Gene Symbol: Bsn
Description: bassoon
Alias: protein bassoon, presynaptic cytomatrix protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Bsn

Top Publications

  1. tom Dieck S, Sanmarti Vila L, Langnaese K, Richter K, Kindler S, Soyke A, et al. Bassoon, a novel zinc-finger CAG/glutamine-repeat protein selectively localized at the active zone of presynaptic nerve terminals. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:499-509 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Bassoon is a strong candidate to be involved in cytomatrix organization at the site of neurotransmitter release. ..
  2. Hallermann S, Fejtova A, Schmidt H, Weyhersmüller A, Silver R, Gundelfinger E, et al. Bassoon speeds vesicle reloading at a central excitatory synapse. Neuron. 2010;68:710-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that the cytomatrix protein Bassoon speeds the reloading of vesicles to release sites at a central excitatory synapse.
  3. Lanore F, Blanchet C, Fejtova A, Pinheiro P, Richter K, Balschun D, et al. Impaired development of hippocampal mossy fibre synapses in mouse mutants for the presynaptic scaffold protein Bassoon. J Physiol. 2010;588:2133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..altered during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development in mutant mice lacking the central region of Bassoon (Bsn(-/-) mice)...
  4. Frank T, Rutherford M, Strenzke N, Neef A, Pangrsic T, Khimich D, et al. Bassoon and the synaptic ribbon organize Ca²+ channels and vesicles to add release sites and promote refilling. Neuron. 2010;68:724-38 pubmed publisher
    ..structure and function of hair cell ribbon synapses following genetic disruption of the presynaptic scaffold protein Bassoon. Mutant synapses--mostly lacking the ribbon--showed a reduction in membrane-proximal vesicles, with ..
  5. Heyden A, Ionescu M, Romorini S, Kracht B, Ghiglieri V, Calabresi P, et al. Hippocampal enlargement in Bassoon-mutant mice is associated with enhanced neurogenesis, reduced apoptosis, and abnormal BDNF levels. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;346:11-26 pubmed publisher
    Mice mutant for the presynaptic protein Bassoon develop epileptic seizures and an altered pattern of neuronal activity that is accompanied by abnormal enlargement of several brain structures, with the strongest size increase in ..
  6. Angenstein F, Niessen H, Goldschmidt J, Lison H, Altrock W, Gundelfinger E, et al. Manganese-enhanced MRI reveals structural and functional changes in the cortex of Bassoon mutant mice. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:28-36 pubmed
    ..ME-MRI) was used to analyze the brain architecture in mice lacking the functional presynaptic active zone protein Bassoon. Anatomical characterization revealed a significant increase in the total brain volume in Bassoon mutants as ..
  7. Altrock W, Tom Dieck S, Sokolov M, Meyer A, Sigler A, Brakebusch C, et al. Functional inactivation of a fraction of excitatory synapses in mice deficient for the active zone protein bassoon. Neuron. 2003;37:787-800 pubmed
    Mutant mice lacking the central region of the presynaptic active zone protein Bassoon were generated to establish the role of this protein in the assembly and function of active zones as sites of synaptic vesicle docking and fusion...
  8. Dick O, Tom Dieck S, Altrock W, Ammermüller J, Weiler R, Garner C, et al. The presynaptic active zone protein bassoon is essential for photoreceptor ribbon synapse formation in the retina. Neuron. 2003;37:775-86 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the role of the presynaptic cytomatrix protein Bassoon, a major component of the photoreceptor ribbon, in a mouse retina deficient of functional ..
  9. Tom Dieck S, Altrock W, Kessels M, Qualmann B, Regus H, Brauner D, et al. Molecular dissection of the photoreceptor ribbon synapse: physical interaction of Bassoon and RIBEYE is essential for the assembly of the ribbon complex. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:825-36 pubmed
    ..In mice deficient for the CAZ protein Bassoon, ribbons are not anchored to the presynaptic membrane but float freely in the cytoplasm...

More Information


  1. Khimich D, Nouvian R, Pujol R, Tom Dieck S, Egner A, Gundelfinger E, et al. Hair cell synaptic ribbons are essential for synchronous auditory signalling. Nature. 2005;434:889-94 pubmed
    ..Here we show that anchoring of IHC ribbons is impaired in mouse mutants for the presynaptic scaffolding protein Bassoon. The lack of active-zone-anchored synaptic ribbons reduced the presynaptic readily releasable vesicle pool, ..
