Gene Symbol: Bglap
Description: bone gamma carboxyglutamate protein
Alias: BGP, Bglap1, OG1, mOC-A, osteocalcin, bone Gla protein, bone gamma carboxyglutamate protein 1, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Bglap

Top Publications

  1. Ducy P, Desbois C, Boyce B, Pinero G, Story B, Dunstan C, et al. Increased bone formation in osteocalcin-deficient mice. Nature. 1996;382:448-52 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of osteocalcin, the most abundant osteoblast-specific non-collagenous protein, we have generated osteocalcin-deficient mice...
  2. Komori T, Yagi H, Nomura S, Yamaguchi A, Sasaki K, Deguchi K, et al. Targeted disruption of Cbfa1 results in a complete lack of bone formation owing to maturational arrest of osteoblasts. Cell. 1997;89:755-64 pubmed
    ..Although immature osteoblasts, which expressed alkaline phophatase weakly but not Osteopontin and Osteocalcin, and a few immature osteoclasts appeared at the perichondrial region, neither vascular nor mesenchymal cell ..
  3. Takeda S, Bonnamy J, Owen M, Ducy P, Karsenty G. Continuous expression of Cbfa1 in nonhypertrophic chondrocytes uncovers its ability to induce hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and partially rescues Cbfa1-deficient mice. Genes Dev. 2001;15:467-81 pubmed
    ..These results identify Cbfa1 as a hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation factor and provide a genetic argument for a common regulation of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation mediated by Cbfa1. ..
  4. Zelzer E, McLean W, Ng Y, Fukai N, Reginato A, Lovejoy S, et al. Skeletal defects in VEGF(120/120) mice reveal multiple roles for VEGF in skeletogenesis. Development. 2002;129:1893-904 pubmed
    ..We also describe new in vivo evidence for a possible role of VEGF in chondrocyte maturation, and document that VEGF has a direct role in regulating osteoblastic activity based on in vivo evidence and organ culture experiments. ..
  5. Bialek P, Kern B, Yang X, Schrock M, Sosic D, Hong N, et al. A twist code determines the onset of osteoblast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2004;6:423-35 pubmed
    ..In vivo mutagenesis confirms the antiosteogenic function of the Twist box. Thus, relief of inhibition by Twist proteins is a mandatory event precluding osteoblast differentiation. ..
  6. Smith N, Dong Y, Lian J, Pratap J, Kingsley P, Van Wijnen A, et al. Overlapping expression of Runx1(Cbfa2) and Runx2(Cbfa1) transcription factors supports cooperative induction of skeletal development. J Cell Physiol. 2005;203:133-43 pubmed
  7. Oury F, Ferron M, Huizhen W, Confavreux C, Xu L, LaCombe J, et al. Osteocalcin regulates murine and human fertility through a pancreas-bone-testis axis. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2421-33 pubmed
    The osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin promotes testosterone biosynthesis in the mouse testis by binding to GPRC6A in Leydig cells...
  8. Colnot C, de la Fuente L, Huang S, Hu D, Lu C, St Jacques B, et al. Indian hedgehog synchronizes skeletal angiogenesis and perichondrial maturation with cartilage development. Development. 2005;132:1057-67 pubmed
  9. Akiyama H, Kim J, Nakashima K, Balmes G, Iwai N, Deng J, et al. Osteo-chondroprogenitor cells are derived from Sox9 expressing precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14665-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results strongly suggest that all osteo-chondroprogenitor cells, as well as progenitors in a variety of tissues, are derived from Sox9-expressing precursors during mouse embryogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Joeng K, Long F. The Gli2 transcriptional activator is a crucial effector for Ihh signaling in osteoblast development and cartilage vascularization. Development. 2009;136:4177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results therefore provide direct genetic evidence that Gli2 and Gli3 collectively mediate all major aspects of Ihh function during endochondral skeletal development. ..
  2. Lee N, Sowa H, Hinoi E, Ferron M, Ahn J, Confavreux C, et al. Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton. Cell. 2007;130:456-69 pubmed
    ..In contrast, mice lacking the osteoblast-secreted molecule osteocalcin display decreased beta-cell proliferation, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance...
