Gene Symbol: Bmp6
Description: bone morphogenetic protein 6
Alias: D13Wsu115e, Vgr1, bone morphogenetic protein 6, VG-1-related protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Bmp6

Top Publications

  1. Yamaji N, Celeste A, Thies R, Song J, Bernier S, Goltzman D, et al. A mammalian serine/threonine kinase receptor specifically binds BMP-2 and BMP-4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;205:1944-51 pubmed
    ..During embryogenesis, in situ hybridization analysis indicates that CFK-43a mRNA is localized in developing skeletal tissues in a complementary fashion to the transcripts for its ligands. ..
  2. Abbott C, Chambers D. Analysis of CAG trinucleotide repeats from mouse cDNA sequences. Ann Hum Genet. 1994;58:87-94 pubmed
    ..Sinh1b maps very distally on the X chromosome, and Chat maps to chromosome 14. ..
  3. Solloway M, Dudley A, Bikoff E, Lyons K, Hogan B, Robertson E. Mice lacking Bmp6 function. Dev Genet. 1998;22:321-39 pubmed
    b>Bmp6, a member of the 60A subgroup of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), is expressed in diverse sites in the developing mouse embryo from preimplantation stages onwards...
  4. Yang Z, Ding K, Pan L, Deng M, Gan L. Math5 determines the competence state of retinal ganglion cell progenitors. Dev Biol. 2003;264:240-54 pubmed
  5. Andriopoulos B, Corradini E, Xia Y, Faasse S, Chen S, Grgurevic L, et al. BMP6 is a key endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression and iron metabolism. Nat Genet. 2009;41:482-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Fc), the homologous DRAGON.Fc is a more potent inhibitor of BMP2 or BMP4 but a less potent inhibitor of BMP6 in vitro. In vivo, HJV...
  6. Gitelman S, Kobrin M, Ye J, Lopez A, Lee A, Derynck R. Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6-expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation in vivo. J Cell Biol. 1994;126:1595-609 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that endochondral bone formation. ..
  7. Blessing M, Schirmacher P, Kaiser S. Overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in the epidermis of transgenic mice: inhibition or stimulation of proliferation depending on the pattern of transgene expression and formation of psoriatic lesions. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:227-39 pubmed
    ..Together with an inflammatory infiltrate both in the dermis and in the epidermis, these aspects present all typical histological and biochemical hallmarks of a human skin disease: psoriasis. ..
  8. Bandyopadhyay A, Tsuji K, Cox K, Harfe B, Rosen V, Tabin C. Genetic analysis of the roles of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7 in limb patterning and skeletogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e216 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we find that the loss of both BMP2 and BMP4 results in a severe impairment of osteogenesis. ..
  9. Ren R, Charles P, Zhang C, Wu Y, Wang H, Patterson C. Gene expression profiles identify a role for cyclooxygenase 2-dependent prostanoid generation in BMP6-induced angiogenic responses. Blood. 2007;109:2847-53 pubmed
    ..mechanisms that contribute to BMP-dependent angiogenic signaling, we performed gene expression profiling of BMP6-treated mouse endothelial cells. We detected 77 mRNAs that were differentially regulated after BMP6 stimulation...

More Information


  1. Inada M, Yasui T, Nomura S, Miyake S, Deguchi K, Himeno M, et al. Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:279-90 pubmed
    ..Type X collagen, BMP6, and Indian hedgehog were expressed in their hypertrophic chondrocytes...
  2. Lee K, Mendelsohn M, Jessell T. Neuronal patterning by BMPs: a requirement for GDF7 in the generation of a discrete class of commissural interneurons in the mouse spinal cord. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3394-407 pubmed
    ..More generally, these results suggest that BMP signaling may have a prominent role in the assignment of neuronal identity within the mammalian CNS. ..
  3. Sugiura K, Su Y, Eppig J. Does bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) affect female fertility in the mouse?. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:997-1004 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member produced by mammalian oocytes as well as other cell types...
