Gene Symbol: Bmi1
Description: Bmi1 polycomb ring finger oncogene
Alias: AW546694, Bmi-1, Pcgf4, polycomb complex protein BMI-1, B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1, polycomb group RING finger protein 4, polycomb group ring finger 4
Species: mouse
Products:     Bmi1

Top Publications

  1. Nishino J, Kim I, Chada K, Morrison S. Hmga2 promotes neural stem cell self-renewal in young but not old mice by reducing p16Ink4a and p19Arf Expression. Cell. 2008;135:227-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Hmga2 thus promotes fetal and young-adult stem cell self-renewal by decreasing p16(Ink4a)/p19(Arf) expression. Changes in let-7 and Hmga2 expression during aging contribute to the decline in neural stem cell function. ..
  2. Chatoo W, Abdouh M, David J, Champagne M, Ferreira J, Rodier F, et al. The polycomb group gene Bmi1 regulates antioxidant defenses in neurons by repressing p53 pro-oxidant activity. J Neurosci. 2009;29:529-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the Polycomb group and oncogene Bmi1 is required in neurons to suppress apoptosis and the induction of a premature aging-like program characterized by ..
  3. Becker M, Korn C, Sienerth A, Voswinckel R, Luetkenhaus K, Ceteci F, et al. Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is required for growth of RAF driven non-small-cell lung cancer. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4230 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examine whether tumor initiation and growth requires the stem cell self-renewal factor Bmi1. In order to evaluate Bmi1 function in NSCLC two founder lines that differ in incidence and latency of tumor ..
  4. Alkema M, Wiegant J, Raap A, Berns A, van Lohuizen M. Characterization and chromosomal localization of the human proto-oncogene BMI-1. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2:1597-603 pubmed
    ..Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosome spreads located the human BMI-1 gene to the short arm of chromosome 10 (10p13), a region known to be involved in translocations in various leukemias. ..
  5. Liu J, Cao L, Chen J, Song S, Lee I, Quijano C, et al. Bmi1 regulates mitochondrial function and the DNA damage response pathway. Nature. 2009;459:387-392 pubmed publisher
    Mice deficient in the Polycomb repressor Bmi1 develop numerous abnormalities including a severe defect in stem cell self-renewal, alterations in thymocyte maturation and a shortened lifespan...
  6. Biehs B, Hu J, Strauli N, Sangiorgi E, Jung H, Heber R, et al. BMI1 represses Ink4a/Arf and Hox genes to regulate stem cells in the rodent incisor. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:846-52 pubmed publisher
    The polycomb group gene Bmi1 is required for maintenance of adult stem cells in many organs. Inactivation of Bmi1 leads to impaired stem cell self-renewal due to deregulated gene expression...
  7. Juan A, Derfoul A, Feng X, Ryall J, Dell Orso S, Pasut A, et al. Polycomb EZH2 controls self-renewal and safeguards the transcriptional identity of skeletal muscle stem cells. Genes Dev. 2011;25:789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects are associated with impaired SC proliferation and derepression of genes expressed in nonmuscle cell lineages. Thus, EZH2 controls self-renewal and proliferation, and maintains an appropriate transcriptional program in SCs. ..
  8. Bruggeman S, Valk Lingbeek M, van der Stoop P, Jacobs J, Kieboom K, Tanger E, et al. Ink4a and Arf differentially affect cell proliferation and neural stem cell self-renewal in Bmi1-deficient mice. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1438-43 pubmed
    The Polycomb group (PcG) gene Bmi1 promotes cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal by repressing the Ink4a/Arf locus...
  9. Sangiorgi E, Capecchi M. Bmi1 lineage tracing identifies a self-renewing pancreatic acinar cell subpopulation capable of maintaining pancreatic organ homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue in the exocrine pancreas we analyzed the Bmi1-labeled cell lineage of pancreatic acinar cells...

More Information


  1. Negishi M, Saraya A, Miyagi S, Nagao K, Inagaki Y, Nishikawa M, et al. Bmi1 cooperates with Dnmt1-associated protein 1 in gene silencing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:992-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we found that Bmi1 directly interacts with Dnmt-associated protein 1 (Dmap1), which has been characterized to associate with the ..