  3. Levi B, James A, Nelson E, Brugmann S, Sorkin M, Manu A, et al. Role of Indian hedgehog signaling in palatal osteogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:1182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The hedgehog pathway is activated during palatal fusion, and deletion of Indian hedgehog leads to diminished ossification of the secondary hard palate. ..
  4. Yu K, Xu J, Liu Z, Sosic D, Shao J, Olson E, et al. Conditional inactivation of FGF receptor 2 reveals an essential role for FGF signaling in the regulation of osteoblast function and bone growth. Development. 2003;130:3063-74 pubmed
    ..Although differentiation of the osteoblast lineage was not disturbed, the proliferation of osteoprogenitors and the anabolic function of mature osteoblasts were severely affected. ..
  5. Hu H, Hilton M, Tu X, Yu K, Ornitz D, Long F. Sequential roles of Hedgehog and Wnt signaling in osteoblast development. Development. 2005;132:49-60 pubmed
    ..Finally Wnt7b is identified as a potential endogenous ligand regulating osteogenesis. These data support a model that integrates Hh and Wnt signaling in the regulation of osteoblast development. ..
  6. Acampora D, Merlo G, Paleari L, Zerega B, Postiglione M, Mantero S, et al. Craniofacial, vestibular and bone defects in mice lacking the Distal-less-related gene Dlx5. Development. 1999;126:3795-809 pubmed
    ..The defects observed in Dlx5-/- mutant animals suggest multiple and independent roles of this gene in the patterning of the branchial arches, in the morphogenesis of the vestibular organ and in osteoblast differentiation. ..
  7. Oury F, Sumara G, Sumara O, Ferron M, Chang H, Smith C, et al. Endocrine regulation of male fertility by the skeleton. Cell. 2011;144:796-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of cell-specific loss- and gain-of-function models reveal that the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin performs this endocrine function...
  8. St Jacques B, Hammerschmidt M, McMahon A. Indian hedgehog signaling regulates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and is essential for bone formation. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2072-86 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest a model in which Ihh coordinates diverse aspects of skeletal morphogenesis through PTHrP-dependent and independent processes. ..
  9. Satokata I, Ma L, Ohshima H, Bei M, Woo I, Nishizawa K, et al. Msx2 deficiency in mice causes pleiotropic defects in bone growth and ectodermal organ formation. Nat Genet. 2000;24:391-5 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a developmental basis for PFM and demonstrate that Msx2 is essential at multiple sites during organogenesis. ..
  10. Joeng K, Schumacher C, Zylstra Diegel C, Long F, Williams B. Lrp5 and Lrp6 redundantly control skeletal development in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2011;359:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Lrp5 and 6 redundantly control embryonic skeletal development, likely through ?-catenin signaling. ..
  11. Yang F, Tang W, So S, de Crombrugghe B, Zhang C. Sclerostin is a direct target of osteoblast-specific transcription factor osterix. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:684-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings support our hypothesis that Sost is a direct target of Osx. This provides a new additional mechanism through which Osx inhibits Wnt signaling during bone formation. ..
  12. Hill T, Später D, Taketo M, Birchmeier W, Hartmann C. Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling prevents osteoblasts from differentiating into chondrocytes. Dev Cell. 2005;8:727-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for skeletal lineage differentiation, preventing transdifferentiation of osteoblastic cells into chondrocytes. ..
  13. Ferron M, Hinoi E, Karsenty G, Ducy P. Osteocalcin differentially regulates beta cell and adipocyte gene expression and affects the development of metabolic diseases in wild-type mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5266-70 pubmed publisher
    The osteoblast-specific secreted molecule osteocalcin behaves as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass in two mutant mouse strains...
  14. Akiyama H, Lyons J, Mori Akiyama Y, Yang X, Zhang R, Zhang Z, et al. Interactions between Sox9 and beta-catenin control chondrocyte differentiation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1072-87 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that chondrogenesis is controlled by interactions between Sox9 and the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. ..
  15. Yoshizawa T, Handa Y, Uematsu Y, Takeda S, Sekine K, Yoshihara Y, et al. Mice lacking the vitamin D receptor exhibit impaired bone formation, uterine hypoplasia and growth retardation after weaning. Nat Genet. 1997;16:391-6 pubmed
    ..These defects, such as alopoecia and uterine hypoplasia, were not observed in vitamin D-deficient animals. The findings establish a critical role for VDR in growth, bone formation and female reproduction in the post-weaning stage. ..
