Gene Symbol: Braf
Description: Braf transforming gene
Alias: 9930012E13Rik, AA120551, AA387315, AA473386, B-raf, Braf-2, Braf2, C230098H17, C87398, D6Ertd631e, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (p94), proto-oncogene B-Raf
Species: mouse
Products:     Braf

Top Publications

  1. Wan P, Garnett M, Roe S, Lee S, Niculescu Duvaz D, Good V, et al. Mechanism of activation of the RAF-ERK signaling pathway by oncogenic mutations of B-RAF. Cell. 2004;116:855-67 pubmed
    ..The high activity mutants signal to ERK by directly phosphorylating MEK, whereas the impaired activity mutants stimulate MEK by activating endogenous C-RAF, possibly via an allosteric or transphosphorylation mechanism. ..
  2. Andreadi C, Cheung L, Giblett S, Patel B, Jin H, Mercer K, et al. The intermediate-activity (L597V)BRAF mutant acts as an epistatic modifier of oncogenic RAS by enhancing signaling through the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1945-58 pubmed publisher
    L597V)BRAF mutations are acquired somatically in human cancer samples and are frequently coincident with RAS mutations...
  3. Wu X, Yin J, Simpson J, Kim K, Gu S, Hong J, et al. Increased BRAF heterodimerization is the common pathogenic mechanism for noonan syndrome-associated RAF1 mutants. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3872-90 pubmed publisher
    ..RAF1(D486N), as well as other kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants, showed increased heterodimerization with BRAF, which was necessary and sufficient to promote increased MEK/ERK activation...
  4. Wojnowski L, Zimmer A, Beck T, Hahn H, Bernal R, Rapp U, et al. Endothelial apoptosis in Braf-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 1997;16:293-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice with a targeted disruption in the Braf gene die of vascular defects during mid-gestation. Braf -/- embryos, unlike Araf -/- or Craf1 -/- embryos (L.W...
  5. Trejo C, Juan J, Vicent S, Sweet Cordero A, McMahon M. MEK1/2 inhibition elicits regression of autochthonous lung tumors induced by KRASG12D or BRAFV600E. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3048-59 pubmed publisher
    ..lung cancer, we show the striking similarity of the earliest stages of tumorigenesis induced by KRAS(G12D) or BRAF(V600E)...
  6. Wojnowski L, Stancato L, Larner A, Rapp U, Zimmer A. Overlapping and specific functions of Braf and Craf-1 proto-oncogenes during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2000;91:97-104 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the phenotype of mouse mutants with different combinations of mutant Craf-1 and Braf alleles...
  7. Valluet A, Hmitou I, Davis S, Druillennec S, Larcher M, Laroche S, et al. B-raf alternative splicing is dispensable for development but required for learning and memory associated with the hippocampus in the adult mouse. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15272 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, mice mutated on exon 8b are not impaired in this function. Interestingly, our results suggest that exon 8b is present only in eutherians and its splicing is differentially regulated among species...
  8. Juan J, Muraguchi T, Iezza G, Sears R, McMahon M. Diminished WNT -> ?-catenin -> c-MYC signaling is a barrier for malignant progression of BRAFV600E-induced lung tumors. Genes Dev. 2014;28:561-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, expression of BRAF(V600E) in the mouse lung epithelium elicits benign tumors that fail to progress to cancer due to an apparent ..
  9. Galabova Kovacs G, Kolbus A, Matzen D, Meissl K, Piazzolla D, Rubiolo C, et al. ERK and beyond: insights from B-Raf and Raf-1 conditional knockouts. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:1514-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we discuss some of the surprises yielded by the analysis of the role of B-Raf and Raf-1 and of their downstream effectors. ..

More Information


  1. Goel V, Ibrahim N, Jiang G, Singhal M, Fee S, Flotte T, et al. Melanocytic nevus-like hyperplasia and melanoma in transgenic BRAFV600E mice. Oncogene. 2009;28:2289-98 pubmed publisher
    b>BRAF, a cellular oncogene and effector of RAS-mediated signaling, is activated by mutation in approximately 60% of melanomas. Most of these mutations consist of a V600E substitution resulting in constitutive kinase activation...