  4. Jones C, Lyons K, Hogan B. Involvement of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 (BMP-4) and Vgr-1 in morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the mouse. Development. 1991;111:531-42 pubmed
    ..Together, the data support the hypothesis that polypeptide growth factors of the TGF-beta superfamily play key roles in the initial stages of neurogenesis and organogenesis during murine development. ..
  5. Meynard D, Kautz L, Darnaud V, Canonne Hergaux F, Coppin H, Roth M. Lack of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP6 induces massive iron overload. Nat Genet. 2009;41:478-81 pubmed publisher
    ..1,2). However, in contrast to BMP6, expression of other BMPs is not regulated at the mRNA level by iron in vivo, and their relevance to iron ..
  6. Bach A, Lallemand Y, Nicola M, Ramos C, Mathis L, Maufras M, et al. Msx1 is required for dorsal diencephalon patterning. Development. 2003;130:4025-36 pubmed
    ..This indicates that Msx genes may regulate Wnt1 expression at the dorsal midline of the neural tube. Based on these results, we propose a model in which Msx genes are intermediary between Bmp and Wnt at this site. ..
  7. Kim R, Robertson E, Solloway M. Bmp6 and Bmp7 are required for cushion formation and septation in the developing mouse heart. Dev Biol. 2001;235:449-66 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we describe the expression of Bmp6 and Bmp7 in overlapping and adjacent sites, including the cardiac cushions during mouse embryonic development...
  8. Oxburgh L, Dudley A, Godin R, Koonce C, Islam A, Anderson D, et al. BMP4 substitutes for loss of BMP7 during kidney development. Dev Biol. 2005;286:637-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that partially overlapping expression patterns of BMPs serve to modulate strength of BMP signaling rather than create discrete fields of ligands with intrinsically different signaling properties. ..
  9. Pangas S. Regulation of the ovarian reserve by members of the transforming growth factor beta family. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:666-79 pubmed publisher
  10. Xia Y, Cortez Retamozo V, Niederkofler V, Salie R, Chen S, Samad T, et al. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b) inhibits IL-6 expression in macrophages. J Immunol. 2011;186:1369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Dragon is an important negative regulator of IL-6 expression in immune cells and that Dragon-deficient mice may be a useful model for studying immune and inflammatory disorders. ..
  11. Zhang Z, Guo X, Herrera C, Tao Y, Wu Q, Wu A, et al. Bmp6 expression can be regulated independently of liver iron in mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e84906 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite liver iron overload, expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6), a potent-stimulator of Hamp1 expression that is expressed under iron-loaded conditions, was ..
  12. Ryckebusch L, Wang Z, Bertrand N, Lin S, Chi X, Schwartz R, et al. Retinoic acid deficiency alters second heart field formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and RA signaling by generating double mutant mice. Strikingly, Nkx2.5 deficiency was able to rescue molecular defects in the posterior region of the Raldh2(-/-) mutant heart, in a gene dosage-dependent manner. ..
  13. Li W, Cogswell C, LoTurco J. Neuronal differentiation of precursors in the neocortical ventricular zone is triggered by BMP. J Neurosci. 1998;18:8853-62 pubmed
  14. Furuta Y, Piston D, Hogan B. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development. Development. 1997;124:2203-12 pubmed
    ..expression of five Bmp genes belonging to the Drosophila Decapentaplegic (Bmp2 and Bmp4) and 60A subgroups (Bmp5, Bmp6 and Bmp7)...
  15. Drozdoff V, Wall N, Pledger W. Expression and growth inhibitory effect of decapentaplegic Vg-related protein 6: evidence for a regulatory role in keratinocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5528-32 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that inhibition of cell growth by DVR-6 may be a primary step in keratinocyte differentiation. ..
  16. Snowball J, Ambalavanan M, Whitsett J, Sinner D. Endodermal Wnt signaling is required for tracheal cartilage formation. Dev Biol. 2015;405:56-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Wnt ligands produced by the tracheal epithelium pattern the tracheal mesenchyme via modulation of gene expression and cell proliferation required for proper tracheal cartilage and smooth muscle differentiation. ..
