C3

Summary

Gene Symbol: C3
Description: complement component 3
Alias: AI255234, ASP, HSE-MSF, Plp, complement C3, acylation stimulating protein, complement component 3d, complement factor 3
Species: mouse
Products:     C3

Top Publications

  1. Tu Z, Bu H, Dennis J, Lin F. Efficient osteoclast differentiation requires local complement activation. Blood. 2010;116:4456-63 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies using blocking antibodies suggested that bone marrow (BM)-derived C3 is required for efficient osteoclast (OC) differentiation, and that C3 receptors are involved in this process...
  2. Peng Q, Li K, Patel H, Sacks S, Zhou W. Dendritic cell synthesis of C3 is required for full T cell activation and development of a Th1 phenotype. J Immunol. 2006;176:3330-41 pubmed
    Previous studies have found that deficiency of complement component C3 is associated with reduced T cell responses in several disease models including viral infection, autoimmune disease, and transplantation...
  3. Circolo A, Garnier G, Fukuda W, Wang X, Hidvegi T, Szalai A, et al. Genetic disruption of the murine complement C3 promoter region generates deficient mice with extrahepatic expression of C3 mRNA. Immunopharmacology. 1999;42:135-49 pubmed
    Genetic deficiencies of the complement protein C3 occur naturally in humans and animal models and have been induced in mice by targeted deletion of the C3 gene...
  4. Hietala M, Jonsson I, Tarkowski A, Kleinau S, Pekna M. Complement deficiency ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice. J Immunol. 2002;169:454-9 pubmed
    ..DBA/1J mice deficient of complement factors C3 (C3(-/-)) and factor B (FB(-/-)) were generated to elucidate the role of the complement system in CIA...
  5. Mizutani N, Nabe T, Yoshino S. Complement C3a regulates late asthmatic response and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. J Immunol. 2009;183:4039-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the C3 level in serum 4 h after the fourth challenge was significantly reduced compared with that before the challenge...
  6. Thurman J, Lenderink A, Royer P, Coleman K, Zhou J, Lambris J, et al. C3a is required for the production of CXC chemokines by tubular epithelial cells after renal ishemia/reperfusion. J Immunol. 2007;178:1819-28 pubmed
    ..This innate immune system thereby recognizes hypoxic injury and triggers a systemic inflammatory response through the generation of C3a and subsequent activation of the NF-kappaB system. ..
  7. Sohn J, Bora P, Suk H, Molina H, Kaplan H, Bora N. Tolerance is dependent on complement C3 fragment iC3b binding to antigen-presenting cells. Nat Med. 2003;9:206-12 pubmed
    ..The ligation of the complement C3 activation product iC3b to complement receptor type 3 (the iC3b receptor) on antigen-presenting cells resulted ..
  8. Morrison T, Fraser R, Smith P, Mahalingam S, Heise M. Complement contributes to inflammatory tissue destruction in a mouse model of Ross River virus-induced disease. J Virol. 2007;81:5132-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mice deficient in C3 (C3(-/-)), the central component of the complement system, developed much less severe disease signs than did wild-..
  9. Hirahashi J, Mekala D, Van Ziffle J, Xiao L, Saffaripour S, Wagner D, et al. Mac-1 signaling via Src-family and Syk kinases results in elastase-dependent thrombohemorrhagic vasculopathy. Immunity. 2006;25:271-83 pubmed
    ..Here, in a model of thrombohemorrhagic vasculitis, the CD18 integrin Mac-1 on neutrophils recognized complement C3 deposited within vessel walls and triggered a signaling pathway involving the Src-family kinase Hck and the ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Pekna M, Hietala M, Rosklint T, Betsholtz C, Pekny M. Targeted disruption of the murine gene coding for the third complement component (C3). Scand J Immunol. 1998;47:25-9 pubmed
    ..Using gene targeting, we have generated mice deficient for the third complement component (C3). These mice represent an animal model in which complement activation by any pathway is prevented at an early stage...