  2. Carragher L, Snell K, Giblett S, Aldridge V, Patel B, Cook S, et al. V600EBraf induces gastrointestinal crypt senescence and promotes tumour progression through enhanced CpG methylation of p16INK4a. EMBO Mol Med. 2010;2:458-71 pubmed publisher
    ..a new class of non-APC mutated CRCs has been defined that have a serrated histopathology and carry the (V600E)BRAF oncogene...
  3. Galabova Kovacs G, Catalanotti F, Matzen D, Reyes G, Zezula J, Herbst R, et al. Essential role of B-Raf in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination during postnatal central nervous system development. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These data define B-Raf as the rate-limiting MEK/ERK activator in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination and have implications for the design and use of Raf inhibitors. ..
  4. Pratilas C, Taylor B, Ye Q, Viale A, Sander C, Solit D, et al. (V600E)BRAF is associated with disabled feedback inhibition of RAF-MEK signaling and elevated transcriptional output of the pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4519-24 pubmed publisher
    Tumors with mutant BRAF and those with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation have similar levels of phosphorylated ERK, but only the former depend on ERK signaling for proliferation...
  5. Ritt D, Monson D, Specht S, Morrison D. Impact of feedback phosphorylation and Raf heterodimerization on normal and mutant B-Raf signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:806-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we find that B-Raf and C-Raf proteins containing mutations identified in certain developmental disorders constitutively heterodimerize and that their signaling activity can also be modulated by feedback phosphorylation. ..
  6. Niault T, Baccarini M. Targets of Raf in tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on old and new targets of Raf in tumorigenesis. ..
  7. Mercer K, Giblett S, Green S, Lloyd D, DaRocha Dias S, Plumb M, et al. Expression of endogenous oncogenic V600EB-raf induces proliferation and developmental defects in mice and transformation of primary fibroblasts. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11493-500 pubmed
    ..Thus, (V600E)B-Raf is able to induce several hallmarks of transformation in some primary mouse cells without evidence for the involvement of a cooperating oncogene or tumor suppressor gene. ..
  8. Blasco R, Francoz S, Santamaria D, Canamero M, Dubus P, Charron J, et al. c-Raf, but not B-Raf, is essential for development of K-Ras oncogene-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:652-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that c-Raf plays a unique role in mediating K-Ras signaling and makes it a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  9. Burd C, Sorrentino J, Clark K, Darr D, Krishnamurthy J, Deal A, et al. Monitoring tumorigenesis and senescence in vivo with a p16(INK4a)-luciferase model. Cell. 2013;152:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that p16(INK4a) activation is a characteristic of all emerging cancers, making the p16(LUC) allele a sensitive, unbiased reporter of neoplastic transformation. ..
  10. Zhong J, Li X, McNamee C, Chen A, Baccarini M, Snider W. Raf kinase signaling functions in sensory neuron differentiation and axon growth in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:598-607 pubmed
    ..Elimination of both alleles of Braf, which encodes B-Raf, and one allele of Raf1, which encodes C-Raf, affected DRG neuron maturation as well as ..
  11. Dhomen N, Reis Filho J, da Rocha Dias S, Hayward R, Savage K, Delmas V, et al. Oncogenic Braf induces melanocyte senescence and melanoma in mice. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:294-303 pubmed publisher
    We show here that inducible expression of Braf(V600E) off the endogenous Braf gene in mouse melanocytes stimulates skin hyperpigmentation and the appearance of nevi harboring senescent melanocytes...
  12. Dankort D, Curley D, Cartlidge R, Nelson B, Karnezis A, Damsky W, et al. Braf(V600E) cooperates with Pten loss to induce metastatic melanoma. Nat Genet. 2009;41:544-52 pubmed publisher
    Mutational activation of BRAF is the earliest and most common genetic alteration in human melanoma. To build a model of human melanoma, we generated mice with conditional melanocyte-specific expression of BRaf(V600E)...
