F. Co-localization of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel alpha 1D subunit (Ca(v)1.3) and calbindin (CB) in the mouse central nervous system. Neurosci Lett. 2014;561:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..3 with CB in the laminae II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord indicate that the regulation mechanism of nociceptive transmission may be related with both VDCC and Ca(2+) binding protein. ..
  59. Fell B, Eckrich S, Blum K, Eckrich T, Hecker D, Obermair G, et al. ?2?2 Controls the Function and Trans-Synaptic Coupling of Cav1.3 Channels in Mouse Inner Hair Cells and Is Essential for Normal Hearing. J Neurosci. 2016;36:11024-11036 pubmed
    ..This suggests that ?2?2 plays a novel role in organizing the synapse. ..
  60. Gebhart M, Juhasz Vedres G, Zuccotti A, Brandt N, Engel J, Trockenbacher A, et al. Modulation of Cav1.3 Ca2+ channel gating by Rab3 interacting molecule. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:246-59 pubmed publisher
    ..3 currents which should allow these channels to carry a substantial window current during prolonged depolarizations. These data suggest that RIM2 contributes to the stabilization of Ca(v)1.3 gating kinetics in immature IHCs. ..
  61. Ko M, Shi L, Tsai J, Young M, Neuendorff N, Earnest D, et al. Cardiac-specific mutation of Clock alters the quantitative measurements of physical activities without changing behavioral circadian rhythms. J Biol Rhythms. 2011;26:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that the cardiac core oscillators have an impact in regulating circadian rhythmicities and cardiac function. ..
  62. Navedo M, Amberg G, Westenbroek R, Sinnegger Brauns M, Catterall W, Striessnig J, et al. Ca(v)1.3 channels produce persistent calcium sparklets, but Ca(v)1.2 channels are responsible for sparklets in mouse arterial smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1359-70 pubmed
    ..We conclude that although Ca(v)1.3 channels can produce Ca(2+) sparklets, Ca(v)1.2 channels underlie I(Ca), Ca(2+) sparklets, and hence dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca(2+) influx in mouse arterial myocytes. ..
  63. Okamoto T, Kobayashi T, Hino O. Cloning of the Cav 1.3 (alpha1D) L-type Ca2+ channel from mouse and its expression in the liver. Int J Mol Med. 2004;13:573-6 pubmed
    ..The present results indicated that mouse Cav 1.3 exhibited 96% homology with human Cav 1.3 and was expressed in the liver. Thus, mouse hepatitis model seemed to be useful to screen DHP-CCB specific for Cav 1.3. ..
  64. Sun Y, Zhang H, Selvaraj S, Sukumaran P, Lei S, Birnbaumer L, et al. Inhibition of L-Type Ca2+ Channels by TRPC1-STIM1 Complex Is Essential for the Protection of Dopaminergic Neurons. J Neurosci. 2017;37:3364-3377 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings link TRPC1 to Cav1.3 regulation and provide important indications about how disrupting Ca2+ balance could have a direct implication in the treatment of Parkinson's patients. ..
  65. Kersten F, Van Wijk E, van Reeuwijk J, van der Zwaag B, Märker T, Peters T, et al. Association of whirlin with Cav1.3 (alpha1D) channels in photoreceptors, defining a novel member of the usher protein network. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2338-46 pubmed publisher
    ..During murine embryonic development, the expression patterns of the Whrn and Cacna1d genes show significant overlap and include expression in the eye, the inner ear, and the central nervous system...
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    ..2 expression. These findings indicate that absence of the carboxyl-terminal tail differentially determines the fate of the cardiac and smooth muscle splice variant of the CaV1.2 channel in the mouse. ..
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    ..atrial cardiomyocytes was further supported by induction of ion channels encoded by Kcnj3, Kcnj5, and Cacna1d genes and establishment of atrial-like action potentials shown by electrophysiological recordings...
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    ..3(-/-) littermates. Our results identify Ca(V)1.3 as the principal pore-forming subunit of VDCCs involved in stimulating the ERG LP. ..
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    ..This suggests that there is a structure-function relationship between the alpha(1D) subunit of the L type Ca(2+) channel and the exocytotic machinery in the pancreatic beta cell. ..
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    ..Together, our findings provide evidence for a Ca(V)1.3-dependent mechanism through which both inhibitory circuit formation and determination of the neurotransmitter phenotype are achieved. ..
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