  17. Kelly C, Thymiakou E, Dixon J, Tanaka S, Godwin J, Episkopou V. Rnf165/Ark2C enhances BMP-Smad signaling to mediate motor axon extension. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001538 pubmed publisher
    ..Together the above data reveal an involvement of BMP-Smad signaling in motor axon advancement. ..
  18. Cai C, Liang X, Shi Y, Chu P, Pfaff S, Chen J, et al. Isl1 identifies a cardiac progenitor population that proliferates prior to differentiation and contributes a majority of cells to the heart. Dev Cell. 2003;5:877-89 pubmed
    ..Our results have implications for the development of specific cardiac lineages, left-right asymmetry, cardiac evolution, and isolation of cardiac progenitor cells. ..
  19. Moroishi T, Nishiyama M, Takeda Y, Iwai K, Nakayama K. The FBXL5-IRP2 axis is integral to control of iron metabolism in vivo. Cell Metab. 2011;14:339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The liver-specific mutant mice died with acute liver failure when fed a high-iron diet. Thus, our results uncover a major role for FBXL5 in ensuring an appropriate supply of iron to cells. ..
  20. Zhao L, Li Y, Song D, Song Y, Theurl M, Wang C, et al. A high serum iron level causes mouse retinal iron accumulation despite an intact blood-retinal barrier. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:2862-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone morphogenic protein 6 (Bmp6) knockout mice have serum iron overload...
  21. Lyons K, Hogan B, Robertson E. Colocalization of BMP 7 and BMP 2 RNAs suggests that these factors cooperatively mediate tissue interactions during murine development. Mech Dev. 1995;50:71-83 pubmed
    ..These markers provide the first molecular evidence for dorsal/ventral polarity in the developing gut. ..
  22. De Rosa L, Antonini D, Ferone G, Russo M, Yu P, Han R, et al. p63 Suppresses non-epidermal lineage markers in a bone morphogenetic protein-dependent manner via repression of Smad7. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:30574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that p63 prevents ectopic expression of non-epidermal genes by a mechanism involving Smad7 repression and, to a lesser extent, Bmp7 induction, with consequent enhancement of BMP/Smad signaling. ..
  23. Ybot Gonzalez P, Gaston Massuet C, Girdler G, Klingensmith J, Arkell R, Greene N, et al. Neural plate morphogenesis during mouse neurulation is regulated by antagonism of Bmp signalling. Development. 2007;134:3203-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a molecular mechanism based on antagonism of Bmp signalling that underlies the regulation of DLHP formation during mouse spinal neural tube closure. ..
  24. Cain J, Hartwig S, Bertram J, Rosenblum N. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the developing kidney: present and future. Differentiation. 2008;76:831-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We highlight major gaps in our knowledge of the roles of BMP signaling in the development of the normal and abnormal kidney and identify areas and techniques likely to improve our understanding. ..
  25. Kim B, Kim Y, Sakuma R, Hui C, Ruther U, Jorgensen J. Primordial germ cell proliferation is impaired in Fused Toes mutant embryos. Dev Biol. 2011;349:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..From these studies, we have discovered that the Ft locus on mouse chromosome 8 is associated with cell cycle deficits within the primordial germ cell population that initiates just before translocation into the genital ridge. ..
  26. Lee G, Kwon S, Lee J, Jeon S, Jang K, Choi H, et al. Induction of interleukin-6 expression by bone morphogenetic protein-6 in macrophages requires both SMAD and p38 signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, taken together, demonstrate a novel BMP-6 signaling mechanism in which both the Smad and non-Smad pathways directly interact to activate the transcription of a target gene. ..
  27. Kugimiya F, Kawaguchi H, Kamekura S, Chikuda H, Ohba S, Yano F, et al. Involvement of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 and BMP6 in bone formation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35704-12 pubmed
    ..This study initially investigated expression patterns of BMPs in the mouse long bone and found that BMP2 and BMP6 were the main subtypes expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes that induce endochondral bone formation...