  2. Buran B, Strenzke N, Neef A, Gundelfinger E, Moser T, Liberman M. Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7587-97 pubmed publisher
  3. Mukherjee K, Yang X, Gerber S, Kwon H, Ho A, Castillo P, et al. Piccolo and bassoon maintain synaptic vesicle clustering without directly participating in vesicle exocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that piccolo and bassoon play a redundant role in synaptic vesicle clustering in nerve terminals without directly participating in neurotransmitter release. ..
  4. Wang X, Hu B, Zieba A, Neumann N, Kasper Sonnenberg M, Honsbein A, et al. A protein interaction node at the neurotransmitter release site: domains of Aczonin/Piccolo, Bassoon, CAST, and rim converge on the N-terminal domain of Munc13-1. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12584-96 pubmed publisher
  5. Sato S, Omori Y, Katoh K, Kondo M, Kanagawa M, Miyata K, et al. Pikachurin, a dystroglycan ligand, is essential for photoreceptor ribbon synapse formation. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This may also advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the retinal electrophysiological abnormalities observed in muscular dystrophy patients. ..
  6. Ivanova D, Dirks A, Montenegro Venegas C, Schöne C, Altrock W, Marini C, et al. Synaptic activity controls localization and function of CtBP1 via binding to Bassoon and Piccolo. EMBO J. 2015;34:1056-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our combined results reveal a mechanism for coupling activity-induced molecular rearrangements in the presynapse with reconfiguration of neuronal gene expression. ..
  7. Laguna A, Aranda S, Barallobre M, Barhoum R, Fernandez E, Fotaki V, et al. The protein kinase DYRK1A regulates caspase-9-mediated apoptosis during retina development. Dev Cell. 2008;15:841-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a model in which dysregulation of the apoptotic response in differentiating neurons participates in the neuropathology of diseases that display DYRK1A gene-dosage imbalance effects, such as Down's syndrome. ..
  8. Specht D, Wu S, Turner P, Dearden P, Koentgen F, Wolfrum U, et al. Effects of presynaptic mutations on a postsynaptic Cacna1s calcium channel colocalized with mGluR6 at mouse photoreceptor ribbon synapses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:505-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, detection of Cacna1s and Serca2 in ON-bipolar cell dendrites in wild-type animals suggests a putative role in regulation of postsynaptic Ca(2+) flux. ..
  9. Mendoza Schulz A, Jing Z, Sánchez Caro J, Wetzel F, Dresbach T, Strenzke N, et al. Bassoon-disruption slows vesicle replenishment and induces homeostatic plasticity at a CNS synapse. EMBO J. 2014;33:512-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we conclude that bassoon promotes vesicular replenishment and, consequently, a large standing pool of readily releasable synaptic vesicles at the endbulb synapse. ..
  10. Uemura T, Mishina M. The amino-terminal domain of glutamate receptor delta2 triggers presynaptic differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:1315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GluRdelta2 triggers presynaptic differentiation by direct interaction with presynaptic components through the NTD. ..
  11. Angenstein F, Hilfert L, Zuschratter W, Altrock W, Niessen H, Gundelfinger E. Morphological and metabolic changes in the cortex of mice lacking the functional presynaptic active zone protein bassoon: a combined 1H-NMR spectroscopy and histochemical study. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:890-7 pubmed
    Mice lacking functional presynaptic active zone protein Bassoon are characterized by an enlarged cerebral cortex and an altered cortical activation pattern...
  12. Ghiglieri V, Picconi B, Sgobio C, Bagetta V, Barone I, Paille V, et al. Epilepsy-induced abnormal striatal plasticity in Bassoon mutant mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:1979-93 pubmed publisher
    ..As the absence of functional scaffolding protein Bassoon in mutant mice is associated with the development of pronounced spontaneous seizures, we utilized this new ..
  13. Koike C, Obara T, Uriu Y, Numata T, Sanuki R, Miyata K, et al. TRPM1 is a component of the retinal ON bipolar cell transduction channel in the mGluR6 cascade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that TRPM1-L is a component of the ON BC transduction channel downstream of mGluR6 in ON BCs. ..
  14. Yao J, Ong S, Bajjalieh S. Huntingtin is associated with cytomatrix proteins at the presynaptic terminal. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2014;63:96-100 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate htt in presynaptic functioning, and suggest that aberrant organization of presynaptic components may contribute to the neurological pathology associated with HD. ..
  15. Huang L, Barclay M, Lee K, Peter S, Housley G, Thorne P, et al. Synaptic profiles during neurite extension, refinement and retraction in the developing cochlea. Neural Dev. 2012;7:38 pubmed publisher
    ..The OHC connections are then selectively eliminated, leaving sparse innervation by type II afferent fibres, whilst the type I afferent synapses with IHCs are consolidated...
