Gene Symbol: Barx1
Description: BarH-like homeobox 1
Alias: homeobox protein BarH-like 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Barx1

Top Publications

  1. Kim B, Miletich I, Mao J, McMahon A, Sharpe P, Shivdasani R. Independent functions and mechanisms for homeobox gene Barx1 in patterning mouse stomach and spleen. Development. 2007;134:3603-13 pubmed
    ..b>Barx1 is expressed selectively in fetal stomach mesenchyme and directs differentiation of overlying endoderm...
  2. Tissier Seta J, Mucchielli M, Mark M, Mattei M, Goridis C, Brunet J. Barx1, a new mouse homeodomain transcription factor expressed in cranio-facial ectomesenchyme and the stomach. Mech Dev. 1995;51:3-15 pubmed
    ..murine proteins capable of binding to a regulatory module of the Ncam promoter, we isolated a novel homeobox gene, Barx1, the first vertebrate member of the structural subclass defined by Drosophila BarH1...
  3. Trumpp A, Depew M, Rubenstein J, Bishop J, Martin G. Cre-mediated gene inactivation demonstrates that FGF8 is required for cell survival and patterning of the first branchial arch. Genes Dev. 1999;13:3136-48 pubmed
    ..Because the mutant mice resemble humans with first arch syndromes that include agnathia, our results raise the possibility that some of these syndromes are caused by mutations that affect FGF8 signaling in BA1 ectoderm...
  4. Thomas B, Tucker A, Qui M, Ferguson C, Hardcastle Z, Rubenstein J, et al. Role of Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 genes in patterning of the murine dentition. Development. 1997;124:4811-8 pubmed
    ..Using molecular markers of branchial arch neural crest (Barx1) and commitment to chondrogenic differentiation (Sox9), we show that this population alters its fate from ..
  5. Tucker A, Al Khamis A, Sharpe P. Interactions between Bmp-4 and Msx-1 act to restrict gene expression to odontogenic mesenchyme. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:533-9 pubmed
  6. Thomas B, Sharpe P. Patterning of the murine dentition by homeobox genes. Eur J Oral Sci. 1998;106 Suppl 1:48-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that expression of these genes constitutes an odontogenic homeobox code which patterns the dentition. ..
  7. Ohazama A, Haworth K, Ota M, Khonsari R, Sharpe P. Ectoderm, endoderm, and the evolution of heterodont dentitions. Genesis. 2010;48:382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The two different mechanisms of tooth development may have provided the developmental and genetic diversity on which evolution has acted to produce heterodont dentitions in mammals...
  8. Liu W, Selever J, Lu M, Martin J. Genetic dissection of Pitx2 in craniofacial development uncovers new functions in branchial arch morphogenesis, late aspects of tooth morphogenesis and cell migration. Development. 2003;130:6375-85 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results uncover a new function of Pitx2 in regulation of cell motility in craniofacial development. ..
  9. Jayewickreme C, Shivdasani R. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1. Dev Biol. 2015;405:21-32 pubmed publisher
    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium...

More Information


  1. Yamagishi C, Yamagishi H, Maeda J, Tsuchihashi T, Ivey K, Hu T, et al. Sonic hedgehog is essential for first pharyngeal arch development. Pediatr Res. 2006;59:349-54 pubmed
    ..observation, downstream transcriptional targets of Fgf8 signaling in neural crest-derived mesenchyme, including Barx1, goosecoid, and Dlx2, were also down-regulated in Shh-null PA1...
  2. Matsui M, Klingensmith J. Multiple tissue-specific requirements for the BMP antagonist Noggin in development of the mammalian craniofacial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2014;392:168-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate multiple roles of Noggin in different domains for craniofacial skeletogenesis, and suggest an indirect mechanism for secondary cleft palate in Nog mutants that may be relevant to human cleft palate as well. ..
  3. Depew M, Lufkin T, Rubenstein J. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science. 2002;298:381-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that nested Dlx expression in the arches patterns their proximodistal axes. Evolutionary acquisition and subsequent refinement of jaws may have been dependent on modification of Dlx expression. ..
  4. Stringer E, Pritchard C, Beck F. Cdx2 initiates histodifferentiation of the midgut endoderm. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the mesoderm adjacent to intestinal heterotopic areas expresses stomach specific Barx1 while the surrounding mesoderm is Barx1 negative...
