Btk

Summary

Gene Symbol: Btk
Description: Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase
Alias: AI528679, xid, tyrosine-protein kinase BTK, ATK, B-cell progenitor kinase, BPK, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, Tyrosine-protein kinase BTK (Brutons tyrosine kinase) (Agammaglobulinaemia tyrosine kinase) (ATK) (B cell progenitor kinase) (BPK) (Kinase EMB), X-linked immune deficiency, agammaglobulinaemia tyrosine kinase, agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase, bruton tyrosine kinase, kinase EMB
Species: mouse
Products:     Btk

Top Publications

  1. Yang W, Desiderio S. BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in response to B cell receptor engagement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:604-9 pubmed
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is essential for B cell activation, but downstream targets of Btk have not been defined...
  2. Yao L, Kawakami Y, Kawakami T. The pleckstrin homology domain of Bruton tyrosine kinase interacts with protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9175-9 pubmed
    b>Bruton tyrosine kinase (EC 2.7.1...
  3. Hardy R, Hayakawa K, Parks D, Herzenberg L. Demonstration of B-cell maturation in X-linked immunodeficient mice by simultaneous three-colour immunofluorescence. Nature. 1983;306:270-2 pubmed
    CBA/N mice carrying the X-linked immune deficiency gene (xid) have fewer splenic B cells than normal CBA mice and are unresponsive to a certain class of antigens...
  4. Jumaa H, Mitterer M, Reth M, Nielsen P. The absence of SLP65 and Btk blocks B cell development at the preB cell receptor-positive stage. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:2164-9 pubmed
    ..A strikingly similar phenotype is observed in Btk-deficient mice...
  5. Popi A, Lopes J, Mariano M. Interleukin-10 secreted by B-1 cells modulates the phagocytic activity of murine macrophages in vitro. Immunology. 2004;113:348-54 pubmed
    ..Our results show that peritoneal macrophages from Xid mice, a mouse strain deprived of B-1 cells, have higher phagocytic indexes for zymozan particles when compared with ..
  6. Khan W, Nilsson A, Mizoguchi E, Castigli E, Forsell J, Bhan A, et al. Impaired B cell maturation in mice lacking Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and CD40. Int Immunol. 1997;9:395-405 pubmed
    Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene, in mice, result in reduced numbers and responses of peripheral B cells...
  7. Cariappa A, Kim T, Pillai S. Accelerated emigration of B lymphocytes in the Xid mouse. J Immunol. 1999;162:4417-23 pubmed
    ..A specific maintenance defect was noted in fraction I (IgDhighIgMlow) B cells in Xid mice (which harbor a mutation in Btk)...
  8. Forssell J, Nilsson A, Sideras P. Bruton's tyrosine-kinase-deficient murine B lymphocytes fail to enter S phase when stimulated with anti-immunoglobulin plus interleukin-4. Scand J Immunol. 1999;49:155-61 pubmed
    ..earliest recognized defects of B cells carrying the xid mutation in the gene encoding for Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) was their inability to proliferate in response to anti-immunoglobulin plus interleukin (IL)-4 stimulation...
  9. Tumang J, Negm R, Solt L, Schneider T, Colarusso T, Hastings W, et al. BCR engagement induces Fas resistance in primary B cells in the absence of functional Bruton's tyrosine kinase. J Immunol. 2002;168:2712-9 pubmed
    ..The signaling mediator, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), is required for certain sIg-triggered responses, and Btk is reported to directly bind Fas and block Fas-mediated ..

More Information

Publications76

  1. Kil L, de Bruijn M, van Nimwegen M, Corneth O, van Hamburg J, Dingjan G, et al. Btk levels set the threshold for B-cell activation and negative selection of autoreactive B cells in mice. Blood. 2012;119:3744-56 pubmed publisher
    ..the B-cell receptor (BCR), B cells up-regulate protein expression of the key downstream signaling molecule Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk), but the effects of Btk up-regulation on B-cell function are unknown...
