Gene Symbol: Bmp2
Description: bone morphogenetic protein 2
Alias: AI467020, Bmp2a, bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 2A
Species: mouse
Products:     Bmp2

Top Publications

  1. Chandler R, Chandler K, McFarland K, Mortlock D. Bmp2 transcription in osteoblast progenitors is regulated by a distant 3' enhancer located 156.3 kilobases from the promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2934-51 pubmed
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (encoded by Bmp2) has been implicated as an important signaling ligand for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation and as a genetic risk factor for osteoporosis...
  2. Ohta S, Suzuki K, Tachibana K, Tanaka H, Yamada G. Cessation of gastrulation is mediated by suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition at the ventral ectodermal ridge. Development. 2007;134:4315-24 pubmed
    ..These indicate that the inhibition of Bmp signaling by temporal and/or spatial Nog expression suppresses EMT and leads to the cessation of the ingressive cell movement from the VER at the end of gastrulation. ..
  3. Saito A, Ochiai K, Kondo S, Tsumagari K, Murakami T, Cavener D, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response mediated by the PERK-eIF2(alpha)-ATF4 pathway is involved in osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP2. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4809-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of wild-type primary osteoblasts with BMP2, which is required for osteoblast differentiation, induced ER stress, leading to an increase in ATF4 protein ..
  4. Maeda A, Nishida T, Aoyama E, Kubota S, Lyons K, Kuboki T, et al. CCN family 2/connective tissue growth factor modulates BMP signalling as a signal conductor, which action regulates the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. J Biochem. 2009;145:207-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CCN2 may regulate the proliferating and differentiation of chondrocytes by forming a complex with BMP-2 as a novel modulator of BMP signalling. ..
  5. Feng J, Yang G, Yuan G, Gluhak Heinrich J, Yang W, Wang L, et al. Abnormalities in the enamel in bmp2-deficient mice. Cells Tissues Organs. 2011;194:216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) is essential for tooth formation...
  6. Chen Y, Ishii M, Sucov H, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 are required for endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the atrioventricular cushions and patterning of the atrioventricular myocardium. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:75 pubmed publisher
    ..In Msx1/2 null mutant AV cushions, we found decreased Bmp2/4 and Notch1 signaling as well as reduced expression of Has2, NFATc1 and Notch1, demonstrating impaired endocardial ..
  7. Blaney Davidson E, Vitters E, van Lent P, van de Loo F, van den Berg W, van der Kraan P. Elevated extracellular matrix production and degradation upon bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) stimulation point toward a role for BMP-2 in cartilage repair and remodeling. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9:R102 pubmed
    ..Moreover, BMP contributes to the intrinsic repair capacity of damaged cartilage. Increased matrix turnover might be functional in replacing matrix molecules in the repair of a damaged cartilage matrix. ..
  8. Bais M, Wigner N, Young M, Toholka R, Graves D, Morgan E, et al. BMP2 is essential for post natal osteogenesis but not for recruitment of osteogenic stem cells. Bone. 2009;45:254-66 pubmed publisher
    The effects of BMP2 on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and bone formation after bone marrow ablation were determined using C57 BL/6J (B6) mice...
  9. Tsuji K, Cox K, Gamer L, Graf D, Economides A, Rosen V. Conditional deletion of BMP7 from the limb skeleton does not affect bone formation or fracture repair. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:384-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that other BMPs present in adult bone are sufficient to compensate for the absence of BMP7. ..

More Information


  1. Cain J, Hartwig S, Bertram J, Rosenblum N. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the developing kidney: present and future. Differentiation. 2008;76:831-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We highlight major gaps in our knowledge of the roles of BMP signaling in the development of the normal and abnormal kidney and identify areas and techniques likely to improve our understanding. ..
