Gene Symbol: C4b
Description: complement component 4B (Chido blood group)
Alias: complement C4-B, complement component 4 (within H-2S), complement component 4B (Childo blood group)
Species: mouse
Products:     C4b

Top Publications

  1. Schwaeble W, Lynch N, Clark J, Marber M, Samani N, Ali Y, et al. Targeting of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 confers protection from myocardial and gastrointestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutic effects of MASP-2 inhibition in this experimental model suggest the utility of anti-MASP-2 antibody therapy in reperfusion injury and other lectin pathway-mediated disorders. ..
  2. Gadjeva M, Verschoor A, Brockman M, Jezak H, Shen L, Knipe D, et al. Macrophage-derived complement component C4 can restore humoral immunity in C4-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2002;169:5489-95 pubmed
    ..Cell-sorting experiments, followed by C4-specific RT-PCR, identified splenic macrophages (CD11b(+), CD11c(-)) as a cellular source for C4 synthesis within the spleen. ..
  3. Pattanakitsakul S, Zheng J, Natsuume Sakai S, Takahashi M, Nonaka M. Aberrant splicing caused by the insertion of the B2 sequence into an intron of the complement C4 gene is the basis for low C4 production in H-2k mice. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:7814-20 pubmed
  4. Fischer M, Ma M, Goerg S, Zhou X, Xia J, Finco O, et al. Regulation of the B cell response to T-dependent antigens by classical pathway complement. J Immunol. 1996;157:549-56 pubmed
    ..e., C3b and C3d to the Ag-Ab complex, increases its immunogenicity. ..
  5. Wessels M, Butko P, Ma M, Warren H, Lage A, Carroll M. Studies of group B streptococcal infection in mice deficient in complement component C3 or C4 demonstrate an essential role for complement in both innate and acquired immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11490-4 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the increased susceptibility to infection of non-immune mice deficient in either C3 or C4 implies that the classical pathway plays an essential role in host defense against GBS infection in the absence of specific immunity. ..
  6. Chen Z, Koralov S, Kelsoe G. Complement C4 inhibits systemic autoimmunity through a mechanism independent of complement receptors CR1 and CR2. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1339-52 pubmed
    ..Clearance of circulating ICs is impaired in preautoimmune C4(-)(/)-, but not Cr2(-)(/)-, mice. C4 deficiency causes spontaneous, lupus-like autoimmunity through a mechanism that is independent of CR1/CR2. ..
  7. Ochsenbein A, Pinschewer D, Odermatt B, Carroll M, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel R. Protective T cell-independent antiviral antibody responses are dependent on complement. J Exp Med. 1999;190:1165-74 pubmed
    ..Absence of the early neutralizing antibody responses, together with the reduced efficiency of neutralizing IgM in C3(-/-) mice, led to a drastically enhanced susceptibility to disease after infection with VSV. ..
  8. Trendelenburg M, Fossati Jimack L, Cortes Hernandez J, Turnberg D, Lewis M, Izui S, et al. The role of complement in cryoglobulin-induced immune complex glomerulonephritis. J Immunol. 2005;175:6909-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, blocking C5 is a potential therapeutic strategy for preventing renal injury in cryoglobulinemia. ..
  9. Mehlhop E, Diamond M. Protective immune responses against West Nile virus are primed by distinct complement activation pathways. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1371-81 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that individual pathways of complement activation control WNV infection by priming adaptive immune responses through distinct mechanisms. ..

More Information


  1. Paul E, Pozdnyakova O, Mitchell E, Carroll M. Anti-DNA autoreactivity in C4-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2672-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that C4 normally helps prevent early stages of autoimmune disease and that C4 deficiency predisposes to abnormal regulation of autoreactive B cells. ..
  2. Peng Q, Li K, Anderson K, Farrar C, Lu B, Smith R, et al. Local production and activation of complement up-regulates the allostimulatory function of dendritic cells through C3a-C3aR interaction. Blood. 2008;111:2452-61 pubmed
    ..This mechanism, in addition to underpinning the cell-autonomous action of donor C3 on allostimulation, has implications for a wider range of immune responses in self-restricted T-cell priming. ..