  13. Storm S, Cleveland J, Rapp U. Expression of raf family proto-oncogenes in normal mouse tissues. Oncogene. 1990;5:345-51 pubmed
    ..We found no effect of gender on raf expression in non-sex related tissues, nor does tissue germline of origin correlate with levels of expression for any of the three genes. ..
  14. Pritchard C, Hayes L, Wojnowski L, Zimmer A, Marais R, Norman J. B-Raf acts via the ROCKII/LIMK/cofilin pathway to maintain actin stress fibers in fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5937-52 pubmed
    Recent data have shown that the BRAF gene is mutated at a high frequency in human malignancies...
  15. Knauf J, Ma X, Smith E, Zhang L, Mitsutake N, Liao X, et al. Targeted expression of BRAFV600E in thyroid cells of transgenic mice results in papillary thyroid cancers that undergo dedifferentiation. Cancer Res. 2005;65:4238-45 pubmed
    ..Two Tg-BRAFV600E lines (Tg-BRAF2 and Tg-BRAF3) were propagated for detailed analysis...
  16. Galabova Kovacs G, Matzen D, Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Plyushch T, Chen A, et al. Essential role of B-Raf in ERK activation during extraembryonic development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1325-30 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that B-Raf plays a nonredundant role in ERK activation during extraembyronic mammalian development in vivo. ..
  17. Barnier J, Papin C, Eychene A, Lecoq O, Calothy G. The mouse B-raf gene encodes multiple protein isoforms with tissue-specific expression. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:23381-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that distinct B-Raf proteins could be involved, in a tissue-specific manner, in signal transduction pathways. ..
  18. Newbern J, Zhong J, Wickramasinghe R, Li X, Wu Y, Samuels I, et al. Mouse and human phenotypes indicate a critical conserved role for ERK2 signaling in neural crest development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..2 micro-deletion are explained by deficiencies in neural crest autonomous ERK2 signaling. ..
  19. Chen A, Ohno M, Giese K, Kühn R, Chen R, Silva A. Forebrain-specific knockout of B-raf kinase leads to deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83:28-38 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that B-raf plays a role in hippocampal ERK activation, synaptic plasticity, and L&M. ..
  20. Kamata T, Hussain J, Giblett S, Hayward R, Marais R, Pritchard C. BRAF inactivation drives aneuploidy by deregulating CRAF. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8475-86 pubmed publisher
    Aspartate-594 is the third most common BRAF residue mutated in human cancer. Mutants of this residue are kinase inactive, and the mechanism(s) by which they contribute to cancer has remained perplexing...
  21. Dumaz N, Hayward R, Martin J, Ogilvie L, Hedley D, Curtin J, et al. In melanoma, RAS mutations are accompanied by switching signaling from BRAF to CRAF and disrupted cyclic AMP signaling. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9483-91 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, BRAF alone is responsible for signaling to MEK...
  22. Karreth F, Frese K, DeNicola G, Baccarini M, Tuveson D. C-Raf is required for the initiation of lung cancer by K-Ras(G12D). Cancer Discov. 2011;1:128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that K-Ras(G12D) elicits its oncogenic effects primarily through C-Raf and suggest that selective C-Raf inhibition could be explored as a therapeutic strategy for K-Ras-dependent cancers. ..
  23. Ikawa S, Fukui M, Ueyama Y, Tamaoki N, Yamamoto T, Toyoshima K. B-raf, a new member of the raf family, is activated by DNA rearrangement. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:2651-4 pubmed
    ..The gene was termed B-raf because it is related to but distinct from c-raf and A-raf. It appears that substitution in the amino-terminal portion of the normal B-raf protein confers transforming activity to the gene. ..
  24. Camarero G, Tyrsin O, Xiang C, Pfeiffer V, Pleiser S, Wiese S, et al. Cortical migration defects in mice expressing A-RAF from the B-RAF locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7103-15 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal that B-RAF is an important mediator of neuronal survival, migration, and dendrite formation and that A-RAF cannot fully compensate for these functions. ..