  5. Coudert A, Pibouin L, Vi Fane B, Thomas B, Macdougall M, Choudhury A, et al. Expression and regulation of the Msx1 natural antisense transcript during development. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5208-18 pubmed
    ..To conclude, this study clearly identifies the Msx1 AS RNA involvement during tooth development and evidences a new degree of complexity in craniofacial developmental biology: the implication of endogenous AS RNAs. ..
  6. Akiyama R, Kawakami H, Taketo M, Evans S, Wada N, Petryk A, et al. Distinct populations within Isl1 lineages contribute to appendicular and facial skeletogenesis through the ?-catenin pathway. Dev Biol. 2014;387:37-48 pubmed publisher
  7. Fujita K, Taya Y, Shimazu Y, Aoba T, Soeno Y. Molecular signaling at the fusion stage of the mouse mandibular arch: involvement of insulin-like growth factor family. Int J Dev Biol. 2013;57:399-406 pubmed publisher
  8. Wang X, O Connell D, Lund J, Saadi I, Kuraguchi M, Turbe Doan A, et al. Apc inhibition of Wnt signaling regulates supernumerary tooth formation during embryogenesis and throughout adulthood. Development. 2009;136:1939-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we identify Fgf8, a known tooth initiation marker, as a direct target of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These studies identify key mechanistic features responsible for supernumerary tooth formation. ..
  9. Edelman D, Meech R, Jones F. The homeodomain protein Barx2 contains activator and repressor domains and interacts with members of the CREB family. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:21737-45 pubmed
    b>Barx1 and Barx2 are homeodomain proteins originally identified using regulatory elements of genes encoding certain cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)...
  10. Stringer E, Duluc I, Saandi T, Davidson I, Bialecka M, Sato T, et al. Cdx2 determines the fate of postnatal intestinal endoderm. Development. 2012;139:465-74 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of gastric genes in an intestinal setting that is not accompanied by mesodermal expression of Barx1, which is necessary for gastric morphogenesis...
  11. Balic A, Adams D, Mina M. Prx1 and Prx2 cooperatively regulate the morphogenesis of the medial region of the mandibular process. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2599-613 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations together show that, during mandibular morphogenesis, Prx gene products play multiple roles including the cell survival, the region-specific terminal differentiation of Meckelian chondrocytes and osteogenesis. ..
  12. Thomason H, Dixon M, Dixon J. Facial clefting in Tp63 deficient mice results from altered Bmp4, Fgf8 and Shh signaling. Dev Biol. 2008;321:273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with a role for Tp63 in the regulation of Bmp signaling controlling the growth, modelling and fusion events underlying facial development and shed new light on the complex abnormality of facial clefting. ..
  13. Nakamura M, Nishida W, Mori S, Hiwada K, Hayashi K, Sobue K. Transcriptional activation of beta-tropomyosin mediated by serum response factor and a novel Barx homologue, Barx1b, in smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18313-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that SRF and Barx1b are coordinately involved in the SMC-specific transcription of the beta-TM gene in the upper digestive organs and their attached arteries. ..
  14. Matsuyama M, Aizawa S, Shimono A. Sfrp controls apicobasal polarity and oriented cell division in developing gut epithelium. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000427 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Sfrp regulation of Wnt5a signaling controls oriented cell division and apicobasal polarity in the epithelium of developing gut. ..
  15. Tsau C, Ito M, Gromova A, Hoffman M, Meech R, Makarenkova H. Barx2 and Fgf10 regulate ocular glands branching morphogenesis by controlling extracellular matrix remodeling. Development. 2011;138:3307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our data, we propose a functional network involving Barx2, Fgf10 and MMPs that plays an essential role in regulating branching morphogenesis of the ocular glands. ..
  16. Minoux M, Antonarakis G, Kmita M, Duboule D, Rijli F. Rostral and caudal pharyngeal arches share a common neural crest ground pattern. Development. 2009;136:637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insights into how facial and throat structures are assembled during development, and have implications for the evolution of the pharyngeal region of the vertebrate head. ..
  17. Funato N, Nakamura M, Richardson J, Srivastava D, Yanagisawa H. Tbx1 regulates oral epithelial adhesion and palatal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2524-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present study reveals new pathogenesis of incomplete and submucous cleft palate during mammalian palatogenesis. ..
  18. Grainger S, Savory J, Lohnes D. Cdx2 regulates patterning of the intestinal epithelium. Dev Biol. 2010;339:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis of Cdx1-Cdx2 double mutants suggests that Cdx1 does not play a critical role in the development of the small intestine, at least after E13.5. ..