  3. Zheng J, Takahashi M, Nonaka M. Tissue-specific RNA processing for the complement C4 gene transcript in the H-2k mouse strain. Immunogenetics. 1993;37:390-3 pubmed
  4. Taylor P, Carugati A, Fadok V, Cook H, Andrews M, Carroll M, et al. A hierarchical role for classical pathway complement proteins in the clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. J Exp Med. 2000;192:359-66 pubmed
    ..Apoptotic cells are thought to be a major source of the autoantigens of SLE, and impairment of their removal by complement may explain the link between hereditary complement deficiency and the development of SLE. ..
  5. Einav S, Pozdnyakova O, Ma M, Carroll M. Complement C4 is protective for lupus disease independent of C3. J Immunol. 2002;168:1036-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, complement C4 provides an important protective role against the development of SLE. ..
  6. Ebanks R, Isenman D. Mouse complement component C4 is devoid of classical pathway C5 convertase subunit activity. Mol Immunol. 1996;33:297-309 pubmed
    ..beta-chain residues 455-469, a putatively exposed hydrophilic segment, in contributing to a C5 binding site in the C4b subunit of the classical pathway C5 convertase, C4b3b2a...
  7. Lin T, Zhou W, Farrar C, Hargreaves R, Sheerin N, Sacks S. Deficiency of C4 from donor or recipient mouse fails to prevent renal allograft rejection. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:1241-8 pubmed
  8. Shields K, Stolz D, Watkins S, Ahearn J. Complement proteins C3 and C4 bind to collagen and elastin in the vascular wall: a potential role in vascular stiffness and atherosclerosis. Clin Transl Sci. 2011;4:146-52 pubmed publisher
  9. Banda N, Takahashi M, Levitt B, Glogowska M, Nicholas J, Takahashi K, et al. Essential role of complement mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases-1/3 in the murine collagen antibody-induced model of inflammatory arthritis. J Immunol. 2010;185:5598-606 pubmed publisher
  10. Haas K, Poe J, Tedder T. CD21/35 promotes protective immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae through a complement-independent but CD19-dependent pathway that regulates PD-1 expression. J Immunol. 2009;183:3661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereby, CD21/35 promotes protective humoral immunity to S. pneumoniae and other strong TI-2 Ags through a complement-independent pathway by negatively regulating CD19 expression and PD-1 induction. ..
  11. Levi Strauss M, Carroll M, Steinmetz M, Meo T. A previously undetected MHC gene with an unusual periodic structure. Science. 1988;240:201-4 pubmed
  12. Fox J, Bergeron M, Haston C. Genetic deficiency in complement component 4b does not alter radiation-induced lung disease in mice. Radiat Res. 2013;179:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The pulmonary phenotype of C57BL/6 C4b(-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates was assessed following an 18 Gy single dose to the thoracic cavity...
  13. Natsuume Sakai S, Moriwaki K, Migita S, Sudo K, Suzuki K, Lu D, et al. Structural polymorphism of murine factor B controlled by a locus closely linked to the H-2 complex and demonstration of multiple alleles. Immunogenetics. 1983;18:117-24 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that murine Bf was controlled by a single codominant locus located close to the H-2 complex because no mouse showing recombination between Bf locus and S locus was found. ..
  14. Nelson K, Zhao M, Schroeder P, Li N, Wetsel R, Diaz L, et al. Role of different pathways of the complement cascade in experimental bullous pemphigoid. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2892-900 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first direct evidence to our knowledge that complement activation via the classical and alternative pathways is crucial in subepidermal blister formation in experimental BP. ..
  15. Taylor P, Pickering M, Kosco Vilbois M, Walport M, Botto M, Gordon S, et al. The follicular dendritic cell restricted epitope, FDC-M2, is complement C4; localization of immune complexes in mouse tissues. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:1888-96 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that mAb209, in addition to its role as an FDC marker, is a valuable reagent for the analysis of complement deposition in vivo. ..