  28. Arndt S, Maegdefrau U, Dorn C, Schardt K, Hellerbrand C, Bosserhoff A. Iron-induced expression of bone morphogenic protein 6 in intestinal cells is the main regulator of hepatic hepcidin expression in vivo. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:372-82 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies identified bone morphogenic protein 6 (BMP6) as a key regulator of hepatic hepcidin expression and iron metabolism, but the cellular source of BMP6 and the reason for its specific effect on hepatocytes are unknown...
  29. Peretto P, Cummings D, Modena C, Behrens M, Venkatraman G, Fasolo A, et al. BMP mRNA and protein expression in the developing mouse olfactory system. J Comp Neurol. 2002;451:267-78 pubmed
    ..Within the SEL, BMP4 and 7 proteins were expressed primarily in association with the astrocytic glial compartment. BMP6-ir was always found in mature olfactory receptor neurons and their axonal projections to the OB...
  30. Latour C, Besson Fournier C, Gourbeyre O, Meynard D, Roth M, Coppin H. Deletion of BMP6 worsens the phenotype of HJV-deficient mice and attenuates hepcidin levels reached after LPS challenge. Blood. 2017;130:2339-2343 pubmed publisher
    Lack of either bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) or the BMP coreceptor hemojuvelin (HJV) in mice leads to a similar phenotype with hepcidin insufficiency, hepatic iron loading, and extrahepatic iron accumulation in males...
  31. Gitelman S, Kirk M, Ye J, Filvaroff E, Kahn A, Derynck R. Vgr-1/BMP-6 induces osteoblastic differentiation of pluripotential mesenchymal cells. Cell Growth Differ. 1995;6:827-36 pubmed
    ..Finally, overexpression of MyoD within the C26 cells overexpressing vgr-1 converted the cells to myoblasts, indicating that vgr-1 had induced early osteoblastic. ..
  32. Eggenschwiler J, Anderson K. Dorsal and lateral fates in the mouse neural tube require the cell-autonomous activity of the open brain gene. Dev Biol. 2000;227:648-60 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that opb(+) could act as either a novel component of a dorsalizing pathway or a novel intracellular negative regulator of the Shh signal transduction pathway. ..
  33. Rosendahl A, Pardali E, Speletas M, Ten Dijke P, Heldin C, Sideras P. Activation of bone morphogenetic protein/Smad signaling in bronchial epithelial cells during airway inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;27:160-9 pubmed
    ..profiles for BMP ligands were significantly altered during airway inflammation with induction of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP6, and downregulation of BMP5 and BMP7...
  34. Vaahtokari A, Aberg T, Jernvall J, Keranen S, Thesleff I. The enamel knot as a signaling center in the developing mouse tooth. Mech Dev. 1996;54:39-43 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the enamel knot acts as a signaling or organizing center, which provides positional information for tooth morphogenesis and regulates the growth of tooth cusps. ..
  35. Farrington S, Belaoussoff M, Baron M. Winged-helix, Hedgehog and Bmp genes are differentially expressed in distinct cell layers of the murine yolk sac. Mech Dev. 1997;62:197-211 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that similar mechanisms may be utilized to mediate inductive interactions in both extraembryonic and embryonic tissues. ..
  36. Lee J, Lee G, Woo S, Ha Y, Kwon S, Kim W, et al. BMP-6 in renal cell carcinoma promotes tumor proliferation through IL-10-dependent M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. Cancer Res. 2013;73:3604-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, patients with elevated IL-10 serum levels had worse outcome after surgery. Together, our results suggest that BMP-6/macrophage/IL-10 regulates M2 polarization of TAMs in RCC. ..
  37. Shu B, Zhang M, Xie R, Wang M, Jin H, Hou W, et al. BMP2, but not BMP4, is crucial for chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during endochondral bone development. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3428-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide novel insights into the genetic control and molecular mechanism of BMP signaling during cartilage development...