  2. Ochsenbein A, Pinschewer D, Odermatt B, Carroll M, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel R. Protective T cell-independent antiviral antibody responses are dependent on complement. J Exp Med. 1999;190:1165-74 pubmed
    ..importance was evaluated in this study in virus infections in mice deficient either in soluble complement factors (C3(-/-), C4(-/-)) or in the complement signaling complex (complement receptor [CR]2(-/-), CD19(-/-))...
  3. Cui W, Lapointe M, Gauvreau D, Kalant D, Cianflone K. Recombinant C3adesArg/acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is highly bioactive: a critical evaluation of C5L2 binding and 3T3-L1 adipocyte activation. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:3207-17 pubmed publisher
    C5L2 is a recently identified receptor for C5a/C5adesArg, C3a and C3adesArg (ASP). C5a/C5adesArg bind with high affinity, with no identified activation...
  4. Liu J, Miwa T, Hilliard B, Chen Y, Lambris J, Wells A, et al. The complement inhibitory protein DAF (CD55) suppresses T cell immunity in vivo. J Exp Med. 2005;201:567-77 pubmed
    ..These findings establish a critical link between complement and T cell immunity and have implications for the role of DAF and complement in organ transplantation, tumor evasion, and vaccine development. ..
  5. Mueller Ortiz S, Drouin S, Wetsel R. The alternative activation pathway and complement component C3 are critical for a protective immune response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine model of pneumonia. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2899-906 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa pulmonary infection, we challenged C3-, C4-, and factor B-deficient mice with P. aeruginosa via intranasal inoculation...
  6. Lalli P, Strainic M, Yang M, Lin F, Medof M, Heeger P. Locally produced C5a binds to T cell-expressed C5aR to enhance effector T-cell expansion by limiting antigen-induced apoptosis. Blood. 2008;112:1759-66 pubmed publisher
    ..deficient in the complement regulatory protein, decay accelerating factor (DAF), and/or the complement component C3. We found that T-cell expansion induced by DAF-deficient APCs was augmented with diminished T-cell apoptosis, ..
  7. Fischer M, Ma M, Goerg S, Zhou X, Xia J, Finco O, et al. Regulation of the B cell response to T-dependent antigens by classical pathway complement. J Immunol. 1996;157:549-56 pubmed
    Mice deficient in complement components C3 (C3 -/-) and C4 (C4 -/-) were found to have a profound defect in their Ab response to a T-dependent Ag (bacteriophage (phi X174)...
  8. Peng Q, Li K, Anderson K, Farrar C, Lu B, Smith R, et al. Local production and activation of complement up-regulates the allostimulatory function of dendritic cells through C3a-C3aR interaction. Blood. 2008;111:2452-61 pubmed
    Donor cell expression of C3 enhances the alloimmune response and is associated with the fate of transplantation...
  9. He S, Atkinson C, Qiao F, Cianflone K, Chen X, Tomlinson S. A complement-dependent balance between hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury and liver regeneration in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2304-16 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments revealed an important role for the C3a degradation product acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) in the balance between inflammation/injury versus regeneration...
  10. Kapadia S, Levine B, Speck S, Virgin H. Critical role of complement and viral evasion of complement in acute, persistent, and latent gamma-herpesvirus infection. Immunity. 2002;17:143-55 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the role of complement factor C3 (C3) and the murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68) RCA protein in viral pathogenesis...
  11. de Visser K, Korets L, Coussens L. Early neoplastic progression is complement independent. Neoplasia. 2004;6:768-76 pubmed
    ..during acute pathologic tissue remodeling, we examined the functional significance of complement component 3 (C3) as a regulator of inflammatory cell infiltration and activation during malignant progression by using a transgenic ..
  12. Nakayama Y, Kim S, Kim E, Lambris J, Sandor M, Suresh M. C3 promotes expansion of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in a Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:2921-31 pubmed publisher
    It is known that C3 is required for optimal expansion of T cells during acute viral infections. However, it is not yet determined whether T cell responses to intracellular bacterial infections require C3...
  13. Farrar C, Zhou W, Lin T, Sacks S. Local extravascular pool of C3 is a determinant of postischemic acute renal failure. FASEB J. 2006;20:217-26 pubmed
    The third complement component (C3) is an acute phase protein that plays a central role in reperfusion injury in several organ models...