  16. Ogata R. Structure and expression of murine fourth complement component (C4) and sex-limited protein (Slp). Immunol Rev. 1985;87:101-22 pubmed
    ..This work has provided the tools and a framework for future studies aimed at understanding the multiple functions of the C4 protein and the regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression of the C4 and Slp genes. ..
  17. Yammani R, Leyva M, Jennings R, Haas K. C4 Deficiency is a predisposing factor for Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced autoantibody production. J Immunol. 2014;193:5434-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results show an important role for C4 in suppressing autoantibody production elicited by cross-reactive Ags and TLR2 agonists associated with S. pneumoniae. ..
  18. Subramanian S, Yim Y, Liu K, Tus K, Zhou X, Wakeland E. Epistatic suppression of systemic lupus erythematosus: fine mapping of Sles1 to less than 1 mb. J Immunol. 2005;175:1062-72 pubmed
    ..Sle1 Sles1)F(1)s. These findings localize and characterize the suppressive properties of Sles1 and implicate 129 as a useful strain for aiding in the identification of this elusive epistatic modifier gene. ..
  19. Chiu I, Phatnani H, Kuligowski M, Tapia J, Carrasco M, Zhang M, et al. Activation of innate and humoral immunity in the peripheral nervous system of ALS transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20960-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a progressive innate and humoral immune response in peripheral nerves that is separate and distinct from spinal cord immune activation in ALS transgenic mice. ..
  20. Chatterjee P, Agyemang A, Alimzhanov M, Degn S, Tsiftsoglou S, Alicot E, et al. Complement C4 maintains peripheral B-cell tolerance in a myeloid cell dependent manner. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2441-2450 pubmed publisher
  21. Mattsson J, Yrlid U, Stensson A, Schon K, Karlsson M, Ravetch J, et al. Complement activation and complement receptors on follicular dendritic cells are critical for the function of a targeted adjuvant. J Immunol. 2011;187:3641-52 pubmed publisher
  22. Sertic J, Vincek V, Ledley F, Figueroa F, Klein J. Mapping of the L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase gene to mouse chromosome 17. Genomics. 1990;6:560-4 pubmed
    ..06 cM distal to H-2, between Pgk-2 and Ce-2. The relative order of syntenic probes flanking H-2 on mouse chromosome 17 and HLA on human chromosome 6 is shown to be different. ..
  23. van den Berg C, Demant P, Aerts P, Van Dijk H. Slp is an essential component of an EDTA-resistant activation pathway of mouse complement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:10711-5 pubmed
    ..Selective depletion of other complement components suggested a role for C1s-, C2, and C5, but not C3, in the Slp-dependent complement activation. A model for this type of mouse complement activation is presented. ..
  24. Takahashi M, Natsuume Sakai S, Nonaka M, Tanaka S, Shimizu A, Honjo T. Isolation of cDNA clones specifying the fourth component of mouse complement and its isotype, sex-limited protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:6822-6 pubmed
    ..A remarkable divergency between C4 and Slp sequences was recognized in the region immediately following the C4a sequence. ..
  25. Baudino L, Sardini A, Ruseva M, Fossati Jimack L, Cook H, Scott D, et al. C3 opsonization regulates endocytic handling of apoptotic cells resulting in enhanced T-cell responses to cargo-derived antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that activated C3 may act as a "chaperone" in the intracellular processing of an apoptotic cargo and, thus, may modulate the T-cell response to self-antigens displayed on dying cells. ..
  26. Faust K, Finke D, Klempt Giessing K, Randers K, Zachrau B, Schlenke P, et al. Antigen-induced B cell apoptosis is independent of complement C4. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;150:132-9 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, no difference was observed between wild-type and complement C4-deficient animals in the number of apoptotic cells, restoration of antibody levels and memory response. ..
  27. Wenderfer S, Soimo K, Wetsel R, Braun M. Analysis of C4 and the C4 binding protein in the MRL/lpr mouse. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9:R114 pubmed
    ..Given that immune complex renal injury in the MRL/lpr mouse is independent of Fc receptors as well as the major negative regulator of the classical pathway, new mechanisms for immune-complex-mediated renal injury need to be considered...