  25. Luo C, Sheng J, Hu M, Haluska F, Cui R, Xu Z, et al. Loss of ARF sensitizes transgenic BRAFV600E mice to UV-induced melanoma via suppression of XPC. Cancer Res. 2013;73:4337-48 pubmed publisher
    Both genetic mutations and UV irradiation (UVR) can predispose individuals to melanoma. Although BRAF(V600E) is the most prevalent oncogene in melanoma, the BRAF(V600E) mutant is not sufficient to induce tumors in vivo...
  26. Dankort D, Filenova E, Collado M, Serrano M, Jones K, McMahon M. A new mouse model to explore the initiation, progression, and therapy of BRAFV600E-induced lung tumors. Genes Dev. 2007;21:379-84 pubmed
    Mutationally activated BRAF(V600E) (BRAF(VE)) is detected in approximately 6% of human malignancies and promotes sustained MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway activation...
  27. Sievert A, Lang S, Boucher K, Madsen P, Slaunwhite E, Choudhari N, et al. Paradoxical activation and RAF inhibitor resistance of BRAF protein kinase fusions characterizing pediatric astrocytomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5957-62 pubmed publisher
    Astrocytomas are the most common type of brain tumors in children. Activated BRAF protein kinase mutations are characteristic of pediatric astrocytomas with KIAA1549-BRAF fusion genes typifying low-grade astrocytomas and (V600E)BRAF ..
  28. González Sánchez E, Martin Caballero J, Flores J, Hernandez Losa J, Cortes J, Mares R, et al. Lkb1 loss promotes tumor progression of BRAF(V600E)-induced lung adenomas. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66933 pubmed publisher
    ..Although oncogenic KRAS mutations are frequent, BRAF mutations (BRAF(V600E)) are found in 3% of human non-small cell lung cancers...
  29. Shin J, Watanabe S, Hoelper S, Kruger M, Kostin S, Pöling J, et al. BRAF activates PAX3 to control muscle precursor cell migration during forelimb muscle development. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that BRAF serves a crucial function in formation of limb skeletal muscles during mouse embryogenesis downstream of MET and ..
  30. Le Mercier I, Chen W, Lines J, Day M, Li J, Sergent P, et al. VISTA Regulates the Development of Protective Antitumor Immunity. Cancer Res. 2014;74:1933-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study therefore establishes a foundation for designing VISTA-targeted approaches either as a monotherapy or in combination with additional immune-targeted strategies for cancer immunotherapy. ..
  31. Chen C, Lewis R, White M. IMP modulates KSR1-dependent multivalent complex formation to specify ERK1/2 pathway activation and response thresholds. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12789-96 pubmed publisher
    ..MEK complexes that are required for c-Raf kinase activation and functional coupling of active kinases to downstream substrates. This property is engaged by IMP for modulation of signal amplitude. ..
  32. Gronych J, Korshunov A, Bageritz J, Milde T, Jugold M, Hambardzumyan D, et al. An activated mutant BRAF kinase domain is sufficient to induce pilocytic astrocytoma in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have identified activation of MAPK signaling, mainly by oncogenic BRAF activation, as a hallmark genetic event in the pathogenesis of human PA...
  33. Pytel D, Gao Y, Mackiewicz K, Katlinskaya Y, Staschke K, Paredes M, et al. PERK Is a Haploinsufficient Tumor Suppressor: Gene Dose Determines Tumor-Suppressive Versus Tumor Promoting Properties of PERK in Melanoma. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006518 pubmed publisher
    ..We have evaluated these activities in the BRAF-dependent melanoma and provide evidence revealing a complex role for PERK in melanoma where a 50% reduction is ..
  34. Papaioannou G, Petit E, Liu E, Baccarini M, Pritchard C, Demay M. Raf Kinases Are Essential for Phosphate Induction of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation in Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Normal Endochondral Bone Development. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:3164-3171 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further demonstrated that Raf kinases are required for phosphate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes and perform essential, but partially redundant roles in growth plate maturation. ..