  2. van Lohuizen M, Verbeek S, Scheijen B, Wientjens E, van der Gulden H, Berns A. Identification of cooperating oncogenes in E mu-myc transgenic mice by provirus tagging. Cell. 1991;65:737-52 pubmed
  3. Haupt Y, Alexander W, Barri G, Klinken S, Adams J. Novel zinc finger gene implicated as myc collaborator by retrovirally accelerated lymphomagenesis in E mu-myc transgenic mice. Cell. 1991;65:753-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, myc-induced lymphomagenesis can entail the concerted action of several genes, including the presumptive nuclear regulator bmi-1. ..
  4. Bracken A, Kleine Kohlbrecher D, Dietrich N, Pasini D, Gargiulo G, Beekman C, et al. The Polycomb group proteins bind throughout the INK4A-ARF locus and are disassociated in senescent cells. Genes Dev. 2007;21:525-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the ability of the oncogene BMI1 to repress the INK4A-ARF locus requires its direct association and is dependent on the continued presence of the ..
  5. Iwama A, Oguro H, Negishi M, Kato Y, Morita Y, Tsukui H, et al. Enhanced self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells mediated by the polycomb gene product Bmi-1. Immunity. 2004;21:843-51 pubmed
    ..Our findings define Bmi-1 as a central player in HSC self-renewal and demonstrate that Bmi-1 is a target for therapeutic manipulation of HSCs. ..
  6. Park I, Qian D, Kiel M, Becker M, Pihalja M, Weissman I, et al. Bmi-1 is required for maintenance of adult self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells. Nature. 2003;423:302-5 pubmed
    ..Expression of p16Ink4a and p19Arf in normal HSCs resulted in proliferative arrest and p53-dependent cell death, respectively. Our results indicate that Bmi-1 is essential for the generation of self-renewing adult HSCs. ..
  7. Leung C, Lingbeek M, Shakhova O, Liu J, Tanger E, Saremaslani P, et al. Bmi1 is essential for cerebellar development and is overexpressed in human medulloblastomas. Nature. 2004;428:337-41 pubmed
    Overexpression of the polycomb group gene Bmi1 promotes cell proliferation and induces leukaemia through repression of Cdkn2a (also known as ink4a/Arf) tumour suppressors...
  8. Glinsky G, Berezovska O, Glinskii A. Microarray analysis identifies a death-from-cancer signature predicting therapy failure in patients with multiple types of cancer. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1503-21 pubmed
  9. Yadirgi G, Leinster V, Acquati S, Bhagat H, Shakhova O, Marino S. Conditional activation of Bmi1 expression regulates self-renewal, apoptosis, and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo. Stem Cells. 2011;29:700-12 pubmed publisher
    The Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is a key regulator of self-renewal of embryonic and adult central nervous system stem cells, and its overexpression has been shown to occur in several types of brain tumors...
  10. Negishi M, Saraya A, Mochizuki S, Helin K, Koseki H, Iwama A. A novel zinc finger protein Zfp277 mediates transcriptional repression of the Ink4a/arf locus through polycomb repressive complex 1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12373 pubmed publisher
    ..Zinc finger domain-containing protein 277 (Zfp277), a novel zinc finger protein that interacts with the PcG protein Bmi1. Zfp277 binds to the Ink4a/Arf locus in a Bmi1-independent manner and interacts with polycomb repressor complex (..
  11. Fasano C, Phoenix T, Kokovay E, Lowry N, Elkabetz Y, Dimos J, et al. Bmi-1 cooperates with Foxg1 to maintain neural stem cell self-renewal in the forebrain. Genes Dev. 2009;23:561-74 pubmed publisher
  12. van der Lugt N, Domen J, Linders K, van Roon M, Robanus Maandag E, te Riele H, et al. Posterior transformation, neurological abnormalities, and severe hematopoietic defects in mice with a targeted deletion of the bmi-1 proto-oncogene. Genes Dev. 1994;8:757-69 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these data provide the first evidence of functional conservation of a mammalian Polycomb group homolog. ..
  13. Ginjala V, Nacerddine K, Kulkarni A, Oza J, Hill S, Yao M, et al. BMI1 is recruited to DNA breaks and contributes to DNA damage-induced H2A ubiquitination and repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We now report that the polycomb protein BMI1 is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage, where it persists for more than 8 h...