  38. Gitelman S, Kobrin M, Lee A, Fet V, Lyons K, Hogan B, et al. Structure and sequence of the mouse Bmp6 gene. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:212-4 pubmed
  39. Pi X, Ren R, Kelley R, Zhang C, Moser M, Bohil A, et al. Sequential roles for myosin-X in BMP6-dependent filopodial extension, migration, and activation of BMP receptors. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1569-82 pubmed
    ..Using microarray analyses, we find that myosin-X (Myo10) is a BMP target gene. In endothelial cells, BMP6-induced Myo10 localizes in filopodia, and BMP-dependent filopodial assembly decreases when Myo10 expression is ..
  40. Rausa M, Pagani A, Nai A, Campanella A, Gilberti M, Apostoli P, et al. Bmp6 expression in murine liver non parenchymal cells: a mechanism to control their high iron exporter activity and protect hepatocytes from iron overload?. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0122696 pubmed publisher
    b>Bmp6 is the main activator of hepcidin, the liver hormone that negatively regulates plasma iron influx by degrading the sole iron exporter ferroportin in enterocytes and macrophages...
  41. Ferguson C, Alpern E, Miclau T, Helms J. Does adult fracture repair recapitulate embryonic skeletal formation?. Mech Dev. 1999;87:57-66 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest the genetic mechanisms regulating fetal skeletogenesis also regulate adult skeletal regeneration, and point to important regulators of angiogenesis and ossification in bone regeneration. ..
  42. Chinn G, Hirokawa K, Chuang T, Urbina C, Patel F, Fong J, et al. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Due to Defective Glial Wedge Formation in Lhx2 Mutant Mice. Cereb Cortex. 2015;25:2707-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define essential roles for Lhx2 in GW, hippocampal commissure, and corpus callosum formation, and suggest that defects in radial GW progenitors can give rise to ACC. ..
  43. Duval N, Daubas P, Bourcier de Carbon C, St Cloment C, Tinevez J, Lopes M, et al. Msx1 and Msx2 act as essential activators of Atoh1 expression in the murine spinal cord. Development. 2014;141:1726-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides new insights into the transcriptional control of spinal cord patterning by BMP signaling, with Msx1 and Msx2 acting upstream of Atoh1. ..
  44. Lee G, Jung Y, Lee J, Kim W, Kim I. Bone morphogenetic protein 6-induced interleukin-1? expression in macrophages requires PU.1/Smad1 interaction. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:1540-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that BMP-6-induced IL-1? expression in macrophages is mediated via a cross-talk between the Smad and the non-Smad pathways through Smad1 and PU.1. ..
  45. Dendooven A, van Oostrom O, van der Giezen D, Leeuwis J, Snijckers C, Joles J, et al. Loss of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein-6 aggravates renal fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1069-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This process appears to involve loss of both direct anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic action and indirect suppressive effects on renal iron deposition, oxidative stress, and MFPCs. ..
  46. Lai Z, Yin H, Cabrera Perez J, Guimaro M, Afione S, Michael D, et al. Aquaporin gene therapy corrects Sjögren's syndrome phenotype in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:5694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..aquaporin 5 expression, a water channel critical for salivary gland fluid secretion, is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein 6. Increased expression of this cytokine is strongly associated with the most common symptom of primary ..
  47. Jiang F, Harrison L. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2005;308:114-22 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells. ..
  48. Suzuki Y, Ohga N, Morishita Y, Hida K, Miyazono K, Watabe T. BMP-9 induces proliferation of multiple types of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1684-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that BMP-9 signaling activates the endothelium tested in the present study via ALK-1. ..
  49. Lee K, Tan J, Morris M, Rizzoti K, Hughes J, Cheah P, et al. Congenital hydrocephalus and abnormal subcommissural organ development in Sox3 transgenic mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29041 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. ..