  35. McNeill R, Irvin D, Miller C. BRAF Mutations Open Doors for N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea-Induced Gliomagenesis. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:2551-4 pubmed publisher
    This commentary highlights the article by Wang et al that describes a preclinical model for targeting BRAF-mutant gliomas.
  36. Li J, Feng J, Wang Y, Li X, Chen X, Su Y, et al. The B-Raf(V600E) inhibitor dabrafenib selectively inhibits RIP3 and alleviates acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1278 pubmed publisher
  37. Landrette S, Cornett J, Ni T, Bosenberg M, Xu T. piggyBac transposon somatic mutagenesis with an activated reporter and tracker (PB-SMART) for genetic screens in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26650 pubmed publisher
    ..With these features, PB-SMART provides an integrated platform for individual investigators to harness the power of somatic mutagenesis and phenotypic screens to decipher the genetic basis of mammalian biology and disease. ..
  38. Trejo C, Green S, Marsh V, Collisson E, Iezza G, Phillips W, et al. Mutationally activated PIK3CA(H1047R) cooperates with BRAF(V600E) to promote lung cancer progression. Cancer Res. 2013;73:6448-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, mutationally activated BRAF(V600E), a KRAS effector, fails to initiate lung carcinogenesis despite highly efficient induction of benign lung ..
  39. Cesarini V, Guida E, Todaro F, Di Agostino S, Tassinari V, Nicolis S, et al. Sox2 is not required for melanomagenesis, melanoma growth and melanoma metastasis in vivo. Oncogene. 2017;36:4508-4515 pubmed publisher
    ..By using a mouse model in which BRafV600E mutation cooperates with Pten loss to induce the development of metastatic melanoma, we ..
  40. Inoue S, Moriya M, Watanabe Y, Miyagawa Tomita S, Niihori T, Oba D, et al. New BRAF knockin mice provide a pathogenetic mechanism of developmental defects and a therapeutic approach in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:6553-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Germline mutations in BRAF cause CFC syndrome, which is characterized by heart defects, distinctive facial features and ectodermal ..
  41. Lepoutre Lussey C, Thibault C, Buffet A, Morin A, Badoual C, Bénit P, et al. From Nf1 to Sdhb knockout: Successes and failures in the quest for animal models of pheochromocytoma. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;421:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we present an overview of existing, successful or not, PPGL models, and a description of our own experience on the quest of Sdhb knockout mouse models of PPGL. ..
  42. Xie Y, Wang Y, Sun T, Wang F, Trostinskaia A, Puscheck E, et al. Six post-implantation lethal knockouts of genes for lipophilic MAPK pathway proteins are expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos and trophoblast stem cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2005;71:1-11 pubmed
    ..Studies on RNA expression using RT-PCR suggest that maternal RNA could play an important role in delaying the presence of the lethal phenotype of null mutations. ..
  43. Micevic G, Muthusamy V, Damsky W, Theodosakis N, Liu X, Meeth K, et al. DNMT3b Modulates Melanoma Growth by Controlling Levels of mTORC2 Component RICTOR. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2180-2192 pubmed publisher
    ..a pro-tumorigenic role in human melanoma and that DNMT3B loss dramatically suppresses melanoma formation in the Braf/Pten mouse melanoma model...
  44. Cicchini M, Buza E, Sagal K, Gudiel A, Durham A, Feldser D. Context-Dependent Effects of Amplified MAPK Signaling during Lung Adenocarcinoma Initiation and Progression. Cell Rep. 2017;18:1958-1969 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of MAPK signaling downstream of KrasG12D expression, we capitalized on the ability of Braf inhibition to selectively amplify MAPK pathway signaling in KrasG12D-expressing epithelial cells...
  45. Zou M, Baitei E, BinEssa H, Al Mohanna F, Parhar R, St Arnaud R, et al. Cyp24a1 Attenuation Limits Progression of BrafV600E -Induced Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells and Sensitizes Them to BRAFV600E Inhibitor PLX4720. Cancer Res. 2017;77:2161-2172 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of CYP24A1 on malignant progression of a murine model of BrafV600E -induced papillary thyroid cancer (PTC)...