  28. Ramos T, Darley M, Weckbach S, Stahel P, Tomlinson S, Barnum S. The C5 convertase is not required for activation of the terminal complement pathway in murine experimental cerebral malaria. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24734-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that activation of C5 in ECM likely occurs via coagulation enzymes of the extrinsic protease pathway. ..
  29. Fossati Jimack L, Ling G, Baudino L, Szajna M, Manivannan K, Zhao J, et al. Intranasal peptide-induced tolerance and linked suppression: consequences of complement deficiency. Immunology. 2015;144:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that the classical pathway and C3 play a critical role in the peptide-mediated induction of tolerance to HY by modulating DC function. ..
  30. Farrar C, Tran D, Li K, Wu W, Peng Q, Schwaeble W, et al. Collectin-11 detects stress-induced L-fucose pattern to trigger renal epithelial injury. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:1911-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Given these results, we conclude that lectin complement pathway activation triggered by ligand-CL-11 interaction in postischemic tissue is a potent source of acute kidney injury and is amenable to sugar-specific blockade. ..
  31. de Valle E, Grigoriadis G, O Reilly L, Willis S, Maxwell M, Corcoran L, et al. NF?B1 is essential to prevent the development of multiorgan autoimmunity by limiting IL-6 production in follicular B cells. J Exp Med. 2016;213:621-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings identify a previously unrecognized role for NF?B1 in preventing multiorgan autoimmunity through its negative regulation of Il-6 gene expression in Fo B cells. ..
  32. Suber F, Carroll M, Moore F. Innate response to self-antigen significantly exacerbates burn wound depth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3973-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that the depth of a burn wound is a sum of the thermal energy applied and of the degree of host inflammatory response. ..
  33. Zhou W, Patel H, Li K, Peng Q, Villiers M, Sacks S. Macrophages from C3-deficient mice have impaired potency to stimulate alloreactive T cells. Blood. 2006;107:2461-9 pubmed
    ..This could offer a partial explanation as to why the T-cell response is impaired in C3-/- mice. ..
  34. Pattanakitsakul S, Nakayama K, Takahashi M, Nonaka M. Three extra copies of a C4-related gene in H-2w7 mice are C4/Slp hybrid genes generated by multiple recombinational events. Immunogenetics. 1990;32:431-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that multiple genetic recombinational events between two homologous sequences played an important role in the generation and diversification of the extra copies of the C4/Slp gene in the H-2w7 mouse. ..
  35. Tachibana M, Adachi W, Kinoshita S, Kobayashi Y, Honma Y, Hiai H, et al. Androgen-dependent hereditary mouse keratoconus: linkage to an MHC region. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:51-7 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, SKC mouse keratoconus could be a model for other human or mouse-specific keratopathies. ..
  36. Stavenhagen J, Robins D. An ancient provirus has imposed androgen regulation on the adjacent mouse sex-limited protein gene. Cell. 1988;55:247-54 pubmed
    ..The association of this transposable element with Slp regulation thus provides a long-sought example of an insertional mutation that has been maintained in evolution. ..
  37. Clark A, Weymann A, Hartman E, Turmelle Y, Carroll M, Thurman J, et al. Evidence for non-traditional activation of complement factor C3 during murine liver regeneration. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro analysis raises the possibility that plasmin may contribute to non-traditional complement activation during liver regeneration in vivo. ..
  38. Dodds A, Law S. The complement component C4 of mammals. Biochem J. 1990;265:495-502 pubmed
    ..The products of the two genes, C4A and C4B, are different in their activity...
  39. Atkinson J, Karp D, Seeskin E, Killion C, Rosa P, Newell S, et al. H-2 S region determined polymorphic variants of the C4, Slp, C2, and B complement proteins: a compilation. Immunogenetics. 1982;16:617-23 pubmed
  40. Ogata R, Rosa P, Zepf N. Sequence of the gene for murine complement component C4. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:16565-72 pubmed
    ..The length of the murine C4 gene relative to the isotypic C4A and C4B genes in man suggests the independent loss of a 6-kilobase intron from both murine and human C4 genes.