  14. Helmy K, Katschke K, Gorgani N, Kljavin N, Elliott J, Diehl L, et al. CRIg: a macrophage complement receptor required for phagocytosis of circulating pathogens. Cell. 2006;124:915-27 pubmed
    ..CRIg expression on Kupffer cells is required for efficient binding and phagocytosis of complement C3-opsonized particles...
  15. Kang Y, Do Y, Lee H, Park S, Cheong C, Lynch R, et al. A dominant complement fixation pathway for pneumococcal polysaccharides initiated by SIGN-R1 interacting with C1q. Cell. 2006;125:47-58 pubmed
    ..A pivotal step in the complement pathway is the assembly of a C3 convertase, which digests the C3 complement component to form microbial binding C3 fragments recognized by ..
  16. Mao D, Wu X, Deppong C, Friend L, Dolecki G, Nelson D, et al. Negligible role of antibodies and C5 in pregnancy loss associated exclusively with C3-dependent mechanisms through complement alternative pathway. Immunity. 2003;19:813-22 pubmed
    ..on the activation of the complement alternative pathway and the effector mechanisms provided by the maternal C3. Surprisingly, this effect is independent of other complement activation pathways and of the effector mechanisms ..
  17. Vieyra M, Leisman S, Raedler H, Kwan W, Yang M, Strainic M, et al. Complement regulates CD4 T-cell help to CD8 T cells required for murine allograft rejection. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:766-74 pubmed publisher
  18. Ratajczak J, Reca R, Kucia M, Majka M, Allendorf D, Baran J, et al. Mobilization studies in mice deficient in either C3 or C3a receptor (C3aR) reveal a novel role for complement in retention of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow. Blood. 2004;103:2071-8 pubmed
    ..In our previous studies we showed that the complement C3 activation peptide, C3a, sensitizes responses of HSPCs to stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)...
  19. Strainic M, Liu J, Huang D, An F, Lalli P, Muqim N, et al. Locally produced complement fragments C5a and C3a provide both costimulatory and survival signals to naive CD4+ T cells. Immunity. 2008;28:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These local paracrine and autocrine interactions thus operate constitutively in naive T cells to maintain viability, and their amplification by cognate APC partners thus is critical to T cell costimulation. ..
  20. Prodeus A, Zhou X, Maurer M, Galli S, Carroll M. Impaired mast cell-dependent natural immunity in complement C3-deficient mice. Nature. 1997;390:172-5 pubmed
    ..We found that C4- or C3-deficient mice were much more sensitive to caecal ligation and puncture than wild-type (WT) controls (100% versus 20%..
  21. Sahu A, Lambris J. Structure and biology of complement protein C3, a connecting link between innate and acquired immunity. Immunol Rev. 2001;180:35-48 pubmed
    Complement protein C3 is a central molecule in the complement system whose activation is essential for all the important functions performed by this system...
  22. Xu C, Mao D, Holers V, Palanca B, Cheng A, Molina H. A critical role for murine complement regulator crry in fetomaternal tolerance. Science. 2000;287:498-501 pubmed
    ..Complement activation at the fetomaternal interface caused the fetal loss because breeding to C3-/- mice rescued Crry-/- mice from lethality...
  23. Paglialunga S, Fisette A, Yan Y, Deshaies Y, Brouillette J, Pekna M, et al. Acylation-stimulating protein deficiency and altered adipose tissue in alternative complement pathway knockout mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E521-9 pubmed
    Acylation-stimulating protein (C3adesArg/ASP) is an adipokine that acts on its receptor C5L2 to stimulate triglyceride (TG) synthesis in adipose tissue...
  24. Fischer M, Ma M, Hsu N, Carroll M. Local synthesis of C3 within the splenic lymphoid compartment can reconstitute the impaired immune response in C3-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1998;160:2619-25 pubmed
    Mice bearing a disrupted C3 locus (C3-/-) have an impaired Ab response to T-dependent Ags (bacteriophage phiX 174 and nuclear protein-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) characterized by a reduction in number and size of germinal centers and ..