  46. Dominguez D, Ye C, Geng Z, Chen S, Fan J, Qin L, et al. Exogenous IL-33 Restores Dendritic Cell Activation and Maturation in Established Cancer. J Immunol. 2017;198:1365-1375 pubmed publisher
  47. Hogstad B, Berres M, Chakraborty R, Tang J, Bigenwald C, Serasinghe M, et al. RAF/MEK/extracellular signal-related kinase pathway suppresses dendritic cell migration and traps dendritic cells in Langerhans cell histiocytosis lesions. J Exp Med. 2018;215:319-336 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 60% of LCH patients harbor somatic BRAFV600E mutations localizing to CD207+ DCs within lesions...
  48. Urosevic J, Sauzeau V, Soto Montenegro M, Reig S, Desco M, Wright E, et al. Constitutive activation of B-Raf in the mouse germ line provides a model for human cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5015-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they may serve as a tool to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of B-RAF inhibitors and establish the precise window at which they could be effective against this congenital syndrome...
  49. Dillon T, Karpitski V, Wetzel S, Parker D, Shaw A, Stork P. Ectopic B-Raf expression enhances extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in T cells and prevents antigen-presenting cell-induced anergy. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35940-9 pubmed
    ..However, studies using anti-TCR antibody-induced anergy showed that the ability of ERKs to reverse T cell anergy is dependent on the anergic model utilized. ..
  50. Hagemann C, Rapp U. Isotype-specific functions of Raf kinases. Exp Cell Res. 1999;253:34-46 pubmed
    ..Recently we were able to identify candidates for such Raf-isoform-specific interaction partners. ..
  51. Spranger S, Dai D, Horton B, Gajewski T. Tumor-Residing Batf3 Dendritic Cells Are Required for Effector T Cell Trafficking and Adoptive T Cell Therapy. Cancer Cell. 2017;31:711-723.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that lack of CD103+ DCs within the tumor microenvironment dominantly resists the effector phase of an anti-tumor T cell response, contributing to immune escape. ..
  52. Sithanandam G, Druck T, Cannizzaro L, Leuzzi G, Huebner K, Rapp U. B-raf and a B-raf pseudogene are located on 7q in man. Oncogene. 1992;7:795-9 pubmed
    ..Analysis of genomic B-raf clones identified a B-raf pseudogene in addition to the active gene. Based on the chromosomal mapping data we conclude that the pseudogene is located near the active gene. ..
  53. Wellbrock C, Marais R. Elevated expression of MITF counteracts B-RAF-stimulated melanocyte and melanoma cell proliferation. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:703-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MITF is an anti-proliferation factor that is down-regulated by B-RAF signaling and that this is a crucial event for the progression of melanomas that harbor oncogenic B-RAF. ..
  54. Ho P, Meeth K, Tsui Y, Srivastava B, Bosenberg M, Kaech S. Immune-based antitumor effects of BRAF inhibitors rely on signaling by CD40L and IFN?. Cancer Res. 2014;74:3205-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results establish the critical role of immune-related changes, with key contributions for CD40L and IFN? signaling in the antitumor responses triggered in vivo by B-Raf(V600E) inhibitors. ..
  55. Aytes A, Mitrofanova A, Lefebvre C, Alvarez M, Castillo Martin M, Zheng T, et al. Cross-species regulatory network analysis identifies a synergistic interaction between FOXM1 and CENPF that drives prostate cancer malignancy. Cancer Cell. 2014;25:638-651 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, genome-wide cross-species interrogation of regulatory networks represents a valuable strategy to identify causal mechanisms of human cancer. ..