  16. Ohsawa S, Hamada S, Kuida K, Yoshida H, Igaki T, Miura M. Maturation of the olfactory sensory neurons by Apaf-1/caspase-9-mediated caspase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13366-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Apaf-1/caspase-9-mediated nonapoptotic caspase signaling is required for the proper neural network formation during olfactory development. ..
  17. Joo J, Lee S, Uemura T, Yoshida T, Yasumura M, Watanabe M, et al. Differential interactions of cerebellin precursor protein (Cbln) subtypes and neurexin variants for synapse formation of cortical neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406:627-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Cbln subtypes exert synaptogenic activities in cortical neurons by differentially interacting with NRXN variants containing S4. ..
  18. Yoshida T, Shiroshima T, Lee S, Yasumura M, Uemura T, Chen X, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein organizes neuronal synaptogenesis as a cell adhesion molecule. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2588-600 pubmed publisher
    ..isoforms in cultured cortical neurons suppressed synapse formation as indicated by decreases of active zone protein Bassoon puncta and dendritic protrusions...
  19. Dieni S, Matsumoto T, Dekkers M, Rauskolb S, Ionescu M, Deogracias R, et al. BDNF and its pro-peptide are stored in presynaptic dense core vesicles in brain neurons. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:775-88 pubmed publisher
    ..They instead provide an ultrastructural basis for an anterograde mode of action of BDNF, contrasting with the long-established retrograde model derived from experiments with nerve growth factor in the peripheral nervous system...
  20. Tom Dieck S, Specht D, Strenzke N, Hida Y, Krishnamoorthy V, Schmidt K, et al. Deletion of the presynaptic scaffold CAST reduces active zone size in rod photoreceptors and impairs visual processing. J Neurosci. 2012;32:12192-203 pubmed
    ..However, rod synapses of CAST(-/-) mice, unlike in mouse mutants for the CAZ protein Bassoon, displayed anchored ribbons, normal vesicle densities, clustered Ca(2+) channels, and essentially normal ..
  21. Wong A, Rutherford M, Gabrielaitis M, Pangrsic T, Göttfert F, Frank T, et al. Developmental refinement of hair cell synapses tightens the coupling of Ca2+ influx to exocytosis. EMBO J. 2014;33:247-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that IHC synapses undergo major developmental refinements, resulting in tighter spatial coupling between Ca(2)(+) influx and exocytosis. ..
  22. Persons D, Paulson R, Loyd M, Herley M, Bodner S, Bernstein A, et al. Fv2 encodes a truncated form of the Stk receptor tyrosine kinase. Nat Genet. 1999;23:159-65 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the Fv2 locus encodes Ron, and that a naturally expressed, truncated form of Stk confers susceptibility to Friend virus-induced erythroleukaemia...
  23. Kneussel M, Haverkamp S, Fuhrmann J, Wang H, Wassle H, Olsen R, et al. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR)-associated protein GABARAP interacts with gephyrin but is not involved in receptor anchoring at the synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8594-9 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this idea, a close homolog of GABARAP, p16, has been found to function as a late-acting intra-Golgi transport factor. ..
  24. Dani A, Huang B, BERGAN J, Dulac C, Zhuang X. Superresolution imaging of chemical synapses in the brain. Neuron. 2010;68:843-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination with optogenetics further allowed molecular events associated with synaptic plasticity to be resolved at the single-synapse level. ..
  25. Ross J, Webster R, Lechertier T, Reynolds L, Turmaine M, Bencze M, et al. Multiple roles of integrin-α3 at the neuromuscular junction. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:1772-1784 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate multiple roles of integrin-α3 at the NMJ, and suggest that alterations in its function could underlie defects that occur in neurodegeneration or ageing. ..
  26. Fuchs M, Brandst tter J, Regus Leidig H. Evidence for a Clathrin-independent mode of endocytosis at a continuously active sensory synapse. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:60 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that rod and cone photoreceptors possess an additional Clathrin-independent mode of vesicle retrieval supporting the continuous synaptic vesicle supply during prolonged high activity...
  27. Herrera Molina R, Sarto Jackson I, Montenegro Venegas C, Heine M, Smalla K, Seidenbecher C, et al. Structure of excitatory synapses and GABAA receptor localization at inhibitory synapses are regulated by neuroplastin-65. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:8973-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Np65 is an important regulator of the number and function of synapses in the hippocampus. ..
  28. Reim K, Wegmeyer H, Brandst tter J, Xue M, Rosenmund C, Dresbach T, et al. Structurally and functionally unique complexins at retinal ribbon synapses. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:669-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel CPXs III and IV may contribute to the unique release efficacy of retinal sensory neurons...