  25. Mehlhop E, Whitby K, Oliphant T, Marri A, Engle M, Diamond M. Complement activation is required for induction of a protective antibody response against West Nile virus infection. J Virol. 2005;79:7466-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Both C3-deficient and CR1- and CR2-deficient mice also had significant deficits in their humoral responses after infection ..
  26. Fang C, Zhang X, Miwa T, Song W. Complement promotes the development of inflammatory T-helper 17 cells through synergistic interaction with Toll-like receptor signaling and interleukin-6 production. Blood. 2009;114:1005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data establish a link between complement/TLR interaction and Th17-cell differentiation and provide new insight into the mechanism of action of complement in autoimmunity. ..
  27. Quigg R, Lim A, Haas M, Alexander J, He C, Carroll M. Immune complex glomerulonephritis in C4- and C3-deficient mice. Kidney Int. 1998;53:320-30 pubmed
    In this study, we examined the roles of C4 and C3 in immune complex glomerulonephritis by actively immunizing C4-deficient (C4 -/-), C3 deficient (C3 -/-) and wild-type mice with apoferritin...
  28. Ankeny D, Guan Z, Popovich P. B cells produce pathogenic antibodies and impair recovery after spinal cord injury in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2990-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One or more components of this pathologic immune response could be considered as novel therapeutic targets for minimizing tissue injury and/or promoting repair after SCI. ..
  29. Baruah P, Simpson E, Dumitriu I, Derbyshire K, Coe D, Addey C, et al. Mice lacking C1q or C3 show accelerated rejection of minor H disparate skin grafts and resistance to induction of tolerance. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that female mice deficient in C1q (C1qa(-/-)) or C3 (C3(-/-)) reject male syngeneic grafts (HY incompatible) at an accelerated rate compared with WT mice...
  30. Sylvestre D, Clynes R, Ma M, Warren H, Carroll M, Ravetch J. Immunoglobulin G-mediated inflammatory responses develop normally in complement-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1996;184:2385-92 pubmed
    ..in immunoglobulin G-triggered inflammation was studied in mice genetically deficient in complement components C3 and C4...
  31. Banda N, Takahashi M, Levitt B, Glogowska M, Nicholas J, Takahashi K, et al. Essential role of complement mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases-1/3 in the murine collagen antibody-induced model of inflammatory arthritis. J Immunol. 2010;185:5598-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Disease activity scores, complement C3 tissue deposition in the joint, and histopathologic injury scores were markedly decreased in MASP1/3(-/-) as ..
  32. Bao L, Wang Y, Haas M, Quigg R. Distinct roles for C3a and C5a in complement-induced tubulointerstitial injury. Kidney Int. 2011;80:524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..complement activation is regulated by a number of plasma and membrane-associated proteins, most of which limit C3 and C5 activation...
  33. Fischer M, Prodeus A, Nicholson Weller A, Ma M, Murrow J, Reid R, et al. Increased susceptibility to endotoxin shock in complement C3- and C4-deficient mice is corrected by C1 inhibitor replacement. J Immunol. 1997;159:976-82 pubmed
    ..the role of complement in endotoxin shock, we have used mice totally deficient in either complement component C3 or C4...
  34. Murray I, Sniderman A, Cianflone K. Mice lacking acylation stimulating protein (ASP) have delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. J Lipid Res. 1999;40:1671-6 pubmed
    b>Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is a 76 amino acid fragment of the third component of complement (C3) which is generated by the interaction of adipsin and factor B with C3...
  35. Wessels M, Butko P, Ma M, Warren H, Lage A, Carroll M. Studies of group B streptococcal infection in mice deficient in complement component C3 or C4 demonstrate an essential role for complement in both innate and acquired immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11490-4 pubmed
    ..the approach of gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to generate mice totally deficient in complement component C3. Comparison of C3-deficient mice with mice deficient in complement component C4 demonstrated that the 50% lethal ..
  36. Coles B, Lewis R, Anning P, Morton J, Baalasubramanian S, Morgan B, et al. CD59 or C3 are not requred for angiotensin II-dependent hypertension or hypertrophy in mice. Immunology. 2007;121:518-25 pubmed
    ..Herein, in vivo responses to angiotensin (ang) II were characterized in mice deficient in CD59a or C3. CD59a(-/-) mice had slightly but significantly elevated systolic blood pressure (107.2 +/- 1.7 mmHg versus 113...