  2. Koike M, Kikuchi Y, Tominaga A, Takaki S, Akagi K, Miyazaki J, et al. Defective IL-5-receptor-mediated signaling in B cells of X-linked immunodeficient mice. Int Immunol. 1995;7:21-30 pubmed
    ..X-linked immunodeficient (XID) mice do not respond to thymus-independent type II antigens, and have an abnormal response to a variety of ..
  3. Kersseboom R, Ta V, Zijlstra A, Middendorp S, Jumaa H, Van Loo P, et al. Bruton's tyrosine kinase and SLP-65 regulate pre-B cell differentiation and the induction of Ig light chain gene rearrangement. J Immunol. 2006;176:4543-52 pubmed
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and the adapter protein SLP-65 (Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 65 kDa) transmit precursor BCR (pre-BCR) signals that are essential for efficient developmental ..
  4. Vetrie D, Vorechovsky I, Sideras P, Holland J, Davies A, Flinter F, et al. The gene involved in X-linked agammaglobulinaemia is a member of the src family of protein-tyrosine kinases. Nature. 1993;361:226-33 pubmed
    ..The gene is a member of the src family of proto-oncogenes which encode protein-tyrosine kinases. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence that mutations in a src-related gene are involved in human genetic disease. ..
  5. Reid G, Osmond D. B lymphocyte production in the bone marrow of mice with X-linked immunodeficiency (xid). J Immunol. 1985;135:2299-302 pubmed
    CBA/N mice carry an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency (xid) gene manifested by the absence of a B lymphocyte subpopulation, but the manner in which the xid gene exerts its effect on B lymphocyte development is unknown...
  6. Lee K, Xu S, Kang Z, Huo J, Huang M, Liu D, et al. Bruton's tyrosine kinase phosphorylates Toll-like receptor 3 to initiate antiviral response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5791-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK)-deficient macrophages failed to secrete inflammatory cytokines and IFN-? upon TLR3 stimulation and were impaired ..
  7. Jongstra Bilen J, Puig Cano A, Hasija M, Xiao H, Smith C, Cybulsky M. Dual functions of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and Tec kinase during Fcgamma receptor-induced signaling and phagocytosis. J Immunol. 2008;181:288-98 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate in this study that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and Tec, the only Tec kinases expressed by RAW 264.7 cells, are activated throughout phagocytosis...
  8. Petro J, Rahman S, Ballard D, Khan W. Bruton's tyrosine kinase is required for activation of IkappaB kinase and nuclear factor kappaB in response to B cell receptor engagement. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1745-54 pubmed
    Mutations in the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase (btk) cause the B cell deficiency diseases X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) in mice...
  9. Santos Argumedo L, Lund F, Heath A, Solvason N, Wu W, Grimaldi J, et al. CD38 unresponsiveness of xid B cells implicates Bruton's tyrosine kinase (btk) as a regular of CD38 induced signal transduction. Int Immunol. 1995;7:163-70 pubmed
    ..In light of the recent proposal that the xid gene encodes a tyrosine kinase called Bruton's tyrosine kinase (btk), these data suggest that btk is either an integral component or an indirect regulator of the CD38-induced signal ..
  10. Klaus G, Holman M, Johnson Leger C, Elgueta Karstegl C, Atkins C. A re-evaluation of the effects of X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) mutation on B cell differentiation and function in the mouse. Eur J Immunol. 1997;27:2749-56 pubmed
    CBA/N (xid) mice have a point mutation in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (btk), which results in their failure to respond to T-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens, and to several B cell mitogens [most notably anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)] in vitro...
  11. Hasbold J, Klaus G. B cells from CBA/N mice do not proliferate following ligation of CD40. Eur J Immunol. 1994;24:152-7 pubmed
    The CBA/N mouse carries the X-linked immunodeficiency xid, resulting in defective B cell development...