  14. Michael L, Westerman B, Ermilov A, Wang A, Ferris J, Liu J, et al. Bmi1 is required for Hedgehog pathway-driven medulloblastoma expansion. Neoplasia. 2008;10:1343-9, 5p following 1349 pubmed
    ..subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in ..
  15. Chagraoui J, Hébert J, Girard S, Sauvageau G. An anticlastogenic function for the Polycomb Group gene Bmi1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5284-9 pubmed publisher
    b>BMI1 is a key component of multiprotein Polycomb repression complex 1 (PRC1), and its disruption in mice induces severe aplastic anemia by early adulthood. The contributing mechanisms responsible for this phenotype remain elusive...
  16. Dhawan S, Tschen S, Bhushan A. Bmi-1 regulates the Ink4a/Arf locus to control pancreatic beta-cell proliferation. Genes Dev. 2009;23:906-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that PcG and TrxG proteins impart a combinatorial code of histone modifications on the Ink4a/Arf locus to control beta-cell proliferation during aging and regeneration. ..
  17. Sangiorgi E, Capecchi M. Bmi1 is expressed in vivo in intestinal stem cells. Nat Genet. 2008;40:915-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Bmi1 plays an essential part in the self-renewal of hematopoietic and neural stem cells. To investigate its role in other adult stem cell populations, we generated a mouse expressing a tamoxifen-inducible Cre from the Bmi1 locus...
  18. Lessard J, Schumacher A, Thorsteinsdottir U, van Lohuizen M, Magnuson T, Sauvageau G. Functional antagonism of the Polycomb-Group genes eed and Bmi1 in hemopoietic cell proliferation. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2691-703 pubmed
    The murine Polycomb-Group (PcG) proteins Eed and Bmi1 govern axial patterning during embryonic development by segment-specific repression of Hox gene expression...
  19. Alkema M, van der Lugt N, Bobeldijk R, Berns A, van Lohuizen M. Transformation of axial skeleton due to overexpression of bmi-1 in transgenic mice. Nature. 1995;374:724-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that Bmi-1 is a member of a vertebrate Polycomb complex that regulates segmental identity by repressing Hox genes throughout development. ..
  20. Voncken J, Niessen H, Neufeld B, Rennefahrt U, Dahlmans V, Kubben N, et al. MAPKAP kinase 3pK phosphorylates and regulates chromatin association of the polycomb group protein Bmi1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5178-87 pubmed
    ..The nature of the responsible PcG kinases remained unknown. Here we present the novel finding that the PcG protein Bmi1 is phosphorylated by 3pK (MAPKAP kinase 3), a convergence point downstream of activated ERK and p38 signaling ..
  21. Akasaka T, van Lohuizen M, van der Lugt N, Mizutani Koseki Y, Kanno M, Taniguchi M, et al. Mice doubly deficient for the Polycomb Group genes Mel18 and Bmi1 reveal synergy and requirement for maintenance but not initiation of Hox gene expression. Development. 2001;128:1587-97 pubmed
    ..Mel18 and Bmi1 are mammalian homologs of Drosophila Posterior sex combs...
  22. Xu C, Lee S, Ho C, Bommi P, Huang S, Cheung S, et al. Bmi1 functions as an oncogene independent of Ink4A/Arf repression in hepatic carcinogenesis. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1937-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Bmi1 is a polycomb group proto-oncogene that has been implicated in multiple tumor types. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development has not been well studied...
  23. Bruggeman S, Hulsman D, Van Lohuizen M. Bmi1 deficient neural stem cells have increased integrin dependent adhesion to self-secreted matrix. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:351-60 pubmed publisher
    Neural cells deficient for Polycomb group (PcG) protein Bmi1 are impaired in the formation and differentiation of high grade glioma, an incurable cancer of the brain...
  24. Tanaka T, Komai Y, Tokuyama Y, Yanai H, Ohe S, Okazaki K, et al. Identification of stem cells that maintain and regenerate lingual keratinized epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that stem cells positive for Bmi1, keratin 14 and keratin 5 are present in the base but not at the very bottom of the interpapillary pit (observed ..