  41. Kay P, Dawkins R, Bowling A, Bernoco D. Heterogeneity and linkage of equine C4 and steroid 21-hydroxylase genes. J Immunogenet. 1987;14:247-53 pubmed
    ..Segregation of ELA and different polymorphic forms of equine C4 suggest that C4 and 21-OH genes are within the MHC. It is likely that equine MHC supratypes will provide improved markers of disease susceptibility. ..
  42. Miyagoe Y, Georgatsou E, Varin Blank N, Meo T. The androgen-dependent C4-Slp gene is driven by a constitutively competent promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5786-90 pubmed
  43. Tosi M, Levi Strauss M, Georgatsou E, Amor M, Meo T. Duplications of complement and non-complement genes of the H-2S region: evolutionary aspects of the C4 isotypes and molecular analysis of their expression variants. Immunol Rev. 1985;87:151-83 pubmed
  44. Samollow P, Vandeberg J, Ford A, Douglas T, David C. Electrophoretic analysis of liver neuraminidase-1 variation in mice and additional evidence concerning the location of NEU-1. J Immunogenet. 1986;13:29-39 pubmed
    ..Recombination rates among six H-2-linked marker loci were unexpectedly low, but were sufficient to verify the position of Upg-1 as the telomeric flanking marker relative to Glo-1, H-2 (C4), Neu-1 (Apl), Ce-2 and Pgk-2. ..
  45. Cresci G, Allende D, McMullen M, Nagy L. Alternative complement pathway component Factor D contributes to efficient clearance of tissue debris following acute CClâ‚„-induced injury. Mol Immunol. 2015;64:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that following an acute CCl4-induced injury, the involvement of the alternative complement pathway is essential for efficient liver recovery. ..
  46. Markiewski M, DeAngelis R, Benencia F, Ricklin Lichtsteiner S, Koutoulaki A, Gerard C, et al. Modulation of the antitumor immune response by complement. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study demonstrates a therapeutic function for complement inhibition in the treatment of cancer. ..
  47. Girardi G, Berman J, Redecha P, Spruce L, Thurman J, Kraus D, et al. Complement C5a receptors and neutrophils mediate fetal injury in the antiphospholipid syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1644-54 pubmed
    ..Our findings identify the key innate immune effectors engaged by pathogenic autoantibodies that mediate poor pregnancy outcomes in APS and provide novel and important targets for prevention of pregnancy loss in APS. ..
  48. Ogata R, Zepf N. C4 from C4-high and C4-low mouse strains have identical sequences in the region corresponding to the isotype-specific segment of human C4. Eur J Immunol. 1990;20:1607-10 pubmed
    The human complement component C4 isotypes, C4A and C4B, show a substantial and biologically important difference in chemical reactivity...
  49. Tyan M, Tyan D. Vitamin A-enhanced cleft palate susceptibility gene maps between C4 and B144 within the H-2 complex. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1993;202:482-6 pubmed
  50. Vernet C, Artzt K. Mapping of 12 markers in the proximal region of mouse chromosome 17 using recombinant t haplotypes. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:219-21 pubmed
  51. Davis A, Roopenian D. Complexity at the mouse minor histocompatibility locus H-4. Immunogenetics. 1990;31:7-12 pubmed
  52. Natsuume Sakai S, Hayakawa J, Takahashi M. Genetic polymorphism of murine C3 controlled by a single co-dominant locus on chromosome 17. J Immunol. 1978;121:491-8 pubmed
  53. Renner B, Strassheim D, Amura C, Kulik L, Ljubanovic D, Glogowska M, et al. B cell subsets contribute to renal injury and renal protection after ischemia/reperfusion. J Immunol. 2010;185:4393-400 pubmed publisher
    ..However, nonperitoneal B cells attenuate renal injury after I/R, possibly through the production of IL-10. ..
  54. Pinto A, RAMOS H, Wu X, Aggarwal S, Shrestha B, Gorman M, et al. Deficient IFN signaling by myeloid cells leads to MAVS-dependent virus-induced sepsis. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004086 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings establish the dominant role of type I IFN signaling in myeloid cells in restricting virus infection and controlling pathological inflammation and tissue injury. ..