  12. Suzuki H, Terauchi Y, Fujiwara M, Aizawa S, Yazaki Y, Kadowaki T, et al. Xid-like immunodeficiency in mice with disruption of the p85alpha subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Science. 1999;283:390-2 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes are nearly identical to those of Btk-/- or xid (X-linked immunodeficiency) mice...
  13. Suzuki H, Matsuda S, Terauchi Y, Fujiwara M, Ohteki T, Asano T, et al. PI3K and Btk differentially regulate B cell antigen receptor-mediated signal transduction. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:280-6 pubmed
    Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) is thought to activate the tyrosine kinase Btk. However, through analysis of PI3K-/- and Btk-/- mice, B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-induced activation of Btk in mouse B cells was found to be unaffected by ..
  14. Satterthwaite A, Lowell C, Khan W, Sideras P, Alt F, Witte O. Independent and opposing roles for Btk and lyn in B and myeloid signaling pathways. J Exp Med. 1998;188:833-44 pubmed
    Transphosphorylation by Src family kinases is required for the activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)...
  15. Hata D, Kawakami Y, Inagaki N, Lantz C, Kitamura T, Khan W, et al. Involvement of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in FcepsilonRI-dependent mast cell degranulation and cytokine production. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1235-47 pubmed
    We investigated the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in FcepsilonRI-dependent activation of mouse mast cells, using xid and btk null mutant mice...
  16. Mangla A, Khare A, Vineeth V, Panday N, Mukhopadhyay A, Ravindran B, et al. Pleiotropic consequences of Bruton tyrosine kinase deficiency in myeloid lineages lead to poor inflammatory responses. Blood. 2004;104:1191-7 pubmed
    b>Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk), a non-receptor-associated tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, appears to participate in many myeloid cell functions...
  17. Kouro T, Nagata K, Takaki S, Nisitani S, Hirano M, Wahl M, et al. Bruton's tyrosine kinase is required for signaling the CD79b-mediated pro-B to pre-B cell transition. Int Immunol. 2001;13:485-93 pubmed
    ..Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays important roles in B cell development...
  18. Hendriks R, de Bruijn M, Maas A, Dingjan G, Karis A, Grosveld F. Inactivation of Btk by insertion of lacZ reveals defects in B cell development only past the pre-B cell stage. EMBO J. 1996;15:4862-72 pubmed
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a cytoplasmic protein kinase that is defective in X-linked agammaglobulinaemia in man and in X-linked immunodeficiency in the mouse...
  19. Steinberg B, Smathers P, Frederiksen K, Steinberg A. Ability of the xid gene to prevent autoimmunity in (NZB X NZW)F1 mice during the course of their natural history, after polyclonal stimulation, or following immunization with DNA. J Clin Invest. 1982;70:587-97 pubmed
    ..By a series of matings, congenic (NZB X NZW)F1 . xid/xid mice were prepared...
  20. Forrester L, Ansell J, Micklem H. Development of B lymphocytes in mice heterozygous for the X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) mutation. xid inhibits development of all splenic and lymph node B cells at a stage subsequent to their initial formation in bone marrow. J Exp Med. 1987;165:949-58 pubmed
    CBA/N mice were crossed with CBA/Ca-Pgk-1a to produce female F1 hybrids that were heterozygous for both xid and the phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK-1) allozymes...
  21. Mukhopadhyay S, George A, Bal V, Ravindran B, Rath S. Bruton's tyrosine kinase deficiency in macrophages inhibits nitric oxide generation leading to enhancement of IL-12 induction. J Immunol. 1999;163:1786-92 pubmed
    ..Our data thus suggest that Bruton's tyrosine kinase participates in signaling for iNOS induction via IFN regulatory factor-1 in macrophages and that NO is an inhibitor of IL-12 induction. ..