  37. Takahashi K, Shi L, Gowda L, Ezekowitz R. Relative roles of complement factor 3 and mannose-binding lectin in host defense against infection. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8188-93 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated the relative roles of C3 and MBL against S. aureus infection by generating MBL x C3 null mice to compare with C3 single null mice...
  38. Bao L, Osawe I, Haas M, Quigg R. Signaling through up-regulated C3a receptor is key to the development of experimental lupus nephritis. J Immunol. 2005;175:1947-55 pubmed
    ..These data illustrate that C3aR is relevant in experimental lupus nephritis and may be a target for therapeutic intervention in the human disease. ..
  39. Markiewski M, Mastellos D, Tudoran R, DeAngelis R, Strey C, Franchini S, et al. C3a and C3b activation products of the third component of complement (C3) are critical for normal liver recovery after toxic injury. J Immunol. 2004;173:747-54 pubmed
    ..In addition, livers from C3-deficient (C3(-/-)) mice showed similarly impaired proliferation of hepatocytes, along with delayed kinetics of both ..
  40. Pratt J, Basheer S, Sacks S. Local synthesis of complement component C3 regulates acute renal transplant rejection. Nat Med. 2002;8:582-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the absence of locally synthesized complement component C3 is capable of modulating the rejection of renal allografts in vivo and regulating T-cell responses in vivo and in ..
  41. Persson L, Boren J, Robertson A, Wallenius V, Hansson G, Pekna M. Lack of complement factor C3, but not factor B, increases hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-/- low-density lipoprotein receptor-/- mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1062-7 pubmed
    ..of complement deficiency on atherogenesis and lipidemia, we used mice deficient in the third complement component (C3-/-) or factor B (FB-/-)...
  42. Xia Z, Stanhope K, Digitale E, Simion O, Chen L, Havel P, et al. Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP)/complement C3adesArg deficiency results in increased energy expenditure in mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4051-7 pubmed
    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) acts as a paracrine signal to increase triglyceride synthesis in adipocytes...
  43. O Brien K, Morrison T, Dundore D, Heise M, Schultz Cherry S. A protective role for complement C3 protein during pandemic 2009 H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17377 pubmed publisher
    ..b>C3, a member of the complement system of serum proteins, is a major component of the innate immune and inflammatory ..
  44. Leung V, Yun S, Botto M, Mason J, Malik T, Song W, et al. Decay-accelerating factor suppresses complement C3 activation and retards atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1757-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) is a membrane protein that regulates complement pathway activity at the level of C3. To test the hypothesis that DAF plays an essential role in limiting complement activation in the arterial wall and ..
  45. Banda N, Takahashi K, Wood A, Holers V, Arend W. Pathogenic complement activation in collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice requires amplification by the alternative pathway. J Immunol. 2007;179:4101-9 pubmed
    ..b>C3 activation was also examined in vitro by adherent collagen-anti-collagen immune complexes using sera from normal or ..
  46. Clynes R, Maizes J, Guinamard R, Ono M, Takai T, Ravetch J. Modulation of immune complex-induced inflammation in vivo by the coordinate expression of activation and inhibitory Fc receptors. J Exp Med. 1999;189:179-85 pubmed
    ..Exploiting the FcgammaRII inhibitory pathway could thus provide a new therapeutic approach for modulating antibody-triggered inflammation. ..
  47. Yalcindag A, He R, Laouini D, Alenius H, Carroll M, Oettgen H, et al. The complement component C3 plays a critical role in both Th1 and Th2 responses to antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:1455-61 pubmed
    Complement component C3 is synthesized by keratinocytes and is activated after skin injury. C3 is also synthesized by peritoneal macrophages, which are activated by the adjuvant alum...
  48. Verschoor A, Brockman M, Gadjeva M, Knipe D, Carroll M. Myeloid C3 determines induction of humoral responses to peripheral herpes simplex virus infection. J Immunol. 2003;171:5363-71 pubmed
    ..In contrast, using a bone marrow chimeric model, we observed that C3 synthesis by myeloid cells, a relatively minor source of complement, provided a critical function during the ..