  25. Buchwald G, van der Stoop P, Weichenrieder O, Perrakis A, Van Lohuizen M, Sixma T. Structure and E3-ligase activity of the Ring-Ring complex of polycomb proteins Bmi1 and Ring1b. EMBO J. 2006;25:2465-74 pubmed
    Polycomb group proteins Ring1b and Bmi1 (B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1) are critical components of the chromatin modulating PRC1 complex...
  26. Zacharek S, Fillmore C, Lau A, Gludish D, Chou A, Ho J, et al. Lung stem cell self-renewal relies on BMI1-dependent control of expression at imprinted loci. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;9:272-81 pubmed publisher
    b>BMI1 is required for the self-renewal of stem cells in many tissues including the lung epithelial stem cells, Bronchioalveolar Stem Cells (BASCs)...
  27. Oguro H, Yuan J, Ichikawa H, Ikawa T, Yamazaki S, Kawamoto H, et al. Poised lineage specification in multipotential hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by the polycomb protein Bmi1. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bmi1, a component of PcG complexes, maintains the self-renewal capacity of adult stem cells, but its role in ..
  28. Hosokawa H, Kimura M, Shinnakasu R, Suzuki A, Miki T, Koseki H, et al. Regulation of Th2 cell development by Polycomb group gene bmi-1 through the stabilization of GATA3. J Immunol. 2006;177:7656-64 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Bmi-1 plays a crucial role in the control of Th2 cell differentiation in a Ring finger-dependent manner by regulating GATA3 protein stability. ..
  29. Molofsky A, He S, Bydon M, Morrison S, Pardal R. Bmi-1 promotes neural stem cell self-renewal and neural development but not mouse growth and survival by repressing the p16Ink4a and p19Arf senescence pathways. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1432-7 pubmed
    ..Bmi-1 thus prevents the premature senescence of neural stem cells by repressing Ink4a and Arf, but additional pathways must also function downstream of Bmi-1. ..
  30. Jacobs J, Kieboom K, Marino S, DePinho R, van Lohuizen M. The oncogene and Polycomb-group gene bmi-1 regulates cell proliferation and senescence through the ink4a locus. Nature. 1999;397:164-8 pubmed
    ..Our results connect transcriptional repression by Polycomb-group proteins with cell-cycle control and senescence. ..
  31. Miyazaki M, Miyazaki K, Itoi M, Katoh Y, Guo Y, Kanno R, et al. Thymocyte proliferation induced by pre-T cell receptor signaling is maintained through polycomb gene product Bmi-1-mediated Cdkn2a repression. Immunity. 2008;28:231-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that this epigenetic regulation critically contributes to the survival of the activated pre-T cells, thereby supporting their proliferation during the DN-DP transition. ..
  32. Fasano C, Dimos J, Ivanova N, Lowry N, Lemischka I, Temple S. shRNA knockdown of Bmi-1 reveals a critical role for p21-Rb pathway in NSC self-renewal during development. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1:87-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding stage-related mechanisms underlying NSC self-renewal has important implications for development of stem cell-based therapies. ..
  33. Bruggeman S, Hulsman D, Tanger E, Buckle T, Blom M, Zevenhoven J, et al. Bmi1 controls tumor development in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner in a mouse model for glioma. Cancer Cell. 2007;12:328-41 pubmed
    The Polycomb group and oncogene Bmi1 is required for the proliferation of various differentiated cells and for the self-renewal of stem cells and leukemic cancer stem cells...
  34. Yamashita M, Kuwahara M, Suzuki A, Hirahara K, Shinnaksu R, Hosokawa H, et al. Bmi1 regulates memory CD4 T cell survival via repression of the Noxa gene. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of the polycomb group (PcG) gene Bmi1, the number of memory CD4(+) T helper (Th)1/Th2 cells was reduced significantly...
  35. Chiba T, Seki A, Aoki R, Ichikawa H, Negishi M, Miyagi S, et al. Bmi1 promotes hepatic stem cell expansion and tumorigenicity in both Ink4a/Arf-dependent and -independent manners in mice. Hepatology. 2010;52:1111-23 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that forced expression of Bmi1 (B lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1 homolog) in murine hepatic stem/progenitor cells purified from fetal liver enhances their self-renewal and drives cancer ..