  16. Zhang C, Tang W, Li Y, Yang F, Dowd D, MacDonald P. Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix increases vitamin D receptor gene expression in osteoblasts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26504 pubmed publisher
    ..They further provide new insight into potential mechanisms and pathways that Osx controls in osteoblasts and during the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation. ..
  17. Hinoi E, Gao N, Jung D, Yadav V, Yoshizawa T, Myers M, et al. The sympathetic tone mediates leptin's inhibition of insulin secretion by modulating osteocalcin bioactivity. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:1235-42 pubmed publisher
    The osteoblast-secreted molecule osteocalcin favors insulin secretion, but how this function is regulated in vivo by extracellular signals is for now unknown...
  18. Ducy P, Karsenty G. Two distinct osteoblast-specific cis-acting elements control expression of a mouse osteocalcin gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1858-69 pubmed
    ..To understand these mechanisms, we analyzed the cis-acting elements of mouse osteocalcin gene 2 (mOG2), the best-characterized osteoblast-specific gene, by DNA transfection experiments in osteoblastic ..
  19. Nakashima K, Zhou X, Kunkel G, Zhang Z, Deng J, Behringer R, et al. The novel zinc finger-containing transcription factor osterix is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Cell. 2002;108:17-29 pubmed
    ..Thus, Osx acts downstream of Runx2/Cbfa1. Because Osx null preosteoblasts express typical chondrocyte marker genes, we propose that Runx2/Cbfa1-expressing preosteoblasts are still bipotential cells. ..
  20. Aghaloo T, Cowan C, Chou Y, Zhang X, Lee H, Miao S, et al. Nell-1-induced bone regeneration in calvarial defects. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:903-15 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemistry indicated that Nell-1 reduced osterix-producing cells and increased bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and BMP-7 expression...
  21. Jacob A, Smith C, Partanen J, Ornitz D. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 signaling in the osteo-chondrogenic cell lineage regulates sequential steps of osteoblast maturation. Dev Biol. 2006;296:315-28 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that signaling through FGFR1 in osteoblasts is necessary to maintain the balance between bone formation and remodeling through a direct effect on osteoblast maturation. ..
  22. Yang Y, Topol L, Lee H, Wu J. Wnt5a and Wnt5b exhibit distinct activities in coordinating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2003;130:1003-15 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Wnt5a and Wnt5b control the pace of transitions between different chondrocyte zones. ..
  23. Ferron M, Wei J, Yoshizawa T, Del Fattore A, Depinho R, Teti A, et al. Insulin signaling in osteoblasts integrates bone remodeling and energy metabolism. Cell. 2010;142:296-308 pubmed publisher
    ..expressing this receptor is the osteoblast, a bone-specific cell favoring glucose metabolism through a hormone, osteocalcin, that becomes active once uncarboxylated...
  24. Zhou G, Zheng Q, Engin F, Munivez E, Chen Y, Sebald E, et al. Dominance of SOX9 function over RUNX2 during skeletogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19004-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, SOX9 is dominant over RUNX2 function in mesenchymal precursors that are destined for a chondrogenic lineage during endochondral ossification...
  25. Tang W, Yang F, Li Y, de Crombrugghe B, Jiao H, Xiao G, et al. Transcriptional regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) by osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix (Osx) in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1671-8 pubmed publisher
    ..results revealed that VEGF expression was down-regulated in Osx-null calvarial cells and that osteoblast marker osteocalcin expression was absent...
  26. Koziel L, Kunath M, Kelly O, Vortkamp A. Ext1-dependent heparan sulfate regulates the range of Ihh signaling during endochondral ossification. Dev Cell. 2004;6:801-13 pubmed
    ..Finally, we propose that the development of exostoses in the human Hereditary Multiple Exostoses syndrome can be attributed to activation of Ihh signaling...
  27. Soung D, Dong Y, Wang Y, Zuscik M, Schwarz E, O Keefe R, et al. Runx3/AML2/Cbfa3 regulates early and late chondrocyte differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1260-70 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Runx3 expression remains high during later stages of embryonic development when the levels of osteocalcin are maximal...