  2. Shu B, Zhang M, Xie R, Wang M, Jin H, Hou W, et al. BMP2, but not BMP4, is crucial for chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during endochondral bone development. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3428-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the specific function of the Bmp2 and Bmp4 genes in growth plate chondrocytes during cartilage development, we generated chondrocyte-specific Bmp2 ..
  3. Wu L, Feng J, Wang L, Mu Y, Baker A, Donly K, et al. Development and characterization of a mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell line that retains osteoblast genotype and phenotype. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;343:545-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) is essential for osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis...
  4. Kruithof B, Fritz D, Liu Y, Garsetti D, Frank D, Pregizer S, et al. An autonomous BMP2 regulatory element in mesenchymal cells. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:666-74 pubmed publisher
    b>BMP2 is a morphogen that controls mesenchymal cell differentiation and behavior. For example, BMP2 concentration controls the differentiation of mesenchymal precursors into myocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts...
  5. Hill C, Sanchez N, Love J, Arrieta J, Hong C, Brown C, et al. BMP2 signals loss of epithelial character in epicardial cells but requires the Type III TGF? receptor to promote invasion. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1012-22 pubmed publisher
    ..5 due to failed coronary vessel development accompanied by reduced epicardial cell invasion. BMP2 signals via TGF?R3 emphasizing the importance of determining the relative contributions of the canonical BMP ..
  6. Zhao M, Qiao M, Harris S, Chen D, Oyajobi B, Mundy G. The zinc finger transcription factor Gli2 mediates bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression in osteoblasts in response to hedgehog signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6197-208 pubmed
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) plays a critical role in osteoblast function. In Drosophila, Cubitus interruptus (Ci), which mediates hedgehog signaling, regulates gene expression of dpp, the ortholog of mammalian BMP-2...
  7. Pajni Underwood S, Wilson C, Elder C, Mishina Y, Lewandoski M. BMP signals control limb bud interdigital programmed cell death by regulating FGF signaling. Development. 2007;134:2359-68 pubmed
    ..We conclude that during normal embryogenesis, BMP signaling to the AER indirectly regulates interdigit PCD by regulating AER-FGFs, which act as survival factors for the interdigit mesenchyme. ..
  8. Uchimura T, Komatsu Y, Tanaka M, McCann K, Mishina Y. Bmp2 and Bmp4 genetically interact to support multiple aspects of mouse development including functional heart development. Genesis. 2009;47:374-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Current data indicate that the dosage of BMPs is tightly regulated for normal development in mice. Since Bmp2 or Bmp4 homozygous mutant mice show early embryonic lethality, we generated compound heterozygous mice for Bmp2 and ..
  9. Rydziel S, Stadmeyer L, Zanotti S, Durant D, Smerdel Ramoya A, Canalis E. Nephroblastoma overexpressed (Nov) inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19762-72 pubmed
    ..Nov transgenic mice exhibited osteopenia. In conclusion, Nov binds BMP-2 and antagonizes BMP-2 and Wnt activity, and its overexpression inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. ..
  10. Tsuji K, Bandyopadhyay A, Harfe B, Cox K, Kakar S, Gerstenfeld L, et al. BMP2 activity, although dispensable for bone formation, is required for the initiation of fracture healing. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1424-9 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that BMP2 is a necessary component of the signaling cascade that governs fracture repair...
  11. Fukui N, Ikeda Y, Ohnuki T, Hikita A, Tanaka S, Yamane S, et al. Pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces bone morphogenetic protein-2 in chondrocytes via mRNA stabilization and transcriptional up-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27229-41 pubmed
  12. Zhao B, Katagiri T, Toyoda H, Takada T, Yanai T, Fukuda T, et al. Heparin potentiates the in vivo ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23246-53 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that heparin enhances BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo by protecting BMPs from degradation and inhibition by BMP antagonists. ..
  13. Rosen V. BMP2 signaling in bone development and repair. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2009;20:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..using transgenic mice in which individual osteogenic BMPs have been removed from the limb skeleton have identified BMP2 as a fundamental component of the inherent regenerative capacity of bone...