  36. Subkhankulova T, Zhang X, Leung C, Marino S. Bmi1 directly represses p21Waf1/Cip1 in Shh-induced proliferation of cerebellar granule cell progenitors. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:151-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Bmi1, the main component of the Polycomb repressive complex 1, plays a key role in self-renewal of stem cells as well as in proliferation of progenitor cells and senescence, at least in part through inhibition of the Cdkn2a locus...
  37. Zencak D, Lingbeek M, Kostic C, Tekaya M, Tanger E, Hornfeld D, et al. Bmi1 loss produces an increase in astroglial cells and a decrease in neural stem cell population and proliferation. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5774-83 pubmed
    The polycomb transcriptional repressor Bmi1 promotes cell cycle progression, controls cell senescence, and is implicated in brain development. Loss of Bmi1 leads to a decreased brain size and causes progressive ataxia and epilepsy...
  38. Kim S, Paylor S, Magnuson T, Schumacher A. Juxtaposed Polycomb complexes co-regulate vertebral identity. Development. 2006;133:4957-68 pubmed
    ..The present study interrogated the genetic, biochemical and molecular interaction of BMI1 and EED, pivotal constituents of heterologous Polycomb complexes, in the regulation of vertebral identity during ..
  39. Robson L, Di Foggia V, Radunović A, Bird K, Zhang X, Marino S. Bmi1 is expressed in postnatal myogenic satellite cells, controls their maintenance and plays an essential role in repeated muscle regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27116 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the Polycomb group (PcG) gene Bmi1 is expressed in both the Pax7 positive (+)/Myf5 negative (-) stem cell population as well as the Pax7+/Myf5+ ..
  40. Molofsky A, Pardal R, Iwashita T, Park I, Clarke M, Morrison S. Bmi-1 dependence distinguishes neural stem cell self-renewal from progenitor proliferation. Nature. 2003;425:962-7 pubmed
    ..Restricted neural progenitors from the gut and forebrain proliferate normally in the absence of Bmi-1. Thus, Bmi-1 dependence distinguishes stem cell self-renewal from restricted progenitor proliferation in these tissues. ..
  41. Kim J, Hwangbo J, Wong P. p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 down-regulation and defective proliferation in ATM-deficient neural stem cells can be restored by Akt activation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16615 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm(-/-) NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway. ..
  42. Dovey J, Zacharek S, KIM C, Lees J. Bmi1 is critical for lung tumorigenesis and bronchioalveolar stem cell expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11857-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The Polycomb group family member Bmi1 is overexpressed in numerous epithelial tumors, but its role in their development has not been established...
  43. Lessard J, Sauvageau G. Bmi-1 determines the proliferative capacity of normal and leukaemic stem cells. Nature. 2003;423:255-60 pubmed
    ..These studies therefore indicate that Bmi-1 has an essential role in regulating the proliferative activity of both normal and leukaemic stem cells. ..
  44. Liu Y, Liu F, Yu H, Zhao X, Sashida G, Deblasio A, et al. Akt phosphorylates the transcriptional repressor bmi1 to block its effects on the tumor-suppressing ink4a-arf locus. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra77 pubmed publisher
    The Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is a transcriptional silencer of the Ink4a-Arf locus, which encodes the cell cycle regulator p16(Ink4a) and the tumor suppressor p19(Arf). Bmi1 plays a key role in oncogenesis and stem cell self-renewal...
  45. Cao G, Gu M, Zhu M, Gao J, Yin Y, Marshall C, et al. Bmi-1 absence causes premature brain degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32015 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Bmi-1 is required for maintaining endogenous antioxidant defenses in the brain, and its absence subsequently causes premature brain degeneration. ..
  46. Chiba T, Zheng Y, Kita K, Yokosuka O, Saisho H, Onodera M, et al. Enhanced self-renewal capability in hepatic stem/progenitor cells drives cancer initiation. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:937-50 pubmed
    ..Functional analyses of polycomb-group protein Bmi1 and Wnt/beta-catenin, the molecules that are responsible for the self-renewal capability of many types of stem ..
  47. Hosen N, Yamane T, Muijtjens M, Pham K, Clarke M, Weissman I. Bmi-1-green fluorescent protein-knock-in mice reveal the dynamic regulation of bmi-1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells. Stem Cells. 2007;25:1635-44 pubmed
    ..Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. ..