  19. Jones F, Kioussi C, Copertino D, Kallunki P, Holst B, Edelman G. Barx2, a new homeobox gene of the Bar class, is expressed in neural and craniofacial structures during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:2632-7 pubmed
    ..The homeodomain encoded by Barx2 is 87% identical to that of Barx1, and both genes are related to genes at the Bar locus of Drosophila melanogaster...
  20. Kim B, Woo J, Kanellopoulou C, Shivdasani R. Regulation of mouse stomach development and Barx1 expression by specific microRNAs. Development. 2011;138:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The mesenchymal transcription factor Barx1 controls spleen and stomach morphogenesis and is required to specify stomach-specific epithelium in adjacent ..
  21. He F, Hu X, Xiong W, Li L, Lin L, Shen B, et al. Directed Bmp4 expression in neural crest cells generates a genetic model for the rare human bony syngnathia birth defect. Dev Biol. 2014;391:170-81 pubmed publisher
    ..expression assays showed an altered expression of several facial patterning genes, including Hand2, Dlx2, Msx1, Barx1, Foxc2 and Fgf8, in the maxillary and mandibular processes of the mutants, indicating mis-patterned cranial neural ..
  22. Jeong J, Cesario J, Zhao Y, Burns L, Westphal H, Rubenstein J. Cleft palate defect of Dlx1/2-/- mutant mice is caused by lack of vertical outgrowth in the posterior palate. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1757-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we analyzed the morphological, cellular, and molecular changes caused by inactivation of Dlx1 and Dlx2 as related to palate development...
  23. Mitsiadis T, Drouin J. Deletion of the Pitx1 genomic locus affects mandibular tooth morphogenesis and expression of the Barx1 and Tbx1 genes. Dev Biol. 2008;313:887-96 pubmed
    ..and developing teeth and analyzed tooth morphology, cell proliferation, apoptosis and expression of Pitx2, Barx1 and Tbx1 in dental tissues of Pitx1-/- mouse embryos...
  24. Mucchielli M, Mitsiadis T, Raffo S, Brunet J, Proust J, Goridis C. Mouse Otlx2/RIEG expression in the odontogenic epithelium precedes tooth initiation and requires mesenchyme-derived signals for its maintenance. Dev Biol. 1997;189:275-84 pubmed
    ..Finally, we compare Otlx2 expression with that of the recently identified homeodomain transcription factor Barx1 expressed in molar mesenchyme...
  25. Miletich I, Yu W, Zhang R, Yang K, Caixeta de Andrade S, Pereira S, et al. Developmental stalling and organ-autonomous regulation of morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify an interaction between two homeodomain transcription factors, Barx1 and Msx1, which is responsible for setting critical levels of BMP activity in multicusped teeth and provides ..
  26. Tavares A, Cox T, Maxson R, Ford H, Clouthier D. Negative regulation of endothelin signaling by SIX1 is required for proper maxillary development. Development. 2017;144:2021-2031 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results illustrate that SIX1 is the central mediator of dorsal mandibular arch identity, thus ensuring separation of bone development between the upper and lower jaws. ..
  27. Lin C, Fisher A, Yin Y, Maruyama T, Veith G, Dhandha M, et al. The inductive role of Wnt-?-Catenin signaling in the formation of oral apparatus. Dev Biol. 2011;356:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide genetic evidence that disruption of either signaling pathway results in severe microglossia. Altogether, we demonstrate a dynamic role for Wnt-?-Catenin signaling in the development of the oral apparatus...
  28. MacKenzie B, Wolff R, Lowe N, Billington C, Peterson A, Schmidt B, et al. Twisted gastrulation limits apoptosis in the distal region of the mandibular arch in mice. Dev Biol. 2009;328:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of proximal markers Fgf8 and Barx1 was expanded across the fused BA1...
  29. Liu W, Selever J, Murali D, Sun X, Brugger S, Ma L, et al. Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development. Dev Biol. 2005;283:282-93 pubmed
    ..Lastly, we provide evidence that Prx homeobox genes repress expression of an Msx2 transgene, previously shown to be Bmp4-responsive, revealing a mechanism for differential regulation of Msx1 and Msx2 by Bmp signaling. ..
  30. Zhang Y, Blackwell E, McKnight M, Knutsen G, Vu W, Ruest L. Specific inactivation of Twist1 in the mandibular arch neural crest cells affects the development of the ramus and reveals interactions with hand2. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:924-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of Twist1 during mandibular development, we used the Hand2-Cre transgene to conditionally inactivate the gene in the neural crest cells populating the mandibular pharyngeal arch...