  14. Du Y, Xiao Q, Yip H. Regulation of retinal progenitor cell differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein 4 is mediated by the smad/id cascade. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3764-73 pubmed publisher
    ..RESULTS. Results showed that BMP2, -4, and -7; BMP receptor (BMPRIb) mRNAs; and proteins and downstream signaling molecule Smad1/5/8 proteins were ..
  15. Jiao X, Billings P, O Connell M, Kaplan F, Shore E, Glaser D. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) modulate BMP2 osteogenic bioactivity in C2C12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1080-6 pubmed
    ..However, the direct role of HSPGs in BMP signaling is poorly understood. Here we show that HSPGs directly regulate BMP2-mediated transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into osteoblasts...
  16. Chang W, Lin Z, Kulessa H, Hebert J, Hogan B, Wu D. Bmp4 is essential for the formation of the vestibular apparatus that detects angular head movements. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000050 pubmed publisher
    ..In the canals, Bmp2 and Dlx5 are regulated by Bmp4, either directly or indirectly...
  17. Zhao Y, Tian Q, Frenkel S, Liu C. The promotion of bone healing by progranulin, a downstream molecule of BMP-2, through interacting with TNF/TNFR signaling. Biomaterials. 2013;34:6412-21 pubmed publisher
  18. Fritz D, Jiang S, Xu J, Rogers M. A polymorphism in a conserved posttranscriptional regulatory motif alters bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) RNA:protein interactions. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1574-86 pubmed
    ..We have shown that the 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) of BMP2 genes from mammals to fishes are extraordinarily conserved...
  19. Tian Y, Yuan L, Goss A, Wang T, Yang J, Lepore J, et al. Characterization and in vivo pharmacological rescue of a Wnt2-Gata6 pathway required for cardiac inflow tract development. Dev Cell. 2010;18:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a molecular pathway regulating the posterior cardiac mesoderm and demonstrate that cardiovascular defects caused by loss of Wnt signaling can be rescued pharmacologically in vivo. ..
  20. Chen Y, Ishii M, Sun J, Sucov H, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract. Dev Biol. 2007;308:421-37 pubmed
  21. Pan Q, Yu Y, Chen Q, Li C, Wu H, Wan Y, et al. Sox9, a key transcription factor of bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced chondrogenesis, is activated through BMP pathway and a CCAAT box in the proximal promoter. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:228-41 pubmed publisher
  22. Maatouk D, Choi K, Bouldin C, Harfe B. In the limb AER Bmp2 and Bmp4 are required for dorsal-ventral patterning and interdigital cell death but not limb outgrowth. Dev Biol. 2009;327:516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role BMP ligands expressed in the AER play in limb development we selectively inactivated both Bmp2 and Bmp4 in this tissue...
  23. Ribeiro I, Kawakami Y, Buscher D, Raya A, Rodriguez Leon J, Morita M, et al. Tbx2 and Tbx3 regulate the dynamics of cell proliferation during heart remodeling. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e398 pubmed
  24. Bensoussan Trigano V, Lallemand Y, Saint Cloment C, Robert B. Msx1 and Msx2 in limb mesenchyme modulate digit number and identity. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..With this strategy, we demonstrate that mesenchymal expression of Msx1 and Msx2 is required for proper Shh and Bmp4 signaling to specify digit number and identity...
  25. Kamiya N, Shafer S, Oxendine I, Mortlock D, Chandler R, Oxburgh L, et al. Acute BMP2 upregulation following induction of ischemic osteonecrosis in immature femoral head. Bone. 2013;53:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about BMP signaling following ischemic osteonecrosis. In this study, we found acute BMP2 upregulation in the femoral head cartilage 24h after ischemic induction using our immature pig IOFH model...