  29. Wentzel C, Sommer J, Nair R, Stiefvater A, Sibarita J, Scheiffele P. mSYD1A, a mammalian synapse-defective-1 protein, regulates synaptogenic signaling and vesicle docking. Neuron. 2013;78:1012-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mSYD1A is a regulator of presynaptic release sites at central synapses. ..
  30. Chen J, Mizushige T, Nishimune H. Active zone density is conserved during synaptic growth but impaired in aged mice. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:434-52 pubmed publisher
    ..zones in developing, mature, and aged mouse NMJs by immunohistochemical detection of the active zone-specific protein Bassoon. Bassoon is a cytosolic scaffolding protein essential for the active zone assembly in ribbon synapses and ..
  31. Donovan S, Schweers B, Martins R, Johnson D, Dyer M. Compensation by tumor suppressor genes during retinal development in mice and humans. BMC Biol. 2006;4:14 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest a model that explains why humans are susceptible to retinoblastoma following RB1 loss, but mice require both Rb and p107 gene inactivation. ..
  32. Okerlund N, Schneider K, Leal Ortiz S, Montenegro Venegas C, Kim S, Garner L, et al. Bassoon Controls Presynaptic Autophagy through Atg5. Neuron. 2017;93:897-913.e7 pubmed publisher
  33. Jellali A, Stussi Garaud C, Gasnier B, Rendon A, Sahel J, Dreyfus H, et al. Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina. J Comp Neurol. 2002;449:76-87 pubmed
    ..VIAAT localization in mouse and human horizontal cells further support the role of inhibitory transmitters in lateral inhibition at the photoreceptor terminals. ..
  34. Haverkamp S, Specht D, Majumdar S, Zaidi N, Brandstätter J, Wasco W, et al. Type 4 OFF cone bipolar cells of the mouse retina express calsenilin and contact cones as well as rods. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1087-101 pubmed
    ..In contrast, true cone-selective type 1 and 2 OFF cone bipolar cells did not show sprouting in the Bassoon mouse mutant. ..
  35. Bamji S, Shimazu K, Kimes N, Huelsken J, Birchmeier W, Lu B, et al. Role of beta-catenin in synaptic vesicle localization and presynaptic assembly. Neuron. 2003;40:719-31 pubmed
    ..This study defines a specific role for cadherins and catenins in synapse organization beyond their roles in mediating cell adhesion. ..
  36. Wu F, Li R, Umino Y, Kaczynski T, Sapkota D, Li S, et al. Onecut1 is essential for horizontal cell genesis and retinal integrity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:13053-65, 13065a pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, these results demonstrate that Oc1 is a critical determinant of HC fate, and reveal that HCs are essential for photoreceptor viability, retinal integrity, and normal visual function. ..
  37. Spiwoks Becker I, Lamberti R, tom Dieck S, Spessert R. Evidence for synergistic and complementary roles of Bassoon and darkness in organizing the ribbon synapse. Neuroscience. 2013;236:149-59 pubmed publisher the ribbon synapse has come from observations that, in photoreceptors lacking a full-size scaffolding protein Bassoon (Bsn(?Ex4/5)), dissociation of SRs coincides with perturbed signal transfer...
  38. Iwakura A, Uchigashima M, Miyazaki T, Yamasaki M, Watanabe M. Lack of molecular-anatomical evidence for GABAergic influence on axon initial segment of cerebellar Purkinje cells by the pinceau formation. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9438-48 pubmed publisher
    ..GAD), vesicular GABA transporter vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT), cytomatrix active zone protein bassoon, GABA receptor GABA(A)R?1, and cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-2...
  39. Lee S, Uemura T, Yoshida T, Mishina M. GluR?2 assembles four neurexins into trans-synaptic triad to trigger synapse formation. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4688-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the synaptogenic triad is assembled from tetrameric GluR?2, hexameric Cbln1, and monomeric NRXN in the ratio of 1:2:4. These results suggest that GluR?2 triggers synapse formation by clustering four NRXNs through triad formation. ..
  40. Yoshida T, Yasumura M, Uemura T, Lee S, Ra M, Taguchi R, et al. IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 associated with mental retardation and autism mediates synapse formation by trans-synaptic interaction with protein tyrosine phosphatase ?. J Neurosci. 2011;31:13485-99 pubmed publisher cultured cortical neurons suppressed the accumulation of punctate staining signals for active zone protein Bassoon and decreased the number of dendritic protrusions...