  50. Rodriguez P, da Silva S, Oxburgh L, Wang F, Hogan B, Que J. BMP signaling in the development of the mouse esophagus and forestomach. Development. 2010;137:4171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest multiple roles for BMP signaling in the developing esophagus and forestomach. ..
  51. Sharma A, Huard C, Vernochet C, Ziemek D, Knowlton K, Tyminski E, et al. Brown fat determination and development from muscle precursor cells by novel action of bone morphogenetic protein 6. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92608 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that in the absence of any forced gene expression, stimulation with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) induces brown fat differentiation from skeletal muscle precursor cells of murine and human ..
  52. Ozkaynak E, Schnegelsberg P, Oppermann H. Murine osteogenic protein (OP-1): high levels of mRNA in kidney. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;179:116-23 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our data suggest that kidneys may be the main site of OP-1 synthesis, even though it is distant from its physiological site of action, skeletal bone. ..
  53. Kam J, Dumontier E, Baim C, Brignall A, Mendes da Silva D, Cowan M, et al. RGMB and neogenin control cell differentiation in the developing olfactory epithelium. Development. 2016;143:1534-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that RGMB-neogenin-mediated cell-cell interactions between newly born neurons and progenitor cells control the ratio of glia and neurons produced in the OE. ..
  54. Westerweel P, van Velthoven C, Nguyen T, Den Ouden K, de Kleijn D, Goumans M, et al. Modulation of TGF-?/BMP-6 expression and increased levels of circulating smooth muscle progenitor cells in a type I diabetes mouse model. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:55 pubmed publisher
    ..This may contribute to exaggerated intimal hyperplasia in diabetes as bone marrow derived cells home to sites of neointima formation. ..
  55. Hahn G, Cohen R, Wozney J, Levitz C, Shore E, Zasloff M, et al. A bone morphogenetic protein subfamily: chromosomal localization of human genes for BMP5, BMP6, and BMP7. Genomics. 1992;14:759-62 pubmed
    ..Based upon a high degree of amino acid sequence homology, BMP5, BMP6, and BMP7 constitute a subfamily within the BMPs...
  56. Wall N, Blessing M, Wright C, Hogan B. Biosynthesis and in vivo localization of the decapentaplegic-Vg-related protein, DVR-6 (bone morphogenetic protein-6). J Cell Biol. 1993;120:493-502 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a stably transfected cell line, BMGE+H/D6c4, is used to study the biosynthesis of DVR-6 protein and evidence is presented for translational regulation of DVR-6 expression. ..
  57. Kettunen P, Nie X, Kvinnsland I, Luukko K. Histological development and dynamic expression of Bmp2-6 mRNAs in the embryonic and postnatal mouse cranial base. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:1250-8 pubmed
    ..Bmp2, Bmp5, and Bmp6 were expressed in the early mesenchymal condensations...
  58. Rico Llanos G, Becerra J, Visser R. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances the osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in vitro and in vivo, and together have a stronger osteogenic effect than when IGF-1 is combined with BMP-2. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2017;105:1867-1875 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the combination of BMP-6 with IGF-1 might be a better alternative than BMP-2 for orthopedic surgery or bone tissue engineering approaches. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1867-1875, 2017. ..
  59. Lyons K, Pelton R, Hogan B. Patterns of expression of murine Vgr-1 and BMP-2a RNA suggest that transforming growth factor-beta-like genes coordinately regulate aspects of embryonic development. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1657-68 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the coordinated expression of several members of the TGF beta superfamily is required to control the progression of specific cell types through their differentiation pathways. ..
  60. Shimizu M, Higuchi K, Kasai S, Tsuboyama T, Matsushita M, Matsumura T, et al. A congenic mouse and candidate gene at the Chromosome 13 locus regulating bone density. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:335-40 pubmed
    ..Next, a candidate gene approach was used to find polymorphisms of Bmp6 (bone morphogenetic protein 6). The CAG trinucleotide repeat numbers in exon 1 of this gene differ among SAM strains...