  56. Zhao Z, Liu X, Jeffry J, Karunarathne W, Li J, Munanairi A, et al. Descending control of itch transmission by the serotonergic system via 5-HT1A-facilitated GRP-GRPR signaling. Neuron. 2014;84:821-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our studies demonstrate that the descending 5-HT system facilitates GRP-GRPR signaling via 5-HT1A to augment itch-specific outputs, and a disruption of crosstalk between 5-HT1A and GRPR may be a useful antipruritic strategy. ..
  57. Moriya M, Inoue S, Miyagawa Tomita S, Nakashima Y, Oba D, Niihori T, et al. Adult mice expressing a Braf Q241R mutation on an ICR/CD-1 background exhibit a cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome phenotype. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:7349-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Germline mutations in BRAF have been identified in 50-75% of patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, which is characterized by ..
  58. Zhao X, Zhang Y, Qin W, Cao J, Zhang Y, Ni J, et al. Serotonin type-1D receptor stimulation of A-type K(+) channel decreases membrane excitability through the protein kinase A- and B-Raf-dependent p38 MAPK pathways in mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons. Cell Signal. 2016;28:979-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This 5-HT1D receptor effect may contribute to neuronal hypoexcitability in small TG neurons. ..
  59. Peng W, Chen J, Liu C, Malu S, Creasy C, Tetzlaff M, et al. Loss of PTEN Promotes Resistance to T Cell-Mediated Immunotherapy. Cancer Discov. 2016;6:202-16 pubmed publisher
    ..As PTEN loss and PI3K-AKT pathway activation occur in multiple tumor types, the results support the rationale to further evaluate combinatorial strategies targeting the PI3K-AKT pathway to increase the efficacy of immunotherapy. ..
  60. Götz R, Wiese S, Takayama S, Camarero G, Rossoll W, Schweizer U, et al. Bag1 is essential for differentiation and survival of hematopoietic and neuronal cells. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1169-78 pubmed
    ..Our data show that Bag1 is a physiological mediator of extracellular survival signals linked to the cellular mechanisms that prevent apoptosis in hematopoietic and neuronal progenitor cells. ..
  61. Peske J, Thompson E, Gemta L, Baylis R, Fu Y, Engelhard V. Effector lymphocyte-induced lymph node-like vasculature enables naive T-cell entry into tumours and enhanced anti-tumour immunity. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7114 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish LN-like vasculature as both a consequence of and key contributor to anti-tumour immunity. ..
  62. Tsukamoto H, Irie A, Senju S, Hatzopoulos A, Wojnowski L, Nishimura Y. B-Raf-mediated signaling pathway regulates T cell development. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we present first evidence for the important role of B-Raf-mediated signaling in T cell development. ..
  63. Halaban R, Krauthammer M. RASopathy Gene Mutations in Melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1755-1759 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we discuss the observations that two or more RASopathy mutations often co-occur in melanoma and may act synergistically on activating the pathway. ..
  64. Eychene A, Dusanter Fourt I, Barnier J, Papin C, Charon M, Gisselbrecht S, et al. Expression and activation of B-Raf kinase isoforms in human and murine leukemia cell lines. Oncogene. 1995;10:1159-65 pubmed
    ..These observations provide the first evidence that the B-Raf kinase is involved in signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of both myeloid and lymphoid lineages. ..
  65. Lee E, Lian Z, D Andrea K, Letrero R, Sheng W, Liu S, et al. The FBXO4 tumor suppressor functions as a barrier to BRAFV600E-dependent metastatic melanoma. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4422-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Fbxo4 deficiency induces Braf-driven melanoma and that this phenotype depends on cyclin D1 accumulation in mice, underscoring the importance of ..
  66. Ren J, Li Z, Sacks D. IQGAP1 integrates Ca2+/calmodulin and B-Raf signaling. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data identify a previously unrecognized mechanism in which the scaffold protein IQGAP1 couples Ca(2+) and calmodulin signaling to B-Raf function. ..
  67. Liu X, Wan L, Huo F, Barry D, Li H, Zhao Z, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide is neither itch-specific nor functions upstream of the GRP-GRPR signaling pathway. Mol Pain. 2014;10:4 pubmed publisher
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