  49. Bohlson S, Strasser J, Bower J, Schorey J. Role of complement in Mycobacterium avium pathogenesis: in vivo and in vitro analyses of the host response to infection in the absence of complement component C3. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7729-35 pubmed
    ..the role of complement in the mycobacterial infection process in vivo, mice deficient in complement component C3 were infected with M. avium. Surprisingly, C3-deficient mice infected intravenously with M...
  50. Calida D, Constantinescu C, Purev E, Zhang G, Ventura E, Lavi E, et al. Cutting edge: C3, a key component of complement activation, is not required for the development of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. J Immunol. 2001;166:723-6 pubmed
    ..To clarify the role of C in mouse EAE, we immunized mice deficient in C3 (C3(-/-)) and their wild-type (C3(+/+)) littermates with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55...
  51. La Flamme A, MacDonald A, Huxtable C, Carroll M, Pearce E. Lack of C3 affects Th2 response development and the sequelae of chemotherapy in schistosomiasis. J Immunol. 2003;170:470-6 pubmed
    The role of the third component of complement (C3) during schistosome infection was investigated using mice deficient in C3...
  52. Tang T, Rosenkranz A, Assmann K, Goodman M, Gutierrez Ramos J, Carroll M, et al. A role for Mac-1 (CDIIb/CD18) in immune complex-stimulated neutrophil function in vivo: Mac-1 deficiency abrogates sustained Fcgamma receptor-dependent neutrophil adhesion and complement-dependent proteinuria in acute glomerulonephritis. J Exp Med. 1997;186:1853-63 pubmed
    ..b>Complement C3-deficient mice also had significantly decreased proteinuria compared to wild-type mice...
  53. Miwa T, Zhou L, Hilliard B, Molina H, Song W. Crry, but not CD59 and DAF, is indispensable for murine erythrocyte protection in vivo from spontaneous complement attack. Blood. 2002;99:3707-16 pubmed
    ..and CD59 are 2 glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins that inhibit complement activation at the C3 and C5b-9 step, respectively...
  54. Cai C, Gill R, Eum H, Cao Z, Loughran P, Darwiche S, et al. Complement factor 3 deficiency attenuates hemorrhagic shock-related hepatic injury and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R1175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, complement factor 3-deficient (C3(-/-)) mice and wild-type control mice were subjected to 1...
  55. Buono C, Come C, Witztum J, Maguire G, Connelly P, Carroll M, et al. Influence of C3 deficiency on atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2002;105:3025-31 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of C3 deficiency on the extent and phenotype of atherosclerosis...
  56. Purwar R, Baumer W, Niebuhr M, Tschernig T, Kietzmann M, Werfel T. A protective role of complement component 3 in T cell-mediated skin inflammation. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:709-14 pubmed publisher
    Keratinocytes synthesize complement component 3 (C3) constitutively, and increased expression of C3 has been described during skin inflammation...
  57. Stevens B, Allen N, Vazquez L, Howell G, Christopherson K, Nouri N, et al. The classical complement cascade mediates CNS synapse elimination. Cell. 2007;131:1164-78 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in complement protein C1q or the downstream complement protein C3 exhibit large sustained defects in CNS synapse elimination, as shown by the failure of anatomical refinement of ..
  58. Taylor P, Carugati A, Fadok V, Cook H, Andrews M, Carroll M, et al. A hierarchical role for classical pathway complement proteins in the clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. J Exp Med. 2000;192:359-66 pubmed
    ..Apoptotic cells are thought to be a major source of the autoantigens of SLE, and impairment of their removal by complement may explain the link between hereditary complement deficiency and the development of SLE. ..
  59. Ratajczak M, Reca R, Wysoczynski M, Yan J, Ratajczak J. Modulation of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis by the third complement component (C3)--implications for trafficking of CXCR4+ stem cells. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:986-95 pubmed
    ..C becomes activated with the release of the third complement component (C3) cleavage fragments (e.g., C3a, desArgC3a, and iC3b) during tissue/organ injury...