  22. Kawakami Y, Inagaki N, Salek Ardakani S, Kitaura J, Tanaka H, Nagao K, et al. Regulation of dendritic cell maturation and function by Bruton's tyrosine kinase via IL-10 and Stat3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:153-8 pubmed
    b>Btk plays crucial roles in the differentiation and activation of B and myeloid cells. Despite drastic reductions of other Ig isotypes, paradoxically high IgE responses have been known in btk mutant mice...
  23. Rawlings D, Saffran D, Tsukada S, Largaespada D, Grimaldi J, Cohen L, et al. Mutation of unique region of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in immunodeficient XID mice. Science. 1993;261:358-61 pubmed
    The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk, formerly bpk or atk), is crucial for B cell development...
  24. Maas A, Dingjan G, Grosveld F, Hendriks R. Early arrest in B cell development in transgenic mice that express the E41K Bruton's tyrosine kinase mutant under the control of the CD19 promoter region. J Immunol. 1999;162:6526-33 pubmed
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a nonreceptor protein kinase that is defective in X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans and in X-linked immunodeficiency in mice...
  25. Bajpai U, Zhang K, Teutsch M, Sen R, Wortis H. Bruton's tyrosine kinase links the B cell receptor to nuclear factor kappaB activation. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1735-44 pubmed
    ..Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, is essential for the full repertoire of IgM signals to be ..
  26. Kersseboom R, Middendorp S, Dingjan G, Dahlenborg K, Reth M, Jumaa H, et al. Bruton's tyrosine kinase cooperates with the B cell linker protein SLP-65 as a tumor suppressor in Pre-B cells. J Exp Med. 2003;198:91-8 pubmed
    ..of the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) leads to activation of the adaptor molecule SLP-65 and the cytoplasmic kinase Btk. Mice deficient for one of these signaling proteins have an incomplete block in B cell development at the stage of ..
  27. Fukuda M, Kojima T, Kabayama H, Mikoshiba K. Mutation of the pleckstrin homology domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in immunodeficiency impaired inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate binding capacity. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:30303-6 pubmed
    ..PH) domain of the Btk gene cause human X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and murine X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid)...
  28. Patterson H, Kraus M, Kim Y, Ploegh H, Rajewsky K. The B cell receptor promotes B cell activation and proliferation through a non-ITAM tyrosine in the Igalpha cytoplasmic domain. Immunity. 2006;25:55-65 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Igalpha non-ITAM tyrosine 204 promotes a distinct cellular response, namely T-independent B cell proliferation and differentiation via phosphorylation of the adaptor BLNK. ..
  29. Melcher M, Unger B, Schmidt U, Rajantie I, Alitalo K, Ellmeier W. Essential roles for the Tec family kinases Tec and Btk in M-CSF receptor signaling pathways that regulate macrophage survival. J Immunol. 2008;180:8048-56 pubmed
    ..Compared with wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cultures, Tec(-/-)Btk(-/-) BMM cultures displayed increased cell death that correlated with a severe drop in macrophage numbers...
  30. Mosier D. Are xid B lymphocytes representative of any normal B cell population. A commentary. J Mol Cell Immunol. 1985;2:70 pubmed
  31. Sprent J, Bruce J, Ron Y, Webb S. Physiology of B cells in mice with X-linked immunodeficiency. I. Size, migratory properties, and turnover of the B cell pool. J Immunol. 1985;134:1442-8 pubmed
    In terms of certain immune functions and density of surface IgM, B cells from xid mice are often viewed as the equivalent of the immature (Lyb-5-) B cell subset of normal adult mice...
  32. Mohammad D, Nore B, Hussain A, Gustafsson M, Mohamed A, Smith C. Dual phosphorylation of Btk by Akt/protein kinase b provides docking for 14-3-3?, regulates shuttling, and attenuates both tonic and induced signaling in B cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3214-26 pubmed publisher
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is crucial for B-lymphocyte activation and development. Mutations in the Btk gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) in mice...
  33. Ellmeier W, Jung S, Sunshine M, Hatam F, Xu Y, Baltimore D, et al. Severe B cell deficiency in mice lacking the tec kinase family members Tec and Btk. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1611-24 pubmed
    ..To reveal potential compensatory roles of other Tec kinases such as Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), Tec/Btk double-deficient mice were generated...