  31. Liu W, Sun X, Braut A, Mishina Y, Behringer R, Mina M, et al. Distinct functions for Bmp signaling in lip and palate fusion in mice. Development. 2005;132:1453-61 pubmed
    ..Our data uncover a Bmp4-Bmpr1a genetic pathway that functions in lip fusion, and reveal that Bmp signaling has distinct roles in lip and palate fusion...
  32. Madison B, McKenna L, Dolson D, Epstein D, Kaestner K. FoxF1 and FoxL1 link hedgehog signaling and the control of epithelial proliferation in the developing stomach and intestine. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5936-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, expression of both Foxf1 and Foxl1 is reduced in the Gli2/Gli3 mutant gut. These results provide compelling evidence that Foxf1 and Foxl1 are mediators of the Hh (endoderm) to mesoderm signaling pathway. ..
  33. Noguchi T, Ishimine H, Nakajima Y, Watanabe Susaki K, Shigeta N, Yamakawa N, et al. Novel cell surface genes expressed in the stomach primordium during gastrointestinal morphogenesis of mouse embryos. Gene Expr Patterns. 2012;12:154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel genes will be useful in expanding our understanding of the mechanisms of gastrointestinal development. ..
  34. Smith T, Wang X, Zhang W, Kulyk W, Nazarali A. Hoxa2 plays a direct role in murine palate development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2364-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Hoxa2 also repressed the expression of its downstream targets Msx1, Bmp4, Barx1, and Ptx1 within the palate...
  35. Loomes K, Stevens S, O Brien M, Gonzalez D, Ryan M, Segalov M, et al. Dll3 and Notch1 genetic interactions model axial segmental and craniofacial malformations of human birth defects. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2943-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, Dll3-Notch1 double heterozygous mice model human congenital scoliosis and craniofacial disorders. ..
  36. Clouthier D, Williams S, Yanagisawa H, Wieduwilt M, Richardson J, Yanagisawa M. Signaling pathways crucial for craniofacial development revealed by endothelin-A receptor-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2000;217:10-24 pubmed
    ..These ET(A)-dependent factors include the transcription factors goosecoid, Dlx-2, Dlx-3, dHAND, eHAND, and Barx1, but not MHox, Hoxa-2, CRABP1, or Ufd1. In addition, the size of the arches in E10.5 to E11...
  37. Welsh I, Hagge Greenberg A, O Brien T. A dosage-dependent role for Spry2 in growth and patterning during palate development. Mech Dev. 2007;124:746-61 pubmed
    ..Expression of the FGF responsive transcription factors Etv5, Msx1, and Barx1, as well as the morphogen Shh, is restricted to specific regions of the developing palate...
  38. Brunskill E, Potter A, Distasio A, Dexheimer P, Plassard A, Aronow B, et al. A gene expression atlas of early craniofacial development. Dev Biol. 2014;391:133-46 pubmed publisher
  39. Verzi M, Stanfel M, Moses K, Kim B, Zhang Y, Schwartz R, et al. Role of the homeodomain transcription factor Bapx1 in mouse distal stomach development. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Barx1, in particular, controls stomach differentiation and morphogenesis...
  40. Hirota J, Mombaerts P. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx2 is required for complete development of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8751-5 pubmed
    ..OSN development appears to be arrested between the terminal differentiation into neurons and the transition to immature neurons. Thus, Lhx2 is required for complete development of OSNs in mice. ..
  41. Zhao H, Oka K, Bringas P, Kaartinen V, Chai Y. TGF-beta type I receptor Alk5 regulates tooth initiation and mandible patterning in a type II receptor-independent manner. Dev Biol. 2008;320:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..There is an intrinsic requirement for Alk5 signal in regulating the fate of CNC cells during tooth and mandible development. ..
  42. Miletich I, Buchner G, Sharpe P. Barx1 and evolutionary changes in feeding. J Anat. 2005;207:619-22 pubmed
    During mouse embryonic development, the Barx1 homeobox gene is expressed in the mesenchymal cells of molar teeth and stomach...
  43. Mitsiadis T, Graf D, Luder H, Gridley T, Bluteau G. BMPs and FGFs target Notch signalling via jagged 2 to regulate tooth morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. Development. 2010;137:3025-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that Notch signalling mediated by Jag2 is indispensable for normal tooth development...