  28. Zhang X, Ting K, Pathmanathan D, Ko T, Chen W, Chen F, et al. Calvarial cleidocraniodysplasia-like defects with ENU-induced Nell-1 deficiency. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..a global reduction in osteoblast markers was observed, including reductions in Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. Remarkably, detailed analysis of endochondral bones showed dysplasia as well...
  29. Jeon M, Kim J, Kwon S, Kim S, Park K, Park S, et al. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma inhibits the Runx2-mediated transcription of osteocalcin in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23270-7 pubmed
    ..that the activation of PPARgamma in osteoblasts suppresses osteoblast differentiation and the expression of osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific protein. However, the mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear...
  30. Chandar N, Campbell P, Novak J, Smith M. Dependence of induction of osteocalcin gene expression on the presence of wild-type p53 in a murine osteosarcoma cell line. Mol Carcinog. 1993;8:299-305 pubmed
    ..Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression were measured as early and late differentiation markers, respectively...
  31. Wiig H, Schröder A, Neuhofer W, Jantsch J, Kopp C, Karlsen T, et al. Immune cells control skin lymphatic electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2803-15 pubmed publisher
  32. Gollner H, Dani C, Phillips B, Philipsen S, Suske G. Impaired ossification in mice lacking the transcription factor Sp3. Mech Dev. 2001;106:77-83 pubmed
    ..The delay in ossification is reflected by reduced expression of the osteoblast-specific marker gene osteocalcin. The transcription factor - core binding factor 1 (Cbfa1)--that is essential for bone formation, however, is ..
  33. Funato N, Nakamura M, Richardson J, Srivastava D, Yanagisawa H. Loss of Tbx1 induces bone phenotypes similar to cleidocranial dysplasia. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:424-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our current studies reveal that Tbx1 is required for mesoderm- and neural crest-derived osteoblast differentiation and normal skeletal development. TBX1 mutation could lead to CCD-like bone phenotypes in human. ..
  34. Regard J, Malhotra D, Gvozdenovic Jeremic J, Josey M, Chen M, Weinstein L, et al. Activation of Hedgehog signaling by loss of GNAS causes heterotopic ossification. Nat Med. 2013;19:1505-12 pubmed publisher
  35. Hwang M, Kalinin A, Morasso M. The temporal and spatial expression of the novel Ca++-binding proteins, Scarf and Scarf2, during development and epidermal differentiation. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:801-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Scarf and Scarf2 were also detected in the tongue and oral epithelia, rib bone undergoing ossification and in the medullar region of thymus. ..
  36. Hirota S, Takaoka K, Hashimoto J, Nakase T, Takemura T, Morii E, et al. Expression of mRNA of murine bone-related proteins in ectopic bone induced by murine bone morphogenetic protein-4. Cell Tissue Res. 1994;277:27-32 pubmed
    ..A strong osteocalcin mRNA signal was detected in osteoblast-like cells from the middle to late stages and in a limited subset of ..
  37. Yoshida C, Furuichi T, Fujita T, Fukuyama R, Kanatani N, Kobayashi S, et al. Core-binding factor beta interacts with Runx2 and is required for skeletal development. Nat Genet. 2002;32:633-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Cbfbeta is required for the function of Runx2 in skeletal development. ..
  38. Yang S, Xu H, Yu S, Cao H, Fan J, Ge C, et al. Foxo1 mediates insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/insulin regulation of osteocalcin expression by antagonizing Runx2 in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/insulin actions, regulates Runx2 activity and expression of the mouse osteocalcin gene 2 (Bglap2) in osteoblasts in vitro...
  39. Guo J, Liu M, Yang D, Bouxsein M, Saito H, Galvin R, et al. Suppression of Wnt signaling by Dkk1 attenuates PTH-mediated stromal cell response and new bone formation. Cell Metab. 2010;11:161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the full actions of PTH require intact Wnt signaling but that PTH can activate the Wnt pathway despite overexpression of Dkk1. ..