  34. Sharma S, Orlowski G, Song W. Btk regulates B cell receptor-mediated antigen processing and presentation by controlling actin cytoskeleton dynamics in B cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:329-39 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identify Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) as a linker connecting BCR signaling to actin dynamics and the Ag transport pathway...
  35. Strijbis K, Tafesse F, Fairn G, Witte M, Dougan S, Watson N, et al. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1 contribute to Dectin1-dependent phagocytosis of Candida albicans in macrophages. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003446 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify two new interacting proteins of Dectin-1 in macrophages, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1. BTK and Vav1 are recruited to phagocytic cups containing C...
  36. Tsukada S, Saffran D, Rawlings D, Parolini O, Allen R, Klisak I, et al. Deficient expression of a B cell cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase in human X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Cell. 1993;72:279-90 pubmed
    We describe a novel cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, termed BPK (B cell progenitor kinase), which is expressed in all stages of the B lineage and in myeloid cells...
  37. Kawakami Y, Miura T, Bissonnette R, Hata D, Khan W, Kitamura T, et al. Bruton's tyrosine kinase regulates apoptosis and JNK/SAPK kinase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3938-42 pubmed
    Mast cells derived from Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-defective xid or btk null mice showed greater expansion in culture containing interleukin-3 (IL-3) than those from wild-type (wt) mice...
  38. Karagogeos D, Rosenberg N, Wortis H. Early arrest of B cell development in nude, X-linked immune-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 1986;16:1125-30 pubmed
    Mice simultaneously expressing the nude and xid mutations have a severe deficit of both mature T and B cells. We now report studies designed to determine at which point in B cell differentiation development is arrested...
  39. Honigberg L, Smith A, Sirisawad M, Verner E, Loury D, Chang B, et al. The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor PCI-32765 blocks B-cell activation and is efficacious in models of autoimmune disease and B-cell malignancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13075-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) is specifically required for BCR signaling as demonstrated by human and mouse mutations that disrupt ..
  40. Liu X, Zhan Z, Li D, Xu L, Ma F, Zhang P, et al. Intracellular MHC class II molecules promote TLR-triggered innate immune responses by maintaining activation of the kinase Btk. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular MHC class II molecules interacted with the tyrosine kinase Btk via the costimulatory molecule CD40 and maintained Btk activation, but cell surface MHC class II molecules did not...
  41. Khan W, Alt F, Gerstein R, Malynn B, Larsson I, Rathbun G, et al. Defective B cell development and function in Btk-deficient mice. Immunity. 1995;3:283-99 pubmed
    ..agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and to milder B cell activation deficiencies in murine X-linked immune deficiency (Xid)...
  42. Vijayan V, Baumgart Vogt E, Naidu S, Qian G, Immenschuh S. Bruton's tyrosine kinase is required for TLR-dependent heme oxygenase-1 gene activation via Nrf2 in macrophages. J Immunol. 2011;187:817-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, it is demonstrated that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), the gene of which is mutated in the human immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia, is involved in the ..
  43. Schmidt N, Thieu V, Mann B, Ahyi A, Kaplan M. Bruton's tyrosine kinase is required for TLR-induced IL-10 production. J Immunol. 2006;177:7203-10 pubmed
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a critical signaling mediator downstream of the B cell Ag receptor...
  44. Yamada N, Kawakami Y, Kimura H, Fukamachi H, Baier G, Altman A, et al. Structure and expression of novel protein-tyrosine kinases, Emb and Emt, in hematopoietic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;192:231-40 pubmed
    ..6-kb mRNA in mast cells, myeloid cells and T lymphocytes. The evidence for in vitro tyrosine kinase activity of Emb and Emt proteins is also provided. ..