  48. Kranc K, Bamforth S, Braganca J, Norbury C, Van Lohuizen M, Bhattacharya S. Transcriptional coactivator Cited2 induces Bmi1 and Mel18 and controls fibroblast proliferation via Ink4a/ARF. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7658-66 pubmed
    ..We found that Cited2(-/-) fibroblasts had reduced expression of the polycomb-group genes Bmi1 and Mel18, which function as INK4a/ARF and Hox repressors...
  49. Jacobs J, Scheijen B, Voncken J, Kieboom K, Berns A, van Lohuizen M. Bmi-1 collaborates with c-Myc in tumorigenesis by inhibiting c-Myc-induced apoptosis via INK4a/ARF. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2678-90 pubmed
    ..Together, these results reinforce the critical role of Bmi-1 as a dose-dependent regulator of ink4a-ARF, which on its turn acts to prevent tumorigenesis on activation of oncogenes such as c-myc. ..
  50. Zhang S, Li D, Li E, Li L, Wang J, Wang C, et al. Expression localization of Bmi1 in mice testis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;287:47-56 pubmed publisher
    B cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi1), known as the first functional member of PcG (Polycomb Group) family, is supposed to be a key regulator of stem cell self-proliferation...
  51. Oguro H, Iwama A, Morita Y, Kamijo T, Van Lohuizen M, Nakauchi H. Differential impact of Ink4a and Arf on hematopoietic stem cells and their bone marrow microenvironment in Bmi1-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2247-53 pubmed
    The polycomb group (PcG) protein Bmi1 plays an essential role in the self-renewal of hematopoietic and neural stem cells...
  52. Cao R, Tsukada Y, Zhang Y. Role of Bmi-1 and Ring1A in H2A ubiquitylation and Hox gene silencing. Mol Cell. 2005;20:845-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that EZH2-mediated H3-K27 methylation functions upstream of PRC1 and establishes a critical role for Bmi-1 and Ring1A in H2A ubiquitylation and Hox gene silencing. ..
  53. He S, Iwashita T, Buchstaller J, Molofsky A, Thomas D, Morrison S. Bmi-1 over-expression in neural stem/progenitor cells increases proliferation and neurogenesis in culture but has little effect on these functions in vivo. Dev Biol. 2009;328:257-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Bmi-1 over-expression therefore has more pronounced effects in culture and does not appear to be sufficient to induce tumorigenesis in vivo. ..
  54. Hanson R, Hess J, Yu B, Ernst P, van Lohuizen M, Berns A, et al. Mammalian Trithorax and polycomb-group homologues are antagonistic regulators of homeotic development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14372-7 pubmed
    ..Although Drosophila Pc-G and Trx-G members have been shown to maintain a previously established transcriptional pattern, we demonstrate that MLL can also dynamically regulate a target Hox gene. ..
  55. Zhang H, Ding J, Jin J, Guo J, Liu J, Karaplis A, et al. Defects in mesenchymal stem cell self-renewal and cell fate determination lead to an osteopenic phenotype in Bmi-1 null mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:640-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Bmi-1 therefore plays a critical role in promoting osteogenesis...
  56. Yuan J, Takeuchi M, Negishi M, Oguro H, Ichikawa H, Iwama A. Bmi1 is essential for leukemic reprogramming of myeloid progenitor cells. Leukemia. 2011;25:1335-43 pubmed publisher
    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins, particularly Bmi1, have an essential role in maintaining the self-renewing capacity of leukemic stem cells (LSCs)...
  57. Pietersen A, Evers B, Prasad A, Tanger E, Cornelissen Steijger P, Jonkers J, et al. Bmi1 regulates stem cells and proliferation and differentiation of committed cells in mammary epithelium. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1094-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice without the PcG gene Bmi1 are runted and suffer from progressive loss of hematopoietic and neural stem cells [2-4]...
  58. Yan K, Chia L, Li X, Ootani A, Su J, Lee J, et al. The intestinal stem cell markers Bmi1 and Lgr5 identify two functionally distinct populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bmi1 and Lgr5 have been independently identified to mark long-lived multipotent ISCs by lineage tracing in mice; however,..
  59. Tian H, Biehs B, Warming S, Leong K, Rangell L, Klein O, et al. A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable. Nature. 2011;478:255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The other pool consists of Bmi1-expressing cells that largely reside above the crypt base...