  61. Pederson L, Ruan M, Westendorf J, Khosla S, Oursler M. Regulation of bone formation by osteoclasts involves Wnt/BMP signaling and the chemokine sphingosine-1-phosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..S1P induces osteoblast precursor recruitment and promotes mature cell survival. Wnt10b and BMP6 also were significantly increased in mature osteoclasts, whereas sclerostin levels decreased during differentiation...
  62. Tilleman H, Hakim V, Novikov O, Liser K, Nashelsky L, Di Salvio M, et al. Bmp5/7 in concert with the mid-hindbrain organizer control development of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we conclude that the position of the mid-hindbrain organizer determines the size of the LC and propose that Bmp5/7 play an important role in mediating this organizer function. ..
  63. Hanashima C, Fernandes M, Hebert J, Fishell G. The role of Foxg1 and dorsal midline signaling in the generation of Cajal-Retzius subtypes. J Neurosci. 2007;27:11103-11 pubmed
  64. Corradini E, Garuti C, Montosi G, Ventura P, Andriopoulos B, Lin H, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling is impaired in an HFE knockout mouse model of hemochromatosis. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)-SMAD signaling pathway is an important endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression...
  65. Kaartinen V, Dudas M, Nagy A, Sridurongrit S, Lu M, Epstein J. Cardiac outflow tract defects in mice lacking ALK2 in neural crest cells. Development. 2004;131:3481-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, the type I BMP receptor ALK2 plays an essential cell-autonomous role in the development of the cardiac outflow tract and aortic arch derivatives. ..
  66. Millonig J, Millen K, Hatten M. The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature. 2000;403:764-9 pubmed
    ..Lmx1a is expressed in the roof plate along the neuraxis during development of the CNS. Thus, Lmx1a is required for development of the roof plate and, in turn, for specification of dorsal cell fates in the CNS and developing vertebrae. ..
  67. Isaacs M, Kawakami Y, Allendorph G, Yoon B, Izpisua Belmonte J, Choe S. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -6 heterodimer illustrates the nature of ligand-receptor assembly. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals how the engineered heterodimers may use their independent binding interfaces to differentially recruit the different receptors for each receptor type to create new biological properties. ..
  68. Brunet L, McMahon J, McMahon A, Harland R. Noggin, cartilage morphogenesis, and joint formation in the mammalian skeleton. Science. 1998;280:1455-7 pubmed
    ..Excess BMP activity in the absence of Noggin antagonism may enhance the recruitment of cells into cartilage, resulting in oversized growth plates; chondrocytes are also refractory to joint-inducing positional cues. ..
  69. Dudley A, Robertson E. Overlapping expression domains of bone morphogenetic protein family members potentially account for limited tissue defects in BMP7 deficient embryos. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:349-62 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that BMP family members can functionally substitute for BMP7 at sites where they colocalize in vivo. ..
  70. Lee K, Dietrich P, Jessell T. Genetic ablation reveals that the roof plate is essential for dorsal interneuron specification. Nature. 2000;403:734-40 pubmed
    ..These results reveal that the roof plate is essential for specifying multiple classes of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system. ..
  71. Smits P, Dy P, Mitra S, Lefebvre V. Sox5 and Sox6 are needed to develop and maintain source, columnar, and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the cartilage growth plate. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:747-58 pubmed
    ..They act, at least in part, by down-regulating Ihh signaling, Fgfr3, and Runx2 and by up-regulating Bmp6. In conclusion, Sox5 and Sox6 are needed for the establishment of multilayered growth plates, and thereby for ..
  72. Segklia A, Seuntjens E, Elkouris M, Tsalavos S, Stappers E, Mitsiadis T, et al. Bmp7 regulates the survival, proliferation, and neurogenic properties of neural progenitor cells during corticogenesis in the mouse. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34088 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate a novel role for Bmp7 in the embryonic mouse cortex: Bmp7 nurtures radial glia cells and regulates fundamental properties of neural progenitor cells that subsequently affect Ngn2-dependent neurogenesis. ..