  55. Levi Strauss M, Tosi M, Steinmetz M, Klein J, Meo T. Multiple duplications of complement C4 gene correlate with H-2-controlled testosterone-independent expression of its sex-limited isoform, C4-Slp. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:1746-50 pubmed
    ..Multiple C4-related gene copies characterize those exceptional wild-derived H-2 haplotypes, H-2w7, H-2w16, and H-2w19, that determine the expression of the C4-Slp protein in female animals. ..
  56. Tang T, Rosenkranz A, Assmann K, Goodman M, Gutierrez Ramos J, Carroll M, et al. A role for Mac-1 (CDIIb/CD18) in immune complex-stimulated neutrophil function in vivo: Mac-1 deficiency abrogates sustained Fcgamma receptor-dependent neutrophil adhesion and complement-dependent proteinuria in acute glomerulonephritis. J Exp Med. 1997;186:1853-63 pubmed
    ..Since Mac-1 on PMNs is the principal ligand for ic3b, an absence of Mac-1 interaction with C3 probably contributed to the abrogation of proteinuria in Mac-1-null mice. ..
  57. Taube C, Thurman J, Takeda K, Joetham A, Miyahara N, Carroll M, et al. Factor B of the alternative complement pathway regulates development of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8084-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that in sensitized hosts complement activation through the alternative pathway after allergen exposure is critical to the development of AHR and airway inflammation. ..
  58. Hebert M, Takano T, Papayianni A, Rennke H, Minto A, Salant D, et al. Acute nephrotoxic serum nephritis in complement knockout mice: relative roles of the classical and alternate pathways in neutrophil recruitment and proteinuria. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:2799-803 pubmed
    ..These 'knockout' mice should prove valuable for defining the complement-activated mediator systems that regulate leukocyte recruitment and tissue injury in renal diseases. ..
  59. Abonia J, Friend D, Austen W, Moore F, Carroll M, Chan R, et al. Mast cell protease 5 mediates ischemia-reperfusion injury of mouse skeletal muscle. J Immunol. 2005;174:7285-91 pubmed
    ..We now report a cytotoxic activity associated with a MC-specific protease and demonstrate that mMCP-5 is critical for irreversible IR injury of skeletal muscle. ..
  60. Lafuse W, Lee S, Castle L, David C. Restriction fragment analysis of H-2 recombinant mouse strains with crossovers between E alpha and C4 genes. Immunogenetics. 1989;30:387-9 pubmed
  61. Ogata R, Sepich D. Genes for murine fourth complement component (C4) and sex-limited protein (Slp) identified by hybridization to C4- and Slp-specific cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:4908-11 pubmed
    ..The C4 and Slp cDNAs were used in a Southern blot experiment to identify the C4 and Slp genes in the molecular map of the S region. ..
  62. Verschoor A, Neuenhahn M, Navarini A, Graef P, Plaumann A, Seidlmeier A, et al. A platelet-mediated system for shuttling blood-borne bacteria to CD8?+ dendritic cells depends on glycoprotein GPIb and complement C3. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:1194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Other gram-positive bacteria also were rapidly tagged by platelets, revealing a broadly active shuttling mechanism for systemic bacteria. ..
  63. Banda N, Takahashi M, Takahashi K, Stahl G, Hyatt S, Glogowska M, et al. Mechanisms of mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases-1/3 activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Mol Immunol. 2011;49:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that MASP-1 does not require binding to MBL-A, MBL-C, or FCN-A to activate the AP. MASP-1 may cleave pro-Df into mature Df through binding to FCN-B or to an unknown protein, or may function as an unbound soluble protein. ..
  64. Banda N, Thurman J, Kraus D, Wood A, Carroll M, Arend W, et al. Alternative complement pathway activation is essential for inflammation and joint destruction in the passive transfer model of collagen-induced arthritis. J Immunol. 2006;177:1904-12 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms by which these target organ-specific mAbs bypass the requirements for engagement of the classical pathway remain to be defined but do not appear to involve a lack of alternative pathway regulatory proteins. ..