  45. Hendriks R, Kersseboom R. Involvement of SLP-65 and Btk in tumor suppression and malignant transformation of pre-B cells. Semin Immunol. 2006;18:67-76 pubmed
    ..In the mouse, the downstream signaling molecules SLP-65 and Btk cooperate to limit proliferation and induce differentiation of pre-B cells, thereby acting as tumor suppressors to ..
  46. Middendorp S, Dingjan G, Hendriks R. Impaired precursor B cell differentiation in Bruton's tyrosine kinase-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2002;168:2695-703 pubmed
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a cytoplasmic signaling molecule that is crucial for precursor (pre-B) cell differentiation in humans...
  47. Brorson K, Brunswick M, Ezhevsky S, Wei D, Berg R, Scott D, et al. xid affects events leading to B cell cycle entry. J Immunol. 1997;159:135-43 pubmed
    ..patients and X-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice possess mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk kinase) gene and display defects in B cell development and activation by sIg cross-linking...
  48. Oka Y, Rolink A, Andersson J, Kamanaka M, Uchida J, Yasui T, et al. Profound reduction of mature B cell numbers, reactivities and serum Ig levels in mice which simultaneously carry the XID and CD40 deficiency genes. Int Immunol. 1996;8:1675-85 pubmed
    ..X-linked immunodeficiency (XID) mice are deficient only in some of the sIgM+sIgD+ B cells...
  49. Lajaunias F, Nitschke L, Moll T, Martinez Soria E, Semac I, Chicheportiche Y, et al. Differentially regulated expression and function of CD22 in activated B-1 and B-2 lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2002;168:6078-83 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the expression and function of CD22 are differentially regulated in B-1 and conventional B-2 cells, which are apparently implicated in innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. ..
  50. Mukhopadhyay S, Mohanty M, Mangla A, George A, Bal V, Rath S, et al. Macrophage effector functions controlled by Bruton's tyrosine kinase are more crucial than the cytokine balance of T cell responses for microfilarial clearance. J Immunol. 2002;168:2914-21 pubmed
    Macrophages from X-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice lacking functional Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) show poor NO induction and enhanced IL-12 induction, and contribute to delayed clearance of injected microfilaria (mf) in vivo...
  51. Satterthwaite A, Cheroutre H, Khan W, Sideras P, Witte O. Btk dosage determines sensitivity to B cell antigen receptor cross-linking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13152-7 pubmed
    Mutations in Btk result in the B cell immunodeficiencies X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) in mice...
  52. Scher I. The CBA/N mouse strain: an experimental model illustrating the influence of the X-chromosome on immunity. Adv Immunol. 1982;33:1-71 pubmed
  53. Hasan M, Lopez Herrera G, Blomberg K, Lindvall J, Berglof A, Smith C, et al. Defective Toll-like receptor 9-mediated cytokine production in B cells from Bruton's tyrosine kinase-deficient mice. Immunology. 2008;123:239-49 pubmed
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of B cells. Mutations affecting Btk cause immunodeficiency in both humans and mice...
  54. Solvason N, Wu W, Kabra N, Lund Johansen F, Roncarolo M, Behrens T, et al. Transgene expression of bcl-xL permits anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)-induced proliferation in xid B cells. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1081-91 pubmed
    Mutations in the tyrosine kinase, Btk, result in a mild immunodeficiency in mice (xid)...
  55. Kerner J, Appleby M, Mohr R, Chien S, Rawlings D, Maliszewski C, et al. Impaired expansion of mouse B cell progenitors lacking Btk. Immunity. 1995;3:301-12 pubmed
    Mutations in the gene encoding the protein tyrosine kinase Btk are associated with the human B cell immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)...
  56. Dingjan G, Middendorp S, Dahlenborg K, Maas A, Grosveld F, Hendriks R. Bruton's tyrosine kinase regulates the activation of gene rearrangements at the lambda light chain locus in precursor B cells in the mouse. J Exp Med. 2001;193:1169-78 pubmed
    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase involved in precursor B (pre-B) cell receptor signaling...