  73. Götz K, Briscoe J, Ruther U. Homozygous Ft embryos are affected in floor plate maintenance and ventral neural tube patterning. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:623-30 pubmed
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    ..Fgf2 was seen in the tongue muscles at the late embryonic and postnatal stages. These results suggest that Bmp and Fgf signalling regulates tongue development at multiple stages, possibly related to proliferation and differentiation. ..
  75. Perez W, Weller C, Shou S, Stadler H. Survival of Hoxa13 homozygous mutants reveals a novel role in digit patterning and appendicular skeletal development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:446-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results identify Gdf5 as a potential target gene of HOXA13 target gene and confirm a specific role for HOXA13 during appendicular skeletal development...
  76. Pauk M, Grgurevic L, Brkljacic J, Kufner V, Bordukalo Niksic T, Grabusic K, et al. Exogenous BMP7 corrects plasma iron overload and bone loss in Bmp6-/- mice. Int Orthop. 2015;39:161-72 pubmed publisher
    Iron overload accelerates bone loss in mice lacking the bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) gene, which is the key endogenous regulator of hepcidin, iron homeostasis gene...
  77. Kwon S, Lee G, Lee J, Iwakura Y, Kim W, Kim I. Mechanism of pro-tumorigenic effect of BMP-6: neovascularization involving tumor-associated macrophages and IL-1a. Prostate. 2014;74:121-33 pubmed
    ..CONCLUSIONS. Prostate cancer-derived BMP-6 stimulates tumor-associated macrophages to produce IL-1a through a crosstalk between Smad1 and NF-kB1; IL-1a, in turn, promotes angiogenesis and prostate cancer growth. ..
  78. Oralová V, Chlastakova I, Radlanski R, Matalova E. Distribution of BMP6 in the alveolar bone during mouse mandibular molar eruption. Connect Tissue Res. 2014;55:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of BMP6 was reported to be increased in the basal half of the dental follicle prior to eruption and inhibition of BMP6 ..
  79. Lin S, Morrison J, Phillips D, de Kretser D. Regulation of ovarian function by the TGF-beta superfamily and follistatin. Reproduction. 2003;126:133-48 pubmed
    ..The complex network of TGF-beta superfamily growth factor members involved in the modulation of ovarian function and the interactions of follistatin with these proteins is highlighted. ..
  80. Perry M, McDougall K, Hou S, Tobias J. Impaired growth plate function in bmp-6 null mice. Bone. 2008;42:216-25 pubmed
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) is expressed by different skeletal cells including osteoblasts and growth plate chondrocytes, suggesting roles in bone formation and growth regulation...
  81. Ross A, Munger S, Capel B. Bmp7 regulates germ cell proliferation in mouse fetal gonads. Sex Dev. 2007;1:127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP signaling appears to be an evolutionarily conserved pathway regulating embryonic germ cell proliferation in vertebrate and invertebrate species. ..
  82. Elvin J, Yan C, Matzuk M. Oocyte-expressed TGF-beta superfamily members in female fertility. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000;159:1-5 pubmed
    ..This review examines the similarities and differences in sequence, expression, and function of the oocyte-expressed TGFbeta family members with respect to regulating folliculogenesis. ..
  83. Besson Fournier C, Latour C, Kautz L, Bertrand J, Ganz T, Roth M, et al. Induction of activin B by inflammatory stimuli up-regulates expression of the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin through Smad1/5/8 signaling. Blood. 2012;120:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Activin B is therefore a novel and specific target for the treatment of anemia of inflammation. ..
  84. Hadziahmetovic M, Song Y, Wolkow N, Iacovelli J, Kautz L, Roth M, et al. Bmp6 regulates retinal iron homeostasis and has altered expression in age-related macular degeneration. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:335-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The cause of retinal iron accumulation in AMD is poorly understood. Given that bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) is a major regulator of systemic iron, we examined the role of Bmp6 in retinal iron regulation ..