  40. Zhou G, Jiang X, Zhang H, Lu Y, Liu A, Ma X, et al. Zbtb20 regulates the terminal differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes via repression of Sox9. Development. 2015;142:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings point to Zbtb20 as a crucial regulator governing the terminal differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes at least partially through repression of Sox9. ..
  41. Wei J, Hanna T, Suda N, Karsenty G, Ducy P. Osteocalcin promotes ?-cell proliferation during development and adulthood through Gprc6a. Diabetes. 2014;63:1021-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that osteocalcin, a bone-derived hormone, regulates ?-cell replication in a cyclin D1-dependent manner by signaling through the ..
  42. Chung U, Schipani E, McMahon A, Kronenberg H. Indian hedgehog couples chondrogenesis to osteogenesis in endochondral bone development. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:295-304 pubmed
    ..By providing crucial local signals from prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes to both chondrocytes and preosteoblasts, IHH couples chondrogenesis to osteogenesis in endochondral bone development. ..
  43. Pregizer S, Baniwal S, Yan X, Borok Z, Frenkel B. Progressive recruitment of Runx2 to genomic targets despite decreasing expression during osteoblast differentiation. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:965-70 pubmed publisher
    The mRNAs encoding Runx2, a master osteoblast transcription factor, and its target gene Osteocalcin (OC), are commonly used as markers of osteoblast differentiation...
  44. Tu X, Chen J, Lim J, Karner C, Lee S, Heisig J, et al. Physiological notch signaling maintains bone homeostasis via RBPjk and Hey upstream of NFATc1. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002577 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Notch-RBPjk signaling functions in part through Hey1-mediated inhibition of NFATc1 to suppress osteoblastogenesis, contributing to bone homeostasis in vivo. ..
  45. Lana Elola E, Rice R, Grigoriadis A, Rice D. Cell fate specification during calvarial bone and suture development. Dev Biol. 2007;311:335-46 pubmed
  46. Sims N, White C, Sunn K, Thomas G, Drummond M, Morrison N, et al. Human and murine osteocalcin gene expression: conserved tissue restricted expression and divergent responses to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vivo. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:1695-708 pubmed
    Human and murine osteocalcin genes demonstrate similar cell-specific expression patterns despite significant differences in gene locus organization and sequence variations in cis-acting regulatory elements...
  47. Celeste A, Rosen V, Buecker J, Kriz R, Wang E, Wozney J. Isolation of the human gene for bone gla protein utilizing mouse and rat cDNA clones. EMBO J. 1986;5:1885-90 pubmed
    cDNAs which encode bone gla protein (BGP), an abundant gamma-carboxylated protein of bone, have been cloned from rat and mouse osteosarcoma cell lines...
  48. Ylönen R, Kyrönlahti T, Sund M, Ilves M, Lehenkari P, Tuukkanen J, et al. Type XIII collagen strongly affects bone formation in transgenic mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:1381-93 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that type XIII collagen has an important role in bone modeling, and in particular, it may have a function in coupling the regulation of bone mass to mechanical use. ..
  49. Colnot C, Helms J. A molecular analysis of matrix remodeling and angiogenesis during long bone development. Mech Dev. 2001;100:245-50 pubmed
    ..Here, we have produced a 'molecular map' of the initial vascularization of the developing skeleton that provides a framework in which to interpret a wide range of fetal skeletal malformations, disruptions, and dysplasias. ..
  50. Gamer L, Cox K, Carlo J, Rosen V. Overexpression of BMP3 in the developing skeleton alters endochondral bone formation resulting in spontaneous rib fractures. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2374-81 pubmed publisher
  51. Barisic Dujmovic T, Boban I, Adams D, Clark S. Marfan-like skeletal phenotype in the tight skin (Tsk) mouse. Calcif Tissue Int. 2007;81:305-15 pubmed
    ..These initial experiments demonstrated a significant role of the fibrillin 1 protein in the extracellular matrix of bone cells. ..
  52. Zhang Z, Song Y, Zhang X, Tang J, Chen J, Chen Y. Msx1/Bmp4 genetic pathway regulates mammalian alveolar bone formation via induction of Dlx5 and Cbfa1. Mech Dev. 2003;120:1469-79 pubmed
  53. Khrimian L, Obri A, Ramos Brossier M, Rousseaud A, Moriceau S, Nicot A, et al. Gpr158 mediates osteocalcin's regulation of cognition. J Exp Med. 2017;214:2859-2873 pubmed publisher
    That osteocalcin (OCN) is necessary for hippocampal-dependent memory and to prevent anxiety-like behaviors raises novel questions...