  57. Thomas J, Sideras P, Smith C, Vorechovsky I, Chapman V, Paul W. Colocalization of X-linked agammaglobulinemia and X-linked immunodeficiency genes. Science. 1993;261:355-8 pubmed
    ..A backcross of 1114 progeny revealed the colocalization of xid with Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (btk) gene, which is implicated in the human immune deficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia...
  58. Ormsby T, Schlecker E, Ferdin J, Tessarz A, Angelisova P, Koprulu A, et al. Btk is a positive regulator in the TREM-1/DAP12 signaling pathway. Blood. 2011;118:936-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk), a member of the Tec kinases, becomes phosphorylated upon TREM-1 triggering...
  59. Scribner C, Hansen C, Klinman D, Steinberg A. The interaction of the xid and me genes. J Immunol. 1987;138:3611-7 pubmed
    ..me) mutation has been bred onto the NFS background and combined with the X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) mutation to investigate the effect of the xid-induced B cell maturational block on the widespread immune ..
  60. Scher I, Ahmed A, Strong D, Steinberg A, Paul W. X-linked B-lymphocyte immune defect in CBA/HN mice. I. Studies of the function and composition of spleen cells. J Exp Med. 1975;141:788-803 pubmed
    ..The possible nature of this defect and the similarity of the immune defect in these mice to certain human X-linked immunodeficiency diseases are discussed...
  61. Mueller H, Stadtmann A, Van Aken H, Hirsch E, Wang D, Ley K, et al. Tyrosine kinase Btk regulates E-selectin-mediated integrin activation and neutrophil recruitment by controlling phospholipase C (PLC) gamma2 and PI3Kgamma pathways. Blood. 2010;115:3118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The Tec family kinase Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) is required for activating both pathways, generating inositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), and ..
  62. Sprent J, Bruce J. Physiology of B cells in mice with X-linked immunodeficiency (xid). III. Disappearance of xid B cells in double bone marrow chimeras. J Exp Med. 1984;160:711-23 pubmed
    Evidence is presented that B cells from mice with X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) differentiate at a slower rate than normal B cells...
  63. Lee K, Xu S, Wong E, Tergaonkar V, Lam K. Bruton's tyrosine kinase separately regulates NFkappaB p65RelA activation and cytokine interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12 production in TLR9-stimulated B Cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..B lymphocytes express both B cell receptor and Toll-like receptors (TLR). We show here that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a critical component in B cell receptor signaling, is also involved in TLR9 signaling in B cells...
  64. Merkel A, Atmosukarto I, Stevens K, Rathjen P, Booker G. Splice variants of the mouse Tec gene are differentially expressed in vivo. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1999;84:132-9 pubmed
    ..6 kb 5' to the gene for Txk, a Tec family member. Comparison of mouse and human Btk, human TXK, and mouse Tec genomic structures shows a high level of conservation of exon/intron boundaries...
  65. Ridderstad A, Nossal G, Tarlinton D. The xid mutation diminishes memory B cell generation but does not affect somatic hypermutation and selection. J Immunol. 1996;157:3357-65 pubmed
    ..we examine the relationship between primary and secondary T cell-dependent immune responses using the response of xid mice to the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP) as an experimental model...
  66. Setoguchi R, Kinashi T, Sagara H, Hirosawa K, Takatsu K. Defective degranulation and calcium mobilization of bone-marrow derived mast cells from Xid and Btk-deficient mice. Immunol Lett. 1998;64:109-18 pubmed
    ..regulation of adhesion and degranulation by using bone marrow-derived mast cells from X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) and Btk-deficient mice...
  67. Fruman D, Snapper S, Yballe C, Davidson L, Yu J, Alt F, et al. Impaired B cell development and proliferation in absence of phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85alpha. Science. 1999;283:393-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, T cell development and proliferation was normal. This phenotype is similar to defects observed in mice lacking the tyrosine kinase Btk.