  44. Hecksher Sørensen J, Watson R, Lettice L, Serup P, Eley L, De Angelis C, et al. The splanchnic mesodermal plate directs spleen and pancreatic laterality, and is regulated by Bapx1/Nkx3.2. Development. 2004;131:4665-75 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the SMP is an organiser responsible for the leftward growth of the spleno-pancreatic region and that Bapx1 regulates SMP functions required for pancreatic laterality. ..
  45. Gould D, Walter M. Cloning, characterization, localization, and mutational screening of the human BARX1 gene. Genomics. 2000;68:336-42 pubmed
    ..The Bar subclass homolog, Barx1, has since been cloned in mouse and in chick...
  46. Villasenor A, Chong D, Henkemeyer M, Cleaver O. Epithelial dynamics of pancreatic branching morphogenesis. Development. 2010;137:4295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results illustrate distinct, step-wise cellular mechanisms by which pancreatic epithelium shapes itself to create a functional branching organ. ..
  47. Ferguson C, Tucker A, Christensen L, Lau A, Matzuk M, Sharpe P. Activin is an essential early mesenchymal signal in tooth development that is required for patterning of the murine dentition. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2636-49 pubmed
    ..The early requirement for activin signaling in the mesenchyme in incisor and mandibular molar tooth germs must be carried-out in maxillary molar mesenchyme by other independent signaling pathways...
  48. Ko S, Chung I, Xu X, Oka S, Zhao H, Cho E, et al. Smad4 is required to regulate the fate of cranial neural crest cells. Dev Biol. 2007;312:435-47 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data show that TGF-beta/BMP signals rely on Smad-dependent pathways in the ectomesenchyme to mediate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that control craniofacial organogenesis...
  49. Zhou J, Gao Y, Lan Y, Jia S, Jiang R. Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh signaling and the Osr2 transcription factor to control palate morphogenesis. Development. 2013;140:4709-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving the Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh and Osr2 pathways to control palatal shelf patterning and morphogenesis...
  50. Obara N. Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule during mouse tooth development. Connect Tissue Res. 2002;43:212-5 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the expression patterns of NCAM and transcription factor Barx1 revealed a possibility that Barx1 negatively regulates NCAM expression.
  51. Rana M, Théveniau Ruissy M, De Bono C, Mesbah K, Francou A, Rammah M, et al. Tbx1 coordinates addition of posterior second heart field progenitor cells to the arterial and venous poles of the heart. Circ Res. 2014;115:790-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome phenotypes. ..
  52. Billmyre K, Klingensmith J. Sonic hedgehog from pharyngeal arch 1 epithelium is necessary for early mandibular arch cell survival and later cartilage condensation differentiation. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:564-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that SHH produced by the PA1 epithelium is necessary for the survival of post-migratory NCC, and suggests a key role in the subsequent differentiation of chondrocytes to form Meckel's cartilage. ..
  53. Xu J, Liu H, Lan Y, Aronow B, Kalinichenko V, Jiang R. A Shh-Foxf-Fgf18-Shh Molecular Circuit Regulating Palate Development. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005769 pubmed publisher
  54. Aubin J, Déry U, Lemieux M, Chailler P, Jeannotte L. Stomach regional specification requires Hoxa5-driven mesenchymal-epithelial signaling. Development. 2002;129:4075-87 pubmed
  55. Moon A, Guris D, Seo J, Li L, Hammond J, Talbot A, et al. Crkl deficiency disrupts Fgf8 signaling in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndromes. Dev Cell. 2006;10:71-80 pubmed
    ..These findings provide mechanistic insight into disrupted intercellular interactions in the pathogenesis of malformations seen in del22q11 syndrome. ..
  56. Ohazama A, Haycraft C, Seppala M, Blackburn J, Ghafoor S, Cobourne M, et al. Primary cilia regulate Shh activity in the control of molar tooth number. Development. 2009;136:897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, the ectopic teeth adopt a size and shape characteristic of premolars, a tooth type that was lost in mice around 50-100 million years ago. ..
  57. Woo J, Miletich I, Kim B, Sharpe P, Shivdasani R. Barx1-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in the mouse thoracic foregut controls tracheo-esophageal septation and epithelial differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22493 pubmed publisher
    ..The homoebox gene Barx1 is highly expressed in prospective stomach mesenchyme and required to specify this organ...
  58. Denaxa M, Sharpe P, Pachnis V. The LIM homeodomain transcription factors Lhx6 and Lhx7 are key regulators of mammalian dentition. Dev Biol. 2009;333:324-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments demonstrate that the redundant activities of the LIM homeodomain proteins Lhx6 and Lhx7 are critical for craniofacial development and patterning of mammalian dentition. ..