  54. Ruchon A, Tenenhouse H, Marcinkiewicz M, Siegfried G, Aubin J, DesGroseillers L, et al. Developmental expression and tissue distribution of Phex protein: effect of the Hyp mutation and relationship to bone markers. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:1440-50 pubmed
    ..against human PHEX, examined the effect of the Hyp mutation on Phex expression, and compared neprilysin (NEP), osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH/PTHrP) receptor gene expression in bone of ..
  55. Yunker L, Undersander A, Lian J, Stein G, Carlson C, Mauro L. The tyrosine phosphatase, OST-PTP, is expressed in mesenchymal progenitor cells early during skeletogenesis in the mouse. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:761-73 pubmed
    ..Early in embryogenesis, regulation of OST expression may be independent of Runx2/Cbfa1. ..
  56. Li Z, Zeng F, Mitchell A, Kim Y, Wu Z, Yang J. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;416:289-92 pubmed publisher
    ..result from increase osteoblast activities as the expressions of four osteoblast markers - ?1 type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and phex were significantly higher in transgenic fetuses than that in their wild-type ..
  57. Hill H, Grams J, Walton R, Liu J, Moellering D, Garvey W. Carboxylated and uncarboxylated forms of osteocalcin directly modulate the glucose transport system and inflammation in adipocytes. Horm Metab Res. 2014;46:341-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteocalcin is secreted by osteoblasts and improves insulin sensitivity in vivo, although mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that osteocalcin directly modulates cell biology in insulin-targeted peripheral tissues...
  58. Idelevich A, Rais Y, Monsonego Ornan E. Bone Gla protein increases HIF-1alpha-dependent glucose metabolism and induces cartilage and vascular calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:e55-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone Gla Protein (BGP, osteocalcin) is commonly present in the calcified vasculature and was recently shown as energy metabolism-regulating hormone. This study investigates the role of BGP in cartilage and vasculature mineralization...
  59. Kovacs C, Chafe L, Fudge N, Friel J, Manley N. PTH regulates fetal blood calcium and skeletal mineralization independently of PTHrP. Endocrinology. 2001;142:4983-93 pubmed
  60. Mera P, Laue K, Ferron M, Confavreux C, Wei J, Galán Díez M, et al. Osteocalcin Signaling in Myofibers Is Necessary and Sufficient for Optimum Adaptation to Exercise. Cell Metab. 2016;23:1078-1092 pubmed publisher
    Circulating levels of undercarboxylated and bioactive osteocalcin double during aerobic exercise at the time levels of insulin decrease...
  61. Mahalingam C, Datta T, Patil R, Kreider J, Bonfil R, Kirkwood K, et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 regulates bone mass, osteoblast gene expression, and responsiveness to parathyroid hormone. J Endocrinol. 2011;211:145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Histomorphometric analysis showed decreased trabecular bone area in KO females. Levels of serum osteocalcin (OCN) were lower and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) was higher in KO animals...
  62. Matsushita T, Chan Y, Kawanami A, Balmes G, Landreth G, Murakami S. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation and in supporting osteoclastogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5843-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that ERK1 and ERK2 not only play essential roles in the lineage specification of osteo-chondroprogenitor cells but also support osteoclast formation in vivo. ..
  63. Cho S, Yang J, Her S, Choi H, Jung J, Sun H, et al. Osteoblast-targeted overexpression of PPAR? inhibited bone mass gain in male mice and accelerated ovariectomy-induced bone loss in female mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:1939-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, in vivo osteoblast-specific overexpression of PPAR? negatively regulates bone mass in male mice and accelerates estrogen-deficiency-related bone loss in female mice. ..
  64. Engleka K, Wu M, Zhang M, Antonucci N, Epstein J. Menin is required in cranial neural crest for palatogenesis and perinatal viability. Dev Biol. 2007;311:524-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, menin functions in vivo during osteogenesis and is required for palatogenesis, skeletal rib formation and perinatal viability...