  60. Suresh M, Molina H, Salvato M, Mastellos D, Lambris J, Sandor M. Complement component 3 is required for optimal expansion of CD8 T cells during a systemic viral infection. J Immunol. 2003;170:788-94 pubmed
    In addition to its established role in innate immune mechanisms, complement component C3 is also of critical importance in B cell activation and T cell-dependent Ab responses...
  61. Lubinski J, Wang L, Soulika A, Burger R, Wetsel R, Colten H, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC mediates immune evasion in vivo. J Virol. 1998;72:8257-63 pubmed
    ..Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein C (gC) binds complement component C3 and inhibits complement-mediated virus neutralization and lysis of infected cells in vitro...
  62. Wu X, Spitzer D, Mao D, Peng S, Molina H, Atkinson J. Membrane protein Crry maintains homeostasis of the complement system. J Immunol. 2008;181:2732-40 pubmed
    ..study, we demonstrate that Crry(-/-) mice could be rescued on a partial as well as on a complete factor B (fB)- or C3-deficient maternal background...
  63. Paixao Cavalcante D, Hanson S, Botto M, Cook H, Pickering M. Factor H facilitates the clearance of GBM bound iC3b by controlling C3 activation in fluid phase. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1942-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Factor H (CFH)-deficient (Cfh(-/-)) mice spontaneously develop C3 deposition along the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) with subsequent development of glomerulonephritis with ..
  64. He S, Atkinson C, Evans Z, Ellett J, Southwood M, Elvington A, et al. A role for complement in the enhanced susceptibility of steatotic livers to ischemia and reperfusion injury. J Immunol. 2009;183:4764-72 pubmed publisher
    ..b>C3 deficiency protected both lean and steatotic mice from IRI, as determined by all measured outcomes...
  65. Atkinson C, Song H, Lu B, Qiao F, Burns T, Holers V, et al. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2444-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, compared with systemic inhibition, CR2-mediated targeting of a complement inhibitor of activation improved bioavailability, significantly enhanced efficacy, and maintained host resistance to infection. ..
  66. Welch T, Blystone L. C3 is central to the interstitial component of experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis. Clin Immunol. 2005;115:80-4 pubmed
    We have suggested that renal tubular synthesis of C3 and its activation in the cortical interstitium is a mechanism for the progression of glomerulonephritis to interstitial injury...
  67. Li K, Anderson K, Peng Q, Noble A, Lu B, Kelly A, et al. Cyclic AMP plays a critical role in C3a-receptor-mediated regulation of dendritic cells in antigen uptake and T-cell stimulation. Blood. 2008;112:5084-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarities in the phenotype of C3-deficient and C3aR-deficient DCs suggest that local production of C3 with extracellular metabolism to C3a is an ..
  68. Zhang X, Kimura Y, Fang C, Zhou L, Sfyroera G, Lambris J, et al. Regulation of Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory response by complement in vivo. Blood. 2007;110:228-36 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a strong interaction between complement and TLR signaling in vivo and suggest a novel mechanism by which complement promotes inflammation and modulates adaptive immunity. ..
  69. Zhou W, Patel H, Li K, Peng Q, Villiers M, Sacks S. Macrophages from C3-deficient mice have impaired potency to stimulate alloreactive T cells. Blood. 2006;107:2461-9 pubmed
    Impaired T-cell reactivity is a feature of C3-deficient mice in several disease models. The mechanism behind the reduced T-cell response is, however, poorly understood...
  70. de Jorge E, Macor P, Paixao Cavalcante D, Rose K, Tedesco F, Cook H, et al. The development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome depends on complement C5. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..FH?16-20 mice. Both C5-sufficient and C5-deficient Cfh(-/-).FH?16-20 mice had abnormal C3 deposition within the kidney, but spontaneous aHUS did not develop in any of the C5-deficient mice...
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    ..Our initial study indicated that complement C3-deficient (-/-) mice (and, therefore, ASP deficient) demonstrated altered dietary postprandial triglyceride ..
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    ..Acute lung inflammatory injury in wild-type and C3-/- mice after deposition of IgG immune complexes was of equivalent intensity and was C5a dependent, but injury was ..
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    ..Here we show that mice deficient for the third component of complement (C3-/- mice) are highly susceptible to primary infection with influenza virus...