  26. Jang W, Kim E, Kim D, Ryoo H, Lee K, Kim S, et al. BMP2 protein regulates osteocalcin expression via Runx2-mediated Atf6 gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:905-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) activates unfolded protein response (UPR) transducers, such as PERK and OASIS, in osteoblast cells. ATF6, a bZIP transcription factor, is also a UPR transducer...
  27. Zhang R, Oyajobi B, Harris S, Chen D, Tsao C, Deng H, et al. Wnt/?-catenin signaling activates bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression in osteoblasts. Bone. 2013;52:145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the presence of putative Tcf/Lef response elements that bind ?-catenin/TCF transcription complex in the BMP2 promoter, we hypothesized that the Wnt/?-catenin pathway stimulates BMP2 expression in osteogenic cells...
  28. Bai Y, Wang J, Morikawa Y, Bonilla Claudio M, Klysik E, Martin J. Bmp signaling represses Vegfa to promote outflow tract cushion development. Development. 2013;140:3395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that Vegfa levels in the OFT are tightly controlled by Smad- and microRNA-dependent pathways to modulate OFT development. ..
  29. Wang Y, Zheng Y, Chen D, Chen Y. Enhanced BMP signaling prevents degeneration and leads to endochondral ossification of Meckel's cartilage in mice. Dev Biol. 2013;381:301-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that Bmp2 and Bmp7 are expressed in early developing Meckels' cartilage, but their expression disappears thereafter...
  30. RIVERA FELICIANO J, Tabin C. Bmp2 instructs cardiac progenitors to form the heart-valve-inducing field. Dev Biol. 2006;295:580-8 pubmed
    ..The heart-valve myocardium expresses bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) coincident with development of valve mesenchyme...
  31. Wu B, Wang Y, Lui W, Langworthy M, Tompkins K, Hatzopoulos A, et al. Nfatc1 coordinates valve endocardial cell lineage development required for heart valve formation. Circ Res. 2011;109:183-92 pubmed publisher
  32. Wang J, Greene S, Bonilla Claudio M, Tao Y, Zhang J, Bai Y, et al. Bmp signaling regulates myocardial differentiation from cardiac progenitors through a MicroRNA-mediated mechanism. Dev Cell. 2010;19:903-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bmp2 and Bmp4 regulate OFT myocardial differentiation via regulation of the miRNA-17-92 cluster...
  33. Yang W, Guo D, Harris M, Cui Y, Gluhak Heinrich J, Wu J, et al. Bmp2 in osteoblasts of periosteum and trabecular bone links bone formation to vascularization and mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:4085-98 pubmed publisher
    We generated a new Bmp2 conditional-knockout allele without a neo cassette that removes the Bmp2 gene from osteoblasts (Bmp2-cKO(ob)) using the 3.6Col1a1-Cre transgenic model...
  34. Bénazet J, Bischofberger M, Tiecke E, Gonçalves A, Martin J, Zuniga A, et al. A self-regulatory system of interlinked signaling feedback loops controls mouse limb patterning. Science. 2009;323:1050-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This self-regulatory signaling network results in robust regulation of distal limb development that is able to compensate for variations by interconnectivity among the three signaling pathways. ..
  35. Bandyopadhyay A, Tsuji K, Cox K, Harfe B, Rosen V, Tabin C. Genetic analysis of the roles of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7 in limb patterning and skeletogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e216 pubmed
    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members, including BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7, are expressed throughout limb development. BMPs have been implicated in early limb patterning as well as in the process of skeletogenesis...
  36. Shaked M, Weissmüller K, Svoboda H, Hortschansky P, Nishino N, Wolfl S, et al. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2668 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells...
  37. Liu Z, Tang Y, Qiu T, Cao X, Clemens T. A dishevelled-1/Smad1 interaction couples WNT and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways in uncommitted bone marrow stromal cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17156-63 pubmed
    ..These results identify a potential mechanism whereby BMP-2 antagonizes Wnt signaling in osteoblast progenitors by promoting an interaction between Smad1 and Dvl-1 that restricts beta-catenin activation. ..