  65. Holmes G, Rothschild G, Roy U, Deng C, Mansukhani A, Basilico C. Early onset of craniosynostosis in an Apert mouse model reveals critical features of this pathology. Dev Biol. 2009;328:273-84 pubmed publisher
  66. Shiota M, Heike T, Haruyama M, Baba S, Tsuchiya A, Fujino H, et al. Isolation and characterization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells with myogenic and neuronal properties. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:1008-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, sphere-derived cells represent a new approach to enhance the multi-differentiation potential of murine bone marrow. ..
  67. Matalová E, Buchtová M, Tucker A, Bender T, Janečková E, Lungová V, et al. Expression and characterization of c-Myb in prenatal odontogenesis. Dev Growth Differ. 2011;53:793-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of c-Myb in both species was strong in the odontoblasts and ameloblasts at the stage of dentin and enamel production suggesting a possible novel role of c-Myb during tooth mineralization. ..
  68. Rached M, Kode A, Silva B, Jung D, Gray S, Ong H, et al. FoxO1 expression in osteoblasts regulates glucose homeostasis through regulation of osteocalcin in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:357-68 pubmed publisher
    Osteoblasts have recently been found to play a role in regulating glucose metabolism through secretion of osteocalcin. It is unknown, however, how this osteoblast function is regulated transcriptionally...
  69. Sitara D, Razzaque M, Hesse M, Yoganathan S, Taguchi T, Erben R, et al. Homozygous ablation of fibroblast growth factor-23 results in hyperphosphatemia and impaired skeletogenesis, and reverses hypophosphatemia in Phex-deficient mice. Matrix Biol. 2004;23:421-32 pubmed
  70. Sato M, Tada N. Preferential expression of osteocalcin-related protein mRNA in gonadal tissues of male mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;215:412-21 pubmed
    It was recently reported that the mouse genome contains an osteocalcin cluster formed by three genes, OG1, OG2 and ORG, in order from the 5' to the 3' end of the cluster. These three genes exhibit close structural homology...
  71. Yang L, Lawson K, Teteak C, Zou J, Hacquebord J, Patterson D, et al. ESET histone methyltransferase is essential to hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes and formation of epiphyseal plates. Dev Biol. 2013;380:99-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results provide clear evidence that ESET controls hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes and endochondral ossification during embryogenesis and postnatal development...
  72. Wang W, Lian N, Ma Y, Li L, Gallant R, Elefteriou F, et al. Chondrocytic Atf4 regulates osteoblast differentiation and function via Ihh. Development. 2012;139:601-11 pubmed publisher
    Atf4 is a leucine zipper-containing transcription factor that activates osteocalcin (Ocn) in osteoblasts and indian hedgehog (Ihh) in chondrocytes...
  73. Holmes G, Bromage T, Basilico C. The Sox2 high mobility group transcription factor inhibits mature osteoblast function in transgenic mice. Bone. 2011;49:653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results position Sox2 as a negative regulator of osteoblast maturation in vivo. ..
  74. Moisan A, Rivera M, Lotinun S, Akhavanfard S, Coffman E, Cook E, et al. The WTX tumor suppressor regulates mesenchymal progenitor cell fate specification. Dev Cell. 2011;20:583-596 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the constellation of anomalies in Wtx null mice suggests that this tumor suppressor broadly regulates MPCs in multiple tissues. ..
  75. Razzaque M, Soegiarto D, Chang D, Long F, Lanske B. Conditional deletion of Indian hedgehog from collagen type 2alpha1-expressing cells results in abnormal endochondral bone formation. J Pathol. 2005;207:453-61 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, there was no expression of bone markers such as collagen type I, bone Gla protein, Runx2/Cbfa1 or PTH-R in the perichondrium of mutant mice, indicating the absence of osteoblasts from ..
  76. Kang J, Alliston T, Delston R, Derynck R. Repression of Runx2 function by TGF-beta through recruitment of class II histone deacetylases by Smad3. EMBO J. 2005;24:2543-55 pubmed
    ..We show that TGF-beta induces histone deacetylation, primarily of histone H4, at the osteocalcin promoter, which is repressed by TGF-beta, and that histone deacetylation is required for repression of Runx2 by ..