  41. Vosseller K, Trinidad J, Chalkley R, Specht C, Thalhammer A, Lynn A, et al. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine proteomics of postsynaptic density preparations using lectin weak affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:923-34 pubmed
  42. Davydova D, Marini C, King C, Klueva J, Bischof F, Romorini S, et al. Bassoon specifically controls presynaptic P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels via RIM-binding protein. Neuron. 2014;82:181-94 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and CaV2.2 to release sites is largely unknown. Here, we show that the presynaptic scaffolding protein Bassoon localizes specifically CaV2.1 to active zones via molecular interaction with the RIM-binding proteins (RBPs)...
  43. Morelli E, Ghiglieri V, Pendolino V, Bagetta V, Pignataro A, Fejtova A, et al. Environmental enrichment restores CA1 hippocampal LTP and reduces severity of seizures in epileptic mice. Exp Neurol. 2014;261:320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..enrichment (EE) in a seizure-prone mouse model in which the genetic disruption of the presynaptic protein Bassoon leads to structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus and causes early spontaneous seizures ..
  44. Regus Leidig H, Tom Dieck S, Brandstätter J. Absence of functional active zone protein Bassoon affects assembly and transport of ribbon precursors during early steps of photoreceptor synaptogenesis. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:468-75 pubmed publisher
    ..component of the precursor spheres and a key player in attaching the ribbon to the active zone is the presynaptic cytomatrix protein Bassoon...
  45. Waites C, Leal Ortiz S, Okerlund N, Dalke H, Fejtova A, Altrock W, et al. Bassoon and Piccolo maintain synapse integrity by regulating protein ubiquitination and degradation. EMBO J. 2013;32:954-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a novel role for Bassoon and Piccolo as critical regulators of presynaptic ubiquitination and proteostasis. ..
  46. Jing Z, Rutherford M, Takago H, Frank T, Fejtova A, Khimich D, et al. Disruption of the presynaptic cytomatrix protein bassoon degrades ribbon anchorage, multiquantal release, and sound encoding at the hair cell afferent synapse. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4456-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we used genetic disruption of the presynaptic scaffold protein bassoon in mice to manipulate the morphology and function of the IHC synapse...
  47. Schr der M, Stellmacher A, Romorini S, Marini C, Montenegro Venegas C, Altrock W, et al. Regulation of presynaptic anchoring of the scaffold protein Bassoon by phosphorylation-dependent interaction with 14-3-3 adaptor proteins. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58814 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulation mechanism might participate in molecular and structural presynaptic remodeling during synaptic plasticity...
  48. Burkhardt C, Müller M, Badde A, Garner C, Gundelfinger E, Püschel A. Semaphorin 4B interacts with the post-synaptic density protein PSD-95/SAP90 and is recruited to synapses through a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3821-8 pubmed
    ..Sema4B co-localizes with PSD-95 at synaptic contacts between cultured hippocampal neurons. This synaptic localization depends on the presence of the PDZ-binding motif. ..
  49. Hasegawa S, Hamada S, Kumode Y, Esumi S, Katori S, Fukuda E, et al. The protocadherin-alpha family is involved in axonal coalescence of olfactory sensory neurons into glomeruli of the olfactory bulb in mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:66-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Many M71 glomeruli, but apparently not MOR23 glomeruli, are heterogeneous in axonal innervation. Thus, Pcdha molecules are involved in coalescence of OSN axons into OR-specific glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. ..
  50. Chen J, Billings S, Nishimune H. Calcium channels link the muscle-derived synapse organizer laminin ?2 to Bassoon and CAST/Erc2 to organize presynaptic active zones. J Neurosci. 2011;31:512-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that presynaptic VDCCs link the target-derived synapse organizer laminin ?2 to active-zone proteins and function as scaffolding proteins to anchor active-zone proteins to the presynaptic membrane. ..
  51. Nishimune H, Badawi Y, Mori S, Shigemoto K. Dual-color STED microscopy reveals a sandwich structure of Bassoon and Piccolo in active zones of adult and aged mice. Sci Rep. 2016;6:27935 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the localization pattern of active zone proteins described herein is similar to active zone structures described using electron microscope tomography. ..
  52. Specht D, Tom Dieck S, Ammermüller J, Regus Leidig H, Gundelfinger E, Brandstätter J. Structural and functional remodeling in the retina of a mouse with a photoreceptor synaptopathy: plasticity in the rod and degeneration in the cone system. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2506-15 pubmed
    ..In the retinae of mice, mutant for the presynaptic scaffolding protein Bassoon, signal transfer at photoreceptor ribbon synapses is disturbed due to impaired ribbon attachment to the ..