  38. Matsubara T, Kida K, Yamaguchi A, Hata K, Ichida F, Meguro H, et al. BMP2 regulates Osterix through Msx2 and Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Osterix has been shown to be induced by BMP2 in a mesenchymal cell line, the molecular basis of the regulation, expression and function of Osterix during ..
  39. Murashima Suginami A, Takahashi K, Sakata T, Tsukamoto H, Sugai M, Yanagita M, et al. Enhanced BMP signaling results in supernumerary tooth formation in USAG-1 deficient mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:1012-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Based upon these results, we conclude that enhanced BMP signaling results in supernumerary teeth and BMP signaling was modulated by Wnt signaling in the USAG-1 deficient mouse model. ..
  40. Zhao M, Ko S, Liu J, Chen D, Zhang J, Wang B, et al. Inhibition of microtubule assembly in osteoblasts stimulates bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression and bone formation through transcription factor Gli2. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1291-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is essential for postnatal bone formation and fracture repair...
  41. Yamada S, Tomoeda M, Ozawa Y, Yoneda S, Terashima Y, Ikezawa K, et al. PLAP-1/asporin, a novel negative regulator of periodontal ligament mineralization. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23070-80 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of PLAP-1/asporin in mouse PDL-derived clone cells interfered with both naturally and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)-induced mineralization of the PDL cells...
  42. Fukuda S, Abematsu M, Mori H, Yanagisawa M, Kagawa T, Nakashima K, et al. Potentiation of astrogliogenesis by STAT3-mediated activation of bone morphogenetic protein-Smad signaling in neural stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4931-7 pubmed
    ..Transcription factors STAT3 and Smad1, activated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), respectively, form a complex with the coactivator p300 to synergistically induce astrocytes ..
  43. Kanzaki S, Takahashi T, Kanno T, Ariyoshi W, Shinmyouzu K, Tujisawa T, et al. Heparin inhibits BMP-2 osteogenic bioactivity by binding to both BMP-2 and BMP receptor. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, heparin bound to both BMP-2 and BMP receptor (BMPR). These results suggest that heparin suppresses BMP-2-BMPR binding, and inhibits BMP-2 osteogenic activity in vitro. ..
  44. Lu L, Ma J, Wang X, Wang J, Zhang F, Yu J, et al. Synergistic effect of TGF-beta superfamily members on the induction of Foxp3+ Treg. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the synergistic effect of BMP-2/4 and TGF-beta indicates that the simultaneous manipulation of TGF-beta and BMP signaling might have considerable effects in the clinical setting for the enhancement of Treg purity and yield. ..
  45. Plikus M, Mayer J, de la Cruz D, Baker R, Maini P, Maxson R, et al. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration. Nature. 2008;451:340-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that unexpected periodic expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and Bmp4 in the dermis regulates this process...
  46. Castranio T, Mishina Y. Bmp2 is required for cephalic neural tube closure in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:110-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the possibility that BMP2 could play a role in the developing neural tube (NT) beyond the lethality of Bmp2 null embryos, we created Bmp2 ..
  47. Jung H, Oropeza V, Thesleff I. Shh, Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Fgf-8 are associated with initiation and patterning of mouse tongue papillae. Mech Dev. 1999;81:179-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that these conserved signalling molecules are associated with the initiation and early morphogenesis of the tongue papillae. ..
  48. Dassule H, Lewis P, Bei M, Maas R, McMahon A. Sonic hedgehog regulates growth and morphogenesis of the tooth. Development. 2000;127:4775-85 pubmed
    ..However, the enamel knot, a putative organizer of crown formation, is present and expresses Fgf4, Wnt10b, Bmp2 and Lef1, as in the wild type...