  65. Nonaka M, Nakayama K, Yeul Y, Takahashi M. Complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of the fourth component of mouse complement (C4). Evolutionary aspects. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:10936-43 pubmed
    ..We compared the mouse C4 amino acid sequences with those of mouse C3 and human alpha 2-macroglobulin and the evolutionary relationship among these three proteins is discussed. ..
  66. Haston C, Tomko T, Godin N, Kerckhoff L, Hallett M. Murine candidate bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility genes identified by gene expression and sequence analysis of linkage regions. J Med Genet. 2005;42:464-73 pubmed
    ..Combining genomics approaches of differential gene expression and sequence variation potentially identifies approximately 5% the linked genes as fibrosis susceptibility candidate genes in this mouse cross. ..
  67. Nonaka M, Nakayama K, Yeul Y, Shimizu A, Takahashi M. Molecular cloning and characterization of complementary and genomic DNA clones for mouse C4 and Slp. Immunol Rev. 1985;87:81-99 pubmed
  68. Steinmetz M, Malissen M, Hood L, Orn A, Maki R, Dastoornikoo G, et al. Tracts of high or low sequence divergence in the mouse major histocompatibility complex. EMBO J. 1984;3:2995-3003 pubmed
    ..Variable tracts appear to be the result of mechanisms which mutate certain coding and non-coding sequences to the same extent and selective pressures operating on the genes. ..
  69. Locker J, Gill T, Kraus J, Ohura T, Swarop M, Riviere M, et al. The rat MHC and cystathionine beta-synthase gene are syntenic on chromosome 20. Immunogenetics. 1990;31:271-4 pubmed
  70. Mao C, Jiang L, Melo Jorge M, Puthenveetil M, Zhang X, Carroll M, et al. T cell-independent somatic hypermutation in murine B cells with an immature phenotype. Immunity. 2004;20:133-44 pubmed
    ..Mutation frequency was not diminished in the absence of T cells. Our results support the idea that somatic hypermutation can occur in murine immature B cells and may represent a mechanism for enlarging the V gene repertoire. ..
  71. Otten M, Groeneveld T, Flierman R, Rastaldi M, Trouw L, Faber Krol M, et al. Both complement and IgG fc receptors are required for development of attenuated antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis in mice. J Immunol. 2009;183:3980-8 pubmed publisher
  72. Ogata R, Shreffler D, Sepich D, Lilly S. cDNA clone spanning the alpha-gamma subunit junction in the precursor of the murine fourth complement component (C4). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:5061-5 pubmed
    ..The results also demonstrate that strain differences in plasma C4 levels (low C4 vs. high C4) reflect differences in steady-state levels of liver C4 mRNA in these strains. ..
  73. Tuzun E, Scott B, Goluszko E, Higgs S, Christadoss P. Genetic evidence for involvement of classical complement pathway in induction of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. J Immunol. 2003;171:3847-54 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, severe MG and other Ab- and complement-mediated diseases could be effectively treated by inhibiting C4, thus leaving the alternative complement pathway intact. ..
  74. Natsuume Sakai S, Kaidoh T, Nonaka M, Takahashi M. Structural polymorphism of murine C4 and its linkage to H-2. J Immunol. 1980;124:2714-20 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that observed C4 variants or at least some of them represent antigenically distinguishable allotypes of murine C4. ..
  75. Mold C, Rodic Polic B, Du Clos T. Protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by C-reactive protein and natural antibody requires complement but not Fc gamma receptors. J Immunol. 2002;168:6375-81 pubmed
    ..The results show that in this model of systemic infection with highly virulent S. pneumoniae, protection from lethality by CRP and anti-PC Abs requires complement, but not Fc gamma R. ..
  76. Springall T, Sheerin N, Abe K, Holers V, Wan H, Sacks S. Epithelial secretion of C3 promotes colonization of the upper urinary tract by Escherichia coli. Nat Med. 2001;7:801-6 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that uropathogenic E. coli might use host C3 to invade the renal epithelium and that local complement production is sufficient for the bacteria to achieve this effect. ..
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  78. Carroll M, Capra J. Studies on the murine Ss protein: demonstration that the Ss protein is functionally the fourth component of complement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;75:2424-8 pubmed
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