  49. Ghosh Choudhury N, Windle J, Koop B, Harris M, Guerrero D, Wozney J, et al. Immortalized murine osteoblasts derived from BMP 2-T-antigen expressing transgenic mice. Endocrinology. 1996;137:331-9 pubmed
    ..To that end, transgenic mice were produced using a 2.9-kilobase bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) promoter fragment, driving simian virus 40 T antigen as the transgene...
  50. Biben C, Stanley E, Fabri L, Kotecha S, Rhinn M, Drinkwater C, et al. Murine cerberus homologue mCer-1: a candidate anterior patterning molecule. Dev Biol. 1998;194:135-51 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that mCer-1 shares structural, functional, and expression characteristics with Xcer and may participate in patterning the anterior of the embryo and nascent somite region, in part, through a BMP-inhibitory mechanism. ..
  51. Winnier G, Blessing M, Labosky P, Hogan B. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 is required for mesoderm formation and patterning in the mouse. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2105-16 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in the presumed absence of zygotic ligand, it appears that homozygous mutants can be rescued partially by related proteins or by maternal BMP-4. ..
  52. Christoffels V, Hoogaars W, Tessari A, Clout D, Moorman A, Campione M. T-box transcription factor Tbx2 represses differentiation and formation of the cardiac chambers. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:763-70 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first evidence that Tbx2 is a determinant in the local repression of chamber-specific gene expression and chamber differentiation. ..
  53. Bleul C, Boehm T. BMP signaling is required for normal thymus development. J Immunol. 2005;175:5213-21 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that BMP signaling is crucial for thymus development and that it is the thymic stroma rather than developing thymocytes that depends on BMP signals. ..
  54. Yamada M, Revelli J, Eichele G, Barron M, Schwartz R. Expression of chick Tbx-2, Tbx-3, and Tbx-5 genes during early heart development: evidence for BMP2 induction of Tbx2. Dev Biol. 2000;228:95-105 pubmed
    ..cTbx2 and cTbx3 expression patterns closely overlapped with that of bmp2. cTbx5 expression diverged from cTbx2 and bmp2 during the elaboration and folding of the heart tube...
  55. Martinez G, Mishina Y, Bertram J. BMPs and BMP receptors in mouse metanephric development: in vivo and in vitro studies. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:525-33 pubmed
    ..Stereology and histology were used to analyse kidneys from mice heterozygous for mutations in either BMP2, BMPR-IA or ActR-IA...
  56. Karlsson L, Lindahl P, Heath J, Betsholtz C. Abnormal gastrointestinal development in PDGF-A and PDGFR-(alpha) deficient mice implicates a novel mesenchymal structure with putative instructive properties in villus morphogenesis. Development. 2000;127:3457-66 pubmed
    ..The role of PDGF-A seems to be to secure renewal of PDGFR-(alpha) positive cells when they are consumed in the initial rounds of cluster formation. ..
  57. Nakamura M, Matzuk M, Gerstmayer B, Bosio A, Lauster R, Miyachi Y, et al. Control of pelage hair follicle development and cycling by complex interactions between follistatin and activin. FASEB J. 2003;17:497-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that follistatin and activin interaction plays an important role in both HF development and cycling, possibly in part by regulating expression of BMP-2 and its antagonist. ..
  58. Peng Y, Kang Q, Luo Q, Jiang W, Si W, Liu B, et al. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation helix-loop-helix proteins mediate bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32941-9 pubmed
  59. Vainio S, Karavanova I, Jowett A, Thesleff I. Identification of BMP-4 as a signal mediating secondary induction between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during early tooth development. Cell. 1993;75:45-58 pubmed
    ..In addition, BMP-4 induced its own mesenchymal expression. These findings support the hypothesis that BMP-4 mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during early tooth development. ..
  60. Ma L, Lu M, Schwartz R, Martin J. Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning. Development. 2005;132:5601-11 pubmed
    ..Here, we inactivated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) in the